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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 1162-1174.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02052


Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stage on yield and quality of dry direct seeding rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode

ZHAO Jie(), LI Shao-Ping, CHENG Shuang, TIAN Jin-Yu, XING Zhi-Peng*(), TAO Yu, ZHOU Lei, LIU Qiu-Yuan, HU Ya-Jie, GUO Bao-Wei, GAO Hui, WEI Hai-Yan, ZHANG Hong-Cheng*()   

  1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology, Yangzhou University/Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Industrial Technology for Grain Crops/Rice Industry Engineering Technology Research Institute, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2020-07-29 Accepted:2020-12-01 Online:2021-06-12 Published:2021-01-06
  • Contact: XING Zhi-Peng,ZHANG Hong-Cheng E-mail:704428205@qq.com;zpxing@yzu.edu.cn;hczhang@yzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation and Extension Project of Jiangsu Province, the China Agriculture Research System(CARS-01-27);The earmarked fund for Jiangsu Agricultural Industry Technology System(JATS(2019)444);The Agricultural Technology Independent Innovation Fund of Jiangsu Province(CX(20)1012);The Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD)


In a rice-wheat cropping system, dry direct seeding rice growth was directly affected by harvest dates of the previous crop of wheat, the return of full wheat straw to the field, and the poor quality of tillage and land preparation. A “solo-stalk” cultivation mode with main stem panicles by late sowing dates, large sowing rates and high basic seedlings was commonly used in dry direct seeding. However, the nitrogen fertilizer management of high-quality and high-yield dry direct-seeding rice for the “solo-stalk” cultivation mode was still lacking in systematic research. With high-quality japonica rice Nanjing 9108, 380×104 hm-2 basic seedlings were realized by mechanical dry direct seeding method. The leaf age treatments of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 leaf age and nitrogen application amount treatments of 180 and 225 kg hm-2 were designed with accurate quantitative nitrogen management (total nitrogen was 270 kg hm-2, base fertilizer:tiller fertilizer:spike fertilizer = 3.5:3.5:3.0) at basic seedlings of 380×104 and 300×104 hm-2 as the control. Then dry direct seeding rice yield and quality were systematically determined and compared with the control and “solo-stalk” cultural method with nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in middle and late tillering stage. The results showed that rice yield showed a trend of first increased and then decreased with nitrogen application at bigger leaf age. Rice yield was significantly higher than other treatments when applying nitrogen fertilizer at the 8-leaf stage, and the yield was further improved with the increase of nitrogen application amount. Compare with the controls, nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration of 180 kg N hm-2 applied one time at 8-leaf stage could significantly increase rice yield by 5.10% and 8.65%, and reduced nitrogen fertilizer by 33.3%, whereas nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration of 225 kg N hm-2 applied two time at 8-leaf stage and 7 days later could significantly increase rice yield by 7.46% and 11.09%, and reduced the nitrogen by 16.7%. The reason was that, compared with the control, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight, effective panicle number was significantly increased resulting in the increasing total spikelet amount per hectare and yield on the basis of maintaining larger panicle type. With nitrogen applied at bigger leaf age, the head rice rate, chalkiness and protein content of rice revealed an increasing trend, but the amylose content and taste value of rice showed a decreasing trend. Compare to the two controls, the processing quality of rice with the head rice rate was increased by 0.67%-2.23% with nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied at 8-leaf age; the appearance quality was improved with the chalkiness decreased by 3.6%-14.5%; the nutrition quality was better with protein content increased by 3.03%-14.08%; the cooking and eating quality showed a tendency of getting better with amylose content decreased by 4.23%-10.95%; and there was no insignificant difference in taste value. In conclusion, nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied at suitable leaf age in the middle and late tillering stage could improve the quality and increase the yield of dry direct seeding rice under “solo-stalk” cultural method caused by late sowing dates, large sowing rate, and high basic seedlings in a rice-wheat cropping system.

Key words: “solo-stalk” cultivation mode, base fertilizer without nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer in middle and late tillering stage, nitrogen fertilizer management mode, direct seeding rice, yield, quality

Fig. 1

Daily mean temperature (A) and sunshine hours (B) during the growing season in rice from 2018 to 2019"

Table 1

Amount and application stage of fertilizer used in the study (kg hm-2)"

N level
Base fertilizer
Fertilization at
leaf age
Flower-promoting fertilizer
Flower-preserving fertilizer
N P2O5 K2O N N P2O5 K2O N K2O N N P2O5 K2O
N1 22.5 112.5 180 112.5 112.5 180 135 225
N2 22.5 112.5 225 112.5 112.5 225 135 225
CK1 94.5 135 112.5 94.5 40.5 112.5 40.5 270 135 225
CK2 94.5 135 112.5 94.5 40.5 112.5 40.5 270 135 225

Fig. 2

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stage on yield of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode in 2018 and 2019 N1: 180 kg N hm-2; N2: 225 kg N hm-2; L6, L7, L8, L9, and L10 are the five topdressing leaf ages of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, respectively. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at the 0.05 probability level by LSD test."

Table 2

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stage on yield components of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode"

处理Treatment 基本苗
(×104 hm-2)
Number of
(×104 hm-2)
per panicle
Total spikelet
(×108 hm-2)
Seed setting
1000-grain weight
N level
Leaf age
N1 L6 381.8 a 409.8 e 85.6 cd 3.51 cd 95.66 a 27.2 a
L7 381.9 a 428.6 d 88.4 bc 3.78 c 93.85 ab 27.4 a
L8 382.0 a 455.3 b 93.7 a 4.29 ab 92.85 bc 27.4 a
L9 382.4 a 436.5 cd 83.5 d 3.69 cd 91.66 c 27.2 a
L10 382.8 a 446.2 bc 75.3 e 3.45 d 92.72 bc 27.1 a
N2 L6 382.1 a 429.3 d 88.0 bc 3.69 cd 95.46 a 27.3 a
L7 381.5 a 450.2 b 90.4 ab 4.09 b 94.17 ab 27.1 a
L8 383.2 a 474.2 a 94.5 a 4.54 a 92.59 bc 27.3 a
L9 382.3 a 449.8 b 82.0 d 3.79 c 91.31 c 27.2 a
L10 382.4 a 454.2 b 75.0 e 3.55 cd 92.21 bc 27.2 a
N 0.23NS 147.00** 1.25NS 32.28* 0.22NS 0.05NS
L 0.70NS 28.14** 59.11** 32.17** 25.96** 0.15NS
N×L 0.48NS 0.79NS 0.76NS 0.55NS 0.26NS 0.13NS
CK1 382.1 419.2 91.6 3.85 90.73 27.2
CK2 303.5 372.7 104.7 3.92 91.52 27.2

Table 3

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stages on panicle structure of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultural code"

处理Treatment 整穗Panicle 一次枝梗Primary branches 二次枝梗Secondary branches
N level
Leaf age
PL (cm)
(grain cm-1)
GWPP (g)
SSR (%)
SSR (%)
N1 L6 13.8 ab 6.21 de 2.17 c 0.75 a 1.53 a 85.6 c 9.0 a 5.72 a 51.7 a 97.7 b 12.1 de 2.81 b 33.9 d 88.0 b
L7 13.7 ab 6.44 bc 2.20 bc 0.64 cd 1.34 bc 88.4 b 8.5 b 5.94 a 50.5 a 97.4 b 13.3 bc 2.85 b 37.9 bc 87.0 c
L8 13.6 b 6.87 a 2.36 a 0.56 f 1.16 de 93.7 a 8.4 b 6.00 a 50.2 a 96.6 c 14.9 a 2.91 ab 43.5 a 85.9 d
L9 13.7 ab 6.09 e 2.11 d 0.61 e 1.28 cde 83.7 cd 7.8 c 5.99 a 46.9 b 96.6 c 13.0 c 2.84 b 36.8 bcd 87.7 b
L10 13.9 ab 5.39 g 1.91 e 0.74 ab 1.55 a 75.2 e 7.7 c 5.96 a 45.7 bc 97.0 c 10.4 g 2.84 b 29.5 e 88.2 b
N2 L6 14.0 a 6.29 cd 2.20 bc 0.73 ab 1.44 abc 88.1 b 9.1 a 5.74 a 52.0 a 98.3 a 12.4 d 2.92 ab 36.2 cd 88.2 b
L7 13.9 ab 6.49 b 2.24 b 0.63 de 1.28 cde 90.0 b 8.4 b 5.87 a 50.6 a 97.6 b 13.4 b 2.94 ab 39.5 b 86.4 cd
L8 13.9 ab 6.86 a 2.38 a 0.57 f 1.11 e 95.1 a 8.3 b 6.02 a 50.1 a 97.5 b 14.6 a 3.09 a 45.1 a 84.9 e
L9 13.9 ab 5.92 f 2.07 d 0.66 c 1.32 bcd 82.2 d 7.8 c 5.99 a 46.6 bc 97.6 b 11.8 e 3.01 ab 35.6 cd 84.6 e
L10 13.9 ab 5.40 g 1.93 e 0.71 b 1.45 ab 74.8 e 7.7 c 5.73 a 44.3 c 97.8 b 10.8 f 2.82 b 30.6 e 89.2 a
N 9.9NS 1.27NS 9.15NS 0.55NS 2.59NS 5.14NS 0.13NS 0.25NS 0.27NS 80.18* 4.07NS 8.07NS 3.14NS 171.26**
L 0.88NS 147.44** 183.93** 109.43** 29.80** 169.64** 57.35** 5.97** 28.35** 33.59** 339.47** 3.77* 105.76** 73.40**
N×L 0.96NS 1.2NS 1.41NS 4.99** 0.96NS 2.2NS 0.14NS 1.32NS 0.40NS 6.44** 14.76** 1.37NS 1.71NS 22.74**
CK1 13.9 6.60 2.22 0.67 1.42 91.7 9.0 5.99 53.8 94.05 13.4 2.83 37.9 85.04
CK2 14.2 7.37 2.48 0.63 1.31 104.7 9.9 6.00 59.3 95.28 15.7 2.90 45.4 86.51

Table 4

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stages on dynamics of tiller of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode (×104 hm-2)"

