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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 740-754.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82030

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同土壤耕作模式对双季水稻生理特性与产量的影响

唐海明(),肖小平,李超,汤文光,郭立君,汪柯,程凯凯,潘孝晨,孙耿   

  1. 湖南省土壤肥料研究所, 湖南长沙 410125
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-26 接受日期:2019-01-12 出版日期:2019-05-12 发布日期:2019-02-26
  • 通讯作者: 唐海明 E-mail:tanghaiming66@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由湖南省自然科学基金杰出青年基金项目(2017JJ1018);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503123);国家自然科学基金项目(31872851);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0301004)

Effects of different soil tillage systems on physiological characteristics and yield of double-cropping rice

Hai-Ming TANG(),Xiao-Ping XIAO,Chao LI,Wen-Guang TANG,Li-Jun GUO,Ke WANG,Kai-Kai CHENG,Xiao-Chen PAN,Gen SUN   

  1. Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Changsha 410125, Hunan, China
  • Received:2018-05-26 Accepted:2019-01-12 Online:2019-05-12 Published:2019-02-26
  • Contact: Hai-Ming TANG E-mail:tanghaiming66@163.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China(2017JJ1018);the Public Research Funds Projects of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture of the China(201503123);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31872851);the National Key Research and Development Project(2018YFD0301004)

摘要:

为探明双季稻区不同土壤耕作模式下双季水稻生理特性、干物质积累及产量的变化, 本文以双季稻-紫云英大田定位试验为平台, 设双季水稻翻耕+秸秆还田(CT)、双季水稻旋耕+秸秆还田(RT)、双季水稻免耕+秸秆还田(NT)、双季水稻旋耕+秸秆不还田(RTO, 对照) 4种土壤耕作处理, 于2016—2017年取样, 系统分析了不同处理对双季水稻植株叶片保护性酶活性、光合特性、干物质积累及产量的影响。研究结果表明, 早、晚稻各个主要生育时期CT和RT处理植株叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性均显著高于RTO处理(P<0.05), 而叶片丙二醛(MDA)含量均显著低于RTO处理(P<0.05)。CT处理植株叶片的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和叶片气孔导度(Gs)均显著高于RTO处理(P<0.05), 均表现为CT>RT>NT>RTO。CT和RT处理水稻植株物质生产能力强, 干物质积累多, 而且在各器官间的分配合理。2个年份的早稻产量均以CT处理最高, 均显著高于RTO处理(P<0.05), 比RTO处理增加731.1~733.3 kg hm -2; 晚稻产量均以CT处理为最高, 均显著高于RTO处理(P<0.05), 比RTO处理增加582.5~717.6 kg hm -2。总之, 土壤翻耕、旋耕结合秸秆还田处理有利于提高双季水稻叶片保护性酶活性、光合特性和干物质积累量, 为水稻高产奠定了生理和生物学基础。

关键词: 水稻, 土壤耕作, 生理特性, 保护性酶, 产量

Abstract:

In order to explore the effects of different soil tillage systems on physiological characteristics, dry matter accumulation and grain yield, a fixed location field experiment was conducted using early and late double-cropping rice and Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) system with four soil tillage treatments including conventional tillage with residue incorporation (CT), rotary tillage with residue incorporation (RT), no-tillage with residue retention (NT), and rotary tillage with residue removed as control (RTO) from 2016 to 2017. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in leaves of CT, RT treatments were increased as compared with those of RTO treatment at different main growth stages of early and late rice. Meanwhile, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in leaves of CT and RT treatments were decreased. At different main growth stages of early and late rice, the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in leaves of CT and RT treatments were significantly higher than those of RTO treatment (P<0.05), while MDA contents of CT and RT treatments were significantly lower than those of RTO treatment (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) in leaves of CT treatment were significantly higher than those of RTO treatment (P < 0.05), showing an order of CT > RT > NT > RTO. The results also indicated that the total dry matter accumulation of early and late rice were increased, and its reasonable distribution of rice plant in CT and RT treatments. In 2016 and 2017, the grain yield of early and late rice in CT treatment was significantly higher than that in RTO treatment (P<0.05), with an increase of 731.1-733.3 kg ha -1 and 582.5-717.6 kg ha -1, respectively. As a result, it is an effective way for improving protective enzyme activities and photosynthetic characteristics in leaves, dry matter accumulation of rice by conventional tillage and rotational tillage combined with residue incorporation practices, which results in higher grain yield of rice.

