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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (11): 1780-1789.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.01027


Nitrogen demand characteristics with different grain yield levels for wheat after rice

DU Yu-Xiao(), LI Xin-Ge, WANG Xue, LIU Xiao-Jun, TIAN Yong-Chao, ZHU Yan, CAO Wei-Xing, CAO Qiang*()   

  1. National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture, Nanjing Agricltural University / Engineering and Research Center for Smart Agriculture, Ministry of Education / Key Laboratory for Crop System Analysis and Decision Making, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs / Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2020-03-26 Accepted:2020-07-02 Online:2020-11-12 Published:2020-07-13
  • Contact: Qiang CAO E-mail:2018801186@njau.edu.cn;qiangcao@njau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the Youth Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China(31601222);the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University(KJQN201725);the Earmarked Fund for Jiangsu Agricultural Industry Technology System(JATS[2019]433);the Earmarked Fund for Jiangsu Agricultural Industry Technology System(JATS[2019]141)


It is necessary to clarify the nitrogen (N) demand characteristics with yield levels for wheat after rice in the middle and down reaches of the Yangtze River, which could provide theoretical basis for N fertilizer management. Based-on the multi-years and multi-sites wheat experiments in Jiangsu province, this study constructed the datasets of different yield levels derived from different varieties, N rates, densities, and sowing date experiments. N indicators including N requirement per ton grain (Nreq), dry matter accumulation (DMA), plant N accumulation (PNA), plant N concentration (PNC), straw N concentration (SNC), grain N concentration (GNC), harvest index (HI), N harvest index (NHI) and N nutrition index (NNI) were analyzed. The results showed that there were not significant differences in Nreq among the different yield levels, and the highest Nreq was middle-low yield with 27.8 kg t-1, while the lowest value was 24.8 kg t-1for low yield level. With the increase of yield levels, DMA, PNA and PNC all showed a gradually increasing trend during maturity stage, and there were significant differences among the different yield levels. There was a significant positive correlation between grain yield and PNA, the DMA and PNA increased with the increase of yield in the sowing-jointing stage, jointing-flowering stage and flowering-maturing stage, but the DMA and PNA proportion in different growth stages showed different trends. The SNC and GNC increased with the increase of yield levels. For SNC, there was no significant difference between the high yield and middle yield level, but it was significantly higher than the low-middle and low yield level. For GNC, there were significant differences among different yield levels except for the middle and low-middle yield level. The HI increased gradually with the increase of the yield levels, and its range was 0.39-0.49. The HI for low-middle and low yields were significantly lower than that of middle and high yield levels, while there were not significant differences in NHI among different yield levels. Its variation range was 0.60-0.96. The NNI gradually increased with the increase of the yield levels, and there was significant difference between different yield levels. The NNI of the high-yield level was higher, and some of the values were greater than 1 which indicating that some experiments had excessive nitrogen fertilizer supply. With the increase of the yield level, the Nreq increased first and then decreased, while the DMA, PNA, PNC, SNC, and GNC were gradual increased. The increase of SNC was higher than the GNC, therefore, the extravagant absorption of N by wheat should be avoided in field management. The variation ranges of the HI and NHI were consistent with previous studies. The higher DMA and PNA in the late growth stages were the main reasons for the high yield of wheat. The NNI could be a promising indictor in the field N management of wheat.

Key words: yield levels, nitrogen requirement per ton grain, harvest index, nitrogen nutrition index

Table 1

Experiment design and yield range of wheat"

地点Location 试验年份Year 品种
Sowing date (month/day)
Nitrogen rate
(kg hm-2)
(×104 hm-2)
Range of yield
(t hm-2)
2010-2011 扬麦16
Yangmai 16
10/15, 10/25, 11/4, 11/14, 11/24 225 135, 180, 270, 315 5.1-8.3
2013-2014 徐麦30, 济麦22
Xumai 30, Jimai 22
10/15 0, 90, 180, 270, 375 240 3.4-8.9
2013-2014 宁麦13, 徐麦30
Ningmai 13, Xumai 30
10/28 0, 75, 150, 225, 300 225 2.9-9.1
2018-2019 镇麦12, 宁麦13, 扬麦23
Zhenmai 12, Ningmai 13, Yangmai 23
11/1 0, 90, 180, 270, 360 225 2.8-7.4
2018-2019 扬麦23
Yangmai 23
11/4, 11/24, 12/1 0, 180, 270, 360 180, 270, 360 2.9-8.5

