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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (3): 431-442.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83056

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

聚天门冬氨酸螯合氮肥减量基施对东北春玉米的增效机制

唐会会,许艳丽,王庆燕,马正波,李光彦,董会,董志强()   

  1. 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所 / 农业部作物生理生态与栽培重点开放实验室, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-22 接受日期:2018-12-25 出版日期:2019-03-12 发布日期:2019-01-07
  • 通讯作者: 董志强 E-mail:dongzhiqiang@caas.cn
  • 作者简介:E-mail: tanghuihui0609@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200608);横向合作项目资助(2016110001000035)

Increasing spring maize yield by basic application of PASP chelating nitrogen fertilizer in northeast China

Hui-Hui TANG,Yan-Li XU,Qing-Yan WANG,Zheng-Bo MA,Guang-Yan LI,Hui DONG,Zhi-Qiang DONG()   

  1. Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2018-07-22 Accepted:2018-12-25 Online:2019-03-12 Published:2019-01-07
  • Contact: Zhi-Qiang DONG E-mail:dongzhiqiang@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    The study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFD0200608);the Horizontal Cooperation Project(2016110001000035)

摘要:

2016年和2017年在中国农业科学院作物科学研究所吉林公主岭试验站(43o29°55°°N, 124o48°43°°E), 以中单909为材料, 设置常规氮素(CN)和PASP螯合氮素(PASP-N)的不同施肥量全基施处理, 探讨东北春玉米PASP螯合氮素减量全基施的增效机制。结果表明, 相比CN, PASP-N在总施氮量减少1/3的条件下, 玉米增产0.9%~3.0%, 穗长增加0.5%~2.9%, 灌浆中期叶面积指数增大18.5%~22.3%, 秃尖长降低13.8%~46.7%, 株高及穗位高分别降低1.5%~2.5%和0.7%~8.4%。PASP-N处理下, 花期玉米功能叶硝酸还原酶(NR)活性降低1.4%~19.8%, 花后30 d穗位叶谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)活性提高18.5%~33.1%, 花后20 d穗位叶谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性增高0.8%~6.4%。多项式曲线模拟结果表明, PASP-N和CN处理全基施最佳氮用量分别为185.3 kg hm -2和219.1 kg hm -2, PASP-N比CN少施氮肥33.8 kg hm -2, PASP-N产量比CN高108.9 kg hm -2。氮肥偏生产力、氮肥农学效率、氮肥表观利用率和氮肥生理效率分别比常规氮素处理增加51.3%~54.4%、2.9%~104.2%、28.9%~126.6%和48.0%~405.2%。因此, PASP螯合氮肥能促进东北春玉米籽粒灌浆中后期氮素代谢, 提高玉米氮肥利用效率。

关键词: PASP, 春玉米, 减氮, 氮肥利用率, 全基施

Abstract:

The randomized block field experiments were conducted using maize variety of Zhongdan 909 with different nitrogen treatments of polyaspartic acid chelating nitrogen fertilizer (PASP-N) and commonly used nitrogen fertilizer (CN) in Gongzhuling Experimental Station (43o29°55°°N, 124o48°43°°E) in Jilin province in 2016 and 2017. The PASP-N increased maize yield, ear length and leaf area index (LAI) by 0.9%-3.0%, 0.5%-2.9%, and 18.5%-22.3% respectively, and decreased bare top length, plant height and ear height by 13.8%-46.7%, 1.5%-2.5%, and 0.7%-8.4%, respectively, compared with CN. Moreover, PASP-N significantly influenced activity of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism: nitrate reductase (NR) activity decreased by 1.4%-19.8% at anthesis stage, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity increased by 18.5%-33.1% at 30 days after anthesis, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activity increased by 0.8%-6.4% at 20 days after anthesis. The total nitrogen inputs of PASP-N and CN for the highest maize yield were 185.3 kg ha -1 and 219.1 kg ha -1, respectively, with 108.9 kg ha -1 higher in PASP-N treatment than in CN treatment. Nitrogen fertilizer partial productivity, agronomic efficiency, apparent utilization and physiological efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer in PASP-N treatment increased by 51.3%-54.4%, 2.9%-104.2%, 28.9%-126.6%, and 48.0%-405.2%, respectively, compared with these in CN treatments. In conclusion, PASP could enhance nitrogen metabolism during middle and late grain-filling stage, resulting in increased yield and nitrogen use efficiency in maize.

Key words: PASP, spring maize, reduction of nitrogen, nitrogen use efficiency, one-time basic fertilizer application

表1

聚天门冬氨酸螯合氮肥(PASP-N)处理和常规氮肥(CN)处理的施氮量"

处理
Treatment
基施氮肥用量
Basic application amount of nitrogen (kg hm-2)
不施肥 No fertilizer CK 0
常规氮肥
Conventional N fertilizer
CN1 112.5
CN2 225.0
CN3 337.5
PASP螯合氮肥
N fertilizer coupled with PASP
PASP-N1 75.0
PASP-N2 150.0
PASP-N3 225.0

图1

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米产量的影响 A: 2016年产量; B: 2017年产量。CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2。图中标以不同小写字母的柱值在0.05水平上差异显著。"

图2

CN和PASP-N处理施氮量与玉米产量曲线拟合图 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥。"