Key words: rice, soil tillage, physiological characteristics, protective enzyme, rice yield

图1

不同土壤耕作方式对水稻叶片SPAD值的影响 CT: 双季水稻翻耕+秸秆还田; RT: 双季水稻旋耕+秸秆还田; NT: 双季水稻免耕+秸秆还田; RTO: 双季水稻旋耕+秸秆不还田。SS: 苗期; TS: 分蘖期; BS: 孕穗期; HS: 齐穗期; MS: 成熟期。标明不同小写字母的柱值在不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图2

不同土壤耕作方式对水稻叶片MDA含量的影响 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图3

不同土壤耕作方式对水稻叶片SOD活性的影响 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图4

不同土壤耕作方式对水稻叶片POD活性的影响 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图5

不同土壤耕作方式对水稻叶片CAT活性的影响 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图6

不同土壤耕作方式下水稻植株叶片净光合速率的变化 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图7

不同土壤耕作方式下水稻植株叶片气孔导度的变化 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图8

不同土壤耕作方式下水稻植株叶片蒸腾速率的变化 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

图9

不同土壤耕作方式下水稻植株叶面积指数的变化特征 处理同图1。图中不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异达0.05显著水平。"

表1

不同土壤方式下水稻植株群体干物重变化特征"

表2

不同土壤耕作方式下水稻植株茎、叶和穗群体干物重变化特征"

表3

不同土壤耕作方式对水稻产量及构成因素的影响"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
有效穗
Effective panicle
(×104 hm-2)
每穗粒数
Spikelets per panicle
结实率
Seed setting rate (%)
千粒重
1000-grain weight (g)
产量
Yield (kg hm-2)
收获指数Harvest index
早稻 Early rice
2016 CT 366.8±9.2a 105.1±3.0a 78.56±2.27a 24.65±0.68a 6469.5±230.4a 0.50±0.01a
RT 360.6±10.6a 102.8±2.9a 75.82±2.10ab 24.54±0.71a 6270.3±230.4ab 0.51±0.01a
NT 351.3±10.1a 100.3±2.8a 72.64±2.24ab 24.23±0.70a 6036.7±162.9ab 0.52±0.02a
RTO 346.9±7.6a 100.5±2.9a 70.25±2.03b 24.16±0.70a 5736.2±163.8b 0.52±0.02a
2017 CT 367.9±11.1a 103.2±2.6a 78.86±2.24a 24.73±0.62a 6543.6±166.5a 0.48±0.01a
RT 362.1±11.4a 100.9±2.4a 76.14±2.14ab 24.65±0.64a 6369.4±171.9ab 0.49±0.01a
NT 353.3±10.7a 98.4±2.8a 72.96±2.16ab 24.32±0.66a 6088.7±160.2ab 0.50±0.01a
RTO 348.5±12.5a 98.6±2.2a 70.53±2.12b 24.24±0.60a 5812.5±163.8b 0.50±0.01a
晚稻 Late rice
2016 CT 369.8±10.6a 103.5±2.8a 83.15±2.39a 25.31±0.71a 6970.2±144.9a 0.49±0.01a
RT 362.0±10.3a 101.8±2.8a 82.83±2.39ab 25.33±0.73a 6787.5±100.8ab 0.50±0.01a
NT 356.4±10.2a 100.3±2.8a 82.16±2.37ab 25.15±0.70a 6670.6±144.9ab 0.52±0.02a
RTO 355.7±10.2a 98.6±2.7a 80.27±2.32b 25.04±0.71a 6387.7±169.2b 0.53±0.02a
2017 CT 366.5±10.6a 102.1±2.7a 84.24±2.35a 25.42±0.71a 6919.1±103.5a 0.47±0.01a
RT 358.9±10.3a 100.4±2.8a 83.92±2.37ab 25.44±0.74a 6760.4±137.7ab 0.48±0.01a
NT 353.3±10.8a 98.9±2.6a 83.66±2.38ab 25.27±0.75a 6546.6±115.2ab 0.49±0.01a
RTO 352.9±10.7a 97.2±2.7a 81.37±2.31b 25.13±0.70a 6201.5±111.6b 0.50±0.01a
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