处理Treatment 六叶期
6-leaf stage
10-leaf stage
Jointing stage
Heading stage
Maturity stage
N level
Leaf age
N1 L6 426.7 a 766.7 a 574.7 d 428.0 e 409.8 e
L7 423.4 a 566.0 b 689.4 ab 474.0 bc 428.6 d
L8 420.0 a 541.4 b 626.0 cd 489.4 b 455.3 b
L9 420.7 a 542.7 b 578.0 d 458.7 cd 436.5 cd
L10 421.4 a 542.0 b 575.4 d 449.4 cde 446.2 bc
N2 L6 425.4 a 801.4 a 601.4 cd 434.7 de 429.3 d
L7 423.4 a 568.0 b 724.0 a 490.7 b 450.2 b
L8 420.0 a 542.0 b 646.7 bc 514.7 a 474.2 a
L9 422.0 a 538.7 b 581.4 d 470.7 bc 449.8 b
L10 426.7 a 544.0 b 583.4 d 456.0 cd 454.2 b
N 0.84NS 1.28NS 25.69* 29.23* 147.00**
L 0.79NS 84.57** 61.33** 22.29** 28.14**
N×L 0.25NS 0.46NS 0.86NS 0.47NS 0.79NS
CK1 529.4 679.7 545.4 430.0 419.2
CK2 340.7 556.0 393.4 381.4 372.7

Fig. 3

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stages on percentage of productive tillers and stems of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode Treatments and abbreviations are the same as those given in Fig. 2. Data followed by different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at the 0.05 probability level by LSD test."

Table 5

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stages on processing and appearance quality of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode"

处理Treatment 加工品质Processing quality 外观品质Appearance quality
N level
Leaf age
BRR (%)
MRR (%)
HMR (%)
CS (%)
CGR (%)
CD (%)
N1 L6 84.67 a 66.18 a 62.19 a 1.65 a 3.0 a 56.9 a 9.3 a 5.3 f
L7 84.76 a 66.36 a 62.66 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 60.5 a 9.2 a 5.5 ef
L8 84.86 a 66.54 a 63.15 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 59.0 a 11.1 a 6.4 cde
L9 84.96 a 66.68 a 63.89 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 61.6 a 11.7 a 7.2 abc
L10 85.30 a 67.15 a 64.29 a 1.67 a 3.0 a 67.8 a 11.4 a 7.8 ab
N2 L6 84.66 a 66.38 a 62.40 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 61.2 a 9.6 a 5.5 ef
L7 84.76 a 66.97 a 63.01 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 62.1 a 9.6 a 5.9 def
L8 85.13 a 67.11 a 63.74 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 60.2 a 11.6 a 7.0 bcd
L9 85.20 a 67.52 a 64.01 a 1.66 a 3.0 a 63.9 a 12.1 a 7.7 ab
L10 85.30 a 68.04 a 64.64 a 1.67 a 3.0 a 70.3 a 11.7 a 8.2 a
N 1.13NS 0.59NS 0.29NS 0.07NS 0.60NS 0.42NS 8.41NS
L 1.66NS 1.03NS 3.68NS 1.14NS 2.94NS 3.61* 22.50**
N×L 0.14NS 0.08NS 0.04NS 0.05NS 0.06NS 0.01NS 0.05NS
CK1 84.28 66.34 62.35 1.67 3.0 71.5 10.5 7.5
CK2 84.88 66.72 62.72 1.67 3.0 65.2 11.1 7.2

Table 6

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stage on cooking, eating and nutritional quality of dry direct seed rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode"

处理Treatment 食味值
Taste value
PC (%)
AC (%)
N level
Leaf age
N1 L6 82.1 a 8.3 a 5.8 e 8.7 a 7.63 e 12.49 a
L7 78.7 a 7.8 a 6.0 d 8.3 a 7.73 de 12.08 ab
L8 74.0 bc 7.1 bc 6.3 bc 7.6 b 7.93 de 11.69 abc
L9 73.8 bc 7.0 bc 6.4 bc 7.6 b 8.13 cde 11.10 bcd
L10 70.8 cd 6.5 cd 6.6 a 7.2 bc 8.28 bcde 10.42 d
N2 L6 81.4 a 8.2 a 5.8 e 8.6 a 7.98 cde 12.15 ab
L7 74.8 b 7.2 b 6.2 cd 7.6 b 8.35 bcd 11.52 abc
L8 73.2 bc 7.0 bc 6.3 bc 7.4 bc 8.62 abc 11.13 bcd
L9 70.8 cd 6.6 cd 6.5 ab 7.1 bc 8.83 ab 10.64 cd
L10 68.7 d 6.3 d 6.7 a 6.8 c 9.13 a 10.15 d
N 17.27NS 12.98NS 3.27NS 16.69NS 132.13** 51.64*
L 39.29** 38.67** 45.57** 28.14** 5.90** 10.00**
N×L 0.89NS 1.03NS 0.44NS 1.15NS 0.39NS 0.07NS
CK1 72.0 7.0 6.4 7.2 7.70 12.20
CK2 74.1 7.2 6.1 7.6 7.55 12.50
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