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    Research progress of seed dormancy and germination regulation
    SONG Song-Quan, TANG Cui-Fang, LEI Hua-Ping, JIANG Xiao-Cheng, WANG Wei-Qing, CHENG Hong-Yan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34012
    Abstract1124)   HTML132)    PDF(pc) (3074KB)(1056)       Save

    Dormancy enables plant seeds to time germination until environmental conditions become favorable for seedling survival and growth. The dormancy characteristics of seeds are of important ecological adaptive significance and notable agricultural value. Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) are the key factors for seed dormancy and germination. Mature seeds in dormancy state contain high levels of ABA and low levels of GA. ABA induces and maintains seed dormancy, while GA antagonizes ABA and promotes seed germination. DELAY OF GERMINATION-1 (DOG1) is a major regulator of seed dormancy and had a synergistic effect with ABA to delay germination. DOG1 enhances ABA signal transduction by combining with PP2C ABA hypersensitive germination (AHG1/AHG3), and inhibits the action of AHG1 to increase ABA sensitivity and impose seed dormancy. Imprinted genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms before and after fertilization, and are closely related to the establishment and release of seed dormancy. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the regulation of seed dormancy. In the present paper, we reviewed the effects of phytohormones ABA and GA on seed dormancy and germination, the action mechanism regulating seed dormancy by DOG1, and the epigenetic regulation of seed dormancy and germination. In addition, we also propose some scientific issues that need to be further investigated in this field to provide some information for understanding the molecular mechanism of seed dormancy and germination, breeding in anti-preharvest sprouting in crop plants, and promoting the germination of dormant seeds.

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    Function and application of calcium in plant growth and development
    WANG Yu, GAO Geng-Dong, GE Meng-Meng, CHANG Ying, TAN Jing, GE Xian-Hong, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, FU Ting-Dong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (4): 793-807.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34145
    Abstract864)   HTML64)    PDF(pc) (4101KB)(699)       Save

    Calcium is one of the essential elements in crops. It is widely present in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, and is of great significance for the growth and development of crops. Calcium is a difficult element to redistribute, and its absorption and transport are subject to transpiration. Therefore, crops often experience physiological calcium deficiency, which weakens their stress resistance and reduces both yield and quality. Calcium in crops has dual functions. It not only participates in the formation of cell walls and membranes but also plays a role in responding to various environmental stimuli and internal growth and development signals as an intracellular second messenger. The absorption and transportation of calcium in cells are essential for maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis and ensuring calcium signal transduction. In recent years, the function and application of calcium in crops have been extensively studied. In this study, we describe the distribution, absorption, transportation, and demand of calcium in crops, introduce the symptoms and causes of calcium deficiency in crops, review the nutritional structure functions of calcium, the second messenger function and the mechanism of calcium signal generation, transmission, and decoding, and summarize the role of calcium in crop growth and development, including its effects on yield, quality, and stress resistance. Meanwhile, the future research direction is proposed.

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    A retrospective analysis of the historical evolution and developing trend of maize mega varieties in China from 1982 to 2020
    BAI Yan, GAO Ting-Ting, LU Shi, ZHENG Shu-Bo, LU Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2064-2076.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23067
    Abstract609)   HTML46)    PDF(pc) (489KB)(766)       Save

    Seed is the chip of agriculture and the upgrading of excellent varieties has played an important role in improving the yield of corn in China. It is of great practical significance to study the historical contribution and developing trend of mega maize varieties in China in recent 40 years. Based on the dataset of planting area of individual maize varieties released by the National Extension and Service Center of Agricultural Technology from 1982 to 2020, 27 mega maize varieties such as Zhengdan 958 in recent 40 years with the total promotion of 321 million hectares accounting for 29.09% of the total corn planting area in China were screened..There were four utmost mega varieties (Zhengdan 958, Zhongdan 2, Danyu 13, and Xianyu 335) and six massive mega varieties (Jundan 20, Yedan 2, Nongda 108, Yedan 13, Sidan 19, and Yandan 14). The promotion period was 8-30 years, with an average of 17.63 years, the maximum promotion area in a single year was 699,700-4,569,500 hm2, with an average of 1,507,900 hm2. It was mainly distributed in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, and other production regions and the provinces (regions) with 13 varieties exceeding 666,700 hm2 per year were Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Sichuan. The proportion of planting area of mega varieties to the total area increased rapidly from 1982 to 1989, remained stable from 1990 to 1997, decreased after 1998, and decreased to about 12% by 2020. Some varieties such as Yufeng 303 and Zhongkeyu 505 had the potential to develop into mega varieties. In the future, intelligent design breeding will efficiently cultivate a new generation of breakthrough varieties and accelerate the improvement of maize yield. According to the current maize production problems and future development trends, it is recommended to further improve the regional test of maize varieties in terms of distribution layout, test accuracy and variety approval standards of regional tests.

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    Construction of evaluation method for tolerance to high-temperature and screening of heat-tolerant germplasm resources of bud stage in soybean
    LI Jia-Jia, LONG Qun, ZHU Shang-Shang, SHAN Ya-Jing, WU Mei-Yan, LU Yun, ZHI Xian-Guan, LIAO Wei, CHEN Hao-Ran, ZHAO Zhen-Bang, MIAO Long, GAO Hui-Hui, LI Ying-Hui, WANG Xiao-Bo, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (11): 2863-2875.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34025
    Abstract544)   HTML58)    PDF(pc) (530KB)(1006)       Save

    The frequent occurrence of extreme high temperature (HT) events causes continuous heat damage to soybean production, which seriously damages the yield components and quality traits. The seeds are sensitive to the changes of the external environment at germination stage. The rising temperature and the accompanying drought will affect the emergence of soybean seeds. The establishment of a set of scientific evaluation methods for HT tolerance at bud stage can provide a theoretical basis for the early identification of soybean, the breeding of HT tolerance germplasm, and the study of tolerance mechanism. In this study, 385 germplasm resources varieties were selected as the experimental materials, which creating a HT environment by artificial climate incubator and subjected to HT-stress for 3 d (40℃, 16 h light /8 h darkness) at bud stage of soybean. Compared with the control (25℃, 16 h light /8 h darkness), the hypocotyl length of soybean bud stage was significantly decreased 10.9% under HT stress (P < 0.05). The indices of fresh root weight, dry root weight, and root-shoot ratio increased by 13.10%, 22.20%, and 16.90%, respectively (P<0.01). The results showed that HT-stress significantly affected the surface and underground biomass distribution of bud stage in soybean. Meanwhile, the principal component analysis for the coefficient of HT-tolerance for each trait converted 11 indexes into two principal component factors. The comprehensive evaluation value (H-value) of soybean response to HT-stress was obtained by the standardized analysis of membership function, and cluster analysis was conducted for the tested varieties based on H-value. Ultimately, 385 germplasm resources were divided into 5 grades for the HT-tolerance at bud stage in soybean [namely: Grade I (tolerance), Grade II (strong tolerance), Grade III (medium), Grade IV (strong sensitive), and Grade V (sensitive type)] and four HT-resistant varieties based on the specific performance (H245, H070, H268, and H216) were initially selected combined with the actual heat resistance performance. After the stepwise regression analysis of each index, a predictive model for the comprehensive evaluation of HT tolerance (H-value) at bud stage of soybean was established: H = 0.191 + 0.017X1 - 0.007X2 + 0.013X7 + 0.027X8 - 0.009X10 (R2=0.9752). Five indexes main including hypocotyl length (X1), main root length (X2), hypocotyl dry weight (X7), root fresh weight (X8), and simplified vigor index (X10) were screened out as the evaluation indexes for HT tolerance at bud stage in soybean.

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    Advances in heat-stress responses at sexual reproduction stage in plants
    CHEN Sai-Hua, ZHONG Wei-Jie, XUE Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (12): 3143-3153.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.32020
    Abstract532)   HTML94)    PDF(pc) (4257KB)(519)       Save

    The occurrence of extreme hot weather poses a threat to crop production. Heat stress suffered at reproductive stage in crops is always correlated with crop yield losses, and thus the underlying molecular mechanisms are of great significance in crop thermotolerance improvement. However, relevant studies are mainly focused on Arabidopsis and less is known in crops. From the perspective of plants, here, we reviewed the heat-stress responses at reproductive stage, including meiosis process, tapetum degradation, microspore development, pollen-tube germination, and fertilization, as well as seed development. Based on these advances, we proposed feasible strategies for thermotolerance improvement, which will pave a way for the breeding of heat-tolerant crop varieties.

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    Research progress on genetic basis and QTL mapