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作物学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (09): 1370-1380.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01370

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

西北绿洲灌区水氮耦合对燕麦品种陇燕3号耗水特性及产量的影响

冯福学1,2,慕平3,赵桂琴1,*,柴继宽1,刘欢1,陈国栋4   

  1. 1甘肃农业大学草业学院, 甘肃兰州 730070; 2甘肃农业大学工学院, 甘肃兰州 730070; 3甘肃农业大学农学院, 甘肃兰州 730070; 4塔里木大学植物科学学院, 新疆阿拉尔 843300
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-05 修回日期:2017-04-20 出版日期:2017-09-12 发布日期:2017-05-19
  • 通讯作者: 赵桂琴, E mail: zhaogq@gsau.edu.cn E-mail:fengfuxue@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    本研究由国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-8-C1)和中国博士后科学基金项目(2014M552557XB)资助。

Interaction of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Water Consumption Characteristics and Yield in Oat Variety Longyan 3 in Northwest Oasis Irrigation Area

FENG Fu-Xue1,2,MU Ping3,ZHAO Gui-Qin1,*,CHAI Ji-Kuan1,LIU Huan1,CHEN Guo-Dong4   

  1. 1 College of Grassland Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070,China; 2 College of Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China; 3 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China; 4 College of Plant Science, Tarim University, Alear 843300, China
  • Received:2017-02-05 Revised:2017-04-20 Online:2017-09-12 Published:2017-05-19
  • Contact: Zhao Guiqin, E mail: zhaogq@gsau.edu.cn E-mail:fengfuxue@163.com
  • Supported by:

    This study was supported by the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-8-C1) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M552557XB).

摘要:

灌水和施肥,尤其是施氮肥,是调控作物生长和增加产量的两大重要技术措施,其互作是燕麦高产高效栽培中重要因素。2014—2015年连续2个生长季,在甘肃河西绿洲灌区的田间试验设3个定额灌溉和3个施氮(纯N)水平,研究水氮耦合对陇燕3号农田0~150 cm土层耗水量、棵间蒸发、产量及水分利用效率的影响。3个灌溉处理的灌水量分别为270 mm (I1)、337.5 mm (I2)和405 mm (I3),3个施N水平分别为90 kg hm-2 (N1)、120 kg hm-2 (N2)和150 kg hm-2 (N3)。从播种到成熟,燕麦阶段耗水强度呈先增后减趋势,抽穗至灌浆是最大耗水期,且同一施氮水平下,阶段耗水强度随灌水量增大而显著增加。在全生育期内,棵间蒸发量(E)及土壤水分蒸发量占总蒸发量的比例(E/ET)表现先降后升趋势,且相同施氮量下,拔节至灌浆期随灌水量的增大而增大,而灌浆至成熟期则随灌水量的增大而减小。相同施氮量下,燕麦产量随灌水量增加而显著增加,水分利用效率却随灌水量增加而降低。产量N3I3最高(5466.0~5727.5 kg hm-2),N3I2次之(5428.5~5678.5 kg hm-2),N1I1最低(4504.5~4804.3 kg hm-2);水分利用效率N3I2最大(12.11~12.82 kg mm-1 hm-2),N3I1次之(12.04~12.63 kg mm-1 hm-2),N1I3最小(9.79~10.58 kg mm-1 hm-2)。由此表明,水氮耦合对燕麦水分利用及产量具有显著互作效应。施氮量150 kg hm-2灌溉定额337.5 mm是西北绿洲灌区燕麦种植较佳的节水、高产水氮管理模式。

关键词: 燕麦, 耗水特性, 水氮互作, 水分利用效率

Abstract:

Irrigation and fertilization, particularly nitrogen (N) fertilization, are principal field practices to stimulate crop growth and increase yield,and their interaction plays an important role in high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation of oat. In the 2014–2015 oat growing seasons, a field experiment was conducted with three irrigation amounts and three nitrogen application rates to study the effects of water-nitrogen interaction on 0–150 cm soil water consumption, soil evaporation, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of oat variety “Longyan 3”. The three irrigation amounts were 270 (I1), 337.5 (I2), and 405 mm (I3), and the three N application rates were 90 (N1), 120(N2), and 150 kg ha-1 (N3). From sowing to maturity, the diurnal water consumption amount showed an increase–decrease trend, and the maximum consumption appeared at the duration of heading–filling. Under the same N application rate, the diurnal water consumption amount obviously increased with increasing irrigation amount. The soil evaporation (E) and the proportion of soil evaporation to evapotranspiration (E/ET) showed the decrease–increase tread in the whole growing period. Under the same N application rate, E and E/ET were enhanced with the increase of irrigation amount from jointing to filling stage, but declined from filling to harvest stage. The oat yield under a fixed N application rate had a positive relation to the irrigation amount, whereas, the WUE had the negative relation to the irrigation amount. For grain yield of oat, N3I3 ranked the top with yield of 5466.0–5727.5 kg ha-1, followed by N3I2 with yield of 5428.5–5678.5 kg ha-1, and N1I1 ranked the last with yield of 4504.5–4804.3 kg ha-1. For WUE, N3I2 was the best treatment with WUE of 12.11–12.82 kg mm-1 ha-1, followed by N3I1 with WUE of 12.04–12.63 kg mm-1 ha-1, and N1I3 was the worst treatment with WUE of 9.79–10.58 kg mm-1 ha-1. Obviously, water–nitrogen interaction had significant effects on WUE and yield of oat. Our results suggest that N application at 150 kg ha-1 coupling with irrigation amount of 337.5 mm is applicable in water-saving and high-yield production of oat in Northwest oasis area.

Key words: Oat, Water consumption characteristic, Water-nitrogen interaction, Water use efficiency (WUE)

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