表2

CN与 PASP-N不同施肥量对玉米产量构成因素的影响"

处理
Treatment
穗长
Ear length (cm)
秃尖长
Bare tip length (cm)
穗粗
Ear diameter (mm)
穗粒数
Kernels per ear
千粒重
1000-kernel weight (g)
CK 19.3±1.2 bc 1.6±0.7 ab 45.5±1.7 b 588.1±57.4 b 273.0±15.2 ab
CN1 19.9±0.9 ab 1.2±0.4 ab 48.0±1.4 a 600.6±39.2 a 277.4±18.1 a
CN2 19.2±1.1 c 0.8±0.8 b 49.2±1.4 a 600.0±61.0 a 267.2±11.6 b
CN3 19.9±1.1 ab 2.0±1.1 a 49.0±1.5 a 623.7±43.6 a 272.0±6.9 ab
PASP-N1 20.0±1.2 a 1.0±0.7 ab 48.9±2.0 a 606.6±45.5 a 276.7±14.0 a
PASP-N2 19.8±1.1 abc 1.5±0.7 ab 48.9±1.5 a 615.9±49.8 a 267.8±12.1 b
PASP-N3 20.0±1.0 a 1.0±0.7 ab 48.3±1.6 a 604.0±37.2 a 270.7±10.8 ab

表3

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米干物质积累的影响"

处理
Treatment
施氮量
Nitrogen (kg hm-2)
植株干物质积累Plant dry matter accumulation (g plant-1) 收获指数
Harvest index
花前Pre-silking 花后Post-silking
CK 0 105.2±2.1 cd 156.6±33.5 c 0.6±0.1 ab
CN1 112.5 138.7±6.2 ab 191.7±7.3 bc 0.5±0.0 ab
CN2 225.0 152.1±10.8 a 216.4±11.0 b 0.6±0.0 ab
CN3 337.5 104.1±9.1 d 316.1±42.8 a 0.5±0.0 b
PASP-N1 75.0 124.2±15.7 b 206.7±12.1 b 0.6±0.0 a
PASP-N2 150.0 122.4±10.9 bc 218.1±25.3 b 0.5±0.0 ab
PASP-N3 225.0 132.4±10.9 b 180.8±27.2 bc 0.5±0.0 ab

图3

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米叶面积指数的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2; V6: 拔节期; V12; 大口期; VT: 花期; VT+15: 花后15 d; VT+30: 花后30 d; VT+45: 花后45 d; R6: 收获期。"

图4

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米株高及穗位的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2。图中标以不同小写字母的柱值在0.05水平上差异显著。"

图5

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米SPAD值的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2; V6: 拔节期; V12; 大口期; VT: 花期; VT+10: 花后10 d; VT+20: 花后20 d; VT+30: 花后30 d; VT+40: 花后40 d。"

图6

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米硝酸还原酶活性的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2; VT: 花期; VT+10: 花后10 d; VT+20: 花后20 d; VT+30: 花后30 d; VT+40: 花后40 d。"

图7

CN与PASP-N处理施肥量对玉米谷氨酰胺合成酶活性的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2; VT: 花期; VT+10: 花后10 d; VT+20: 花后20 d; VT+30: 花后30 d; VT+40: 花后40 d。"

图8

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米谷丙转氨酶活性的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2; VT: 花期; VT+10: 花后10 d; VT+20: 花后20 d; VT+30: 花后30 d; VT+40: 花后40 d。"

图9

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米谷草转氨酶活性的影响 CK: 对照; CN: 常规肥; PASP-N: PASP螯合氮肥; CN1、CN2和CN3分别代表施氮量为112.5 kg hm-2、225.0 kg hm-2和337.5 kg hm-2; PASP-N1、PASP-N2和PASP-N3分别代表施氮量为75.0 kg hm-2、150.0 kg hm-2和225.0 kg hm-2; VT: 花期; VT+10: 花后10 d; VT+20: 花后20 d; VT+30: 花后30 d; VT+40: 花后40 d。"

表4

CN与PASP-N处理不同施肥量对玉米氮素利用效率的影响"

处理
Treatment
施肥量
N application rate (kg hm-2)
氮肥偏生产力
Partial factor productivity from applied N (kg kg-1)
氮肥农学效率Agronomic efficiency of applied N (kg kg-1) 氮肥表观利用率
Recovery efficiency of applied N (%)
氮肥生理利用率 Physiological efficiency of applied N (kg kg-1)
CN1 112.5 103.4±4.0 b 5.2±1.8 bc 0.6±0.1 bc 8.7±2.0 b
CN2 225.0 54.2±1.7 d 5.4±1.4 bc 0.6±0.1 bc 11.2±2.8 b
CN3 337.5 34.6±1.5 e 3.1±0.9 c 0.6±0.1 bc 3.3±1.6 c
PASP-N1 75.0 156.4±13.3 a 5.3±2.1 bc 1.3±0.0 a 4.0±1.5 c
PASP-N2 150.0 83.1±3.3 c 9.6±2.7 a 0.7±0.2 b 16.7±1.3 a
PASP-N3 225.0 53.4±2.4 d 6.3±1.1 b 0.4±0.1 c 16.5±2.2 a
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