Table 2

Rainfall during growth period of wheat and soil properties of experimental fields"

地点Location 试验年份Year 全氮 Total N
(g kg-1)
碱解氮Available N (mg kg-1) 速效磷Available P (mg kg-1) 速效钾Available K
(mg kg-1)
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
P rate
(kg hm-2)
K rate
(kg hm-2)
Rainfall (mm)
2010-2011 1.27 112.48 45.63 89.39 20.50 120 135 1172.4
2013-2014 2.49 170.48 52.63 93.48 30.50 120 120 1387.0
2013-2014 1.55 122.53 45.83 80.72 35.50 135 135 695.6
2018-2019 1.37 102.86 28.89 120.59 18.68 105 120 492.4

Table 3

Descriptive statistical analysis of samples at different yield levels"

Yield level (t hm-2)
样本容量Sample size 平均值Mean 标准差 SD 最小值 Min. 25%分位25% Q 中间值
75% Q
低产<4.5 Low yield <4.5 26 3.5 0.5 2.7 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
4.5≤中低产<6.0 4.5≤low-middle yield <6.0 33 5.3 0.4 4.5 5.0 5.4 5.7 6.0
6.0≤中产<7.5 6.0≤ middle yield <7.5 64 6.9 0.4 6.1 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.5
高产≥7.5 High yield ≥7.5 48 8.1 0.4 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.5 9.1
总计 Total 171 6.4 1.6 2.7 5.4 6.7 7.6 9.1

Fig. 1

Relationship between grain yield and plant nitrogen accumulation (A) and nitrogen requirement per ton grain with different yield levels (B) The solid lines in Fig. A represent the fitting curve, *** indicates significantly difference at P < 0.001; the solid and dashed lines indicate mean and median, respectively in Fig. B. The box boundaries indicate the 75% and 25% quartiles, the whisker caps indicate 90th and 10th percentiles, and the dots indicate the maximum and minimum, and the ns represents that there was no significant difference among different yield levels (P < 0.05)."

Fig. 2

Variation of dry matter accumulation (A), plant nitrogen accumulation (B), and plant nitrogen concentration (C) at maturity at different yield levels in wheat The solid and dashed lines indicate mean and median, respectively. The box boundaries indicate the 75% and 25% quartiles, the whisker caps indicate 90th and 10th percentiles, and the dots indicate the maximum and minimum, different small letters (a, b, c, d) in the same figure represent that there was significant difference in different yield levels (P < 0.05)."

Fig. 3

Dry matter accumulation (A) and plant nitrogen accumulation (B) of different period as a percentage of the total at maturity with different yield levels GS0 indicates sowing stage, GS31 indicates jointing stage, GS65 indicates flowering stage, and GS100 indicates maturity stage."

Fig. 4

Variation of nitrogen harvest index (A), harvest index (B), straw nitrogen concentration (C), and grain nitrogen concentration (D) with different yield levels The solid and dashed lines indicate mean and median, respectively. The box boundaries indicate the 75% and 25% quartiles, the whisker caps indicate 90th and 10th percentiles, and the dots indicate the maximum and minimum, different small letters (a, b, c, d) in the same figure represent that there was significant difference in different yield levels, and the ns represent that there was no significant difference among different yield levels (P < 0.05)."

Fig. 5

Nitrogen nutrition index with different yield levels (A) and its correlation with wheat yield (B) The solid and dashed lines in Fig. A indicate mean and median, respectively. The box boundaries indicate the 75% and 25% quartiles, the whisker caps indicate 90th and 10th percentiles, and the dots indicate the maximum and minimum, and different small letters (a, b, c, d) represent that there was significant difference in different yield levels (P < 0.05); the solid line in Fig. B represents the relationship, *** indicates significantly difference at P < 0.001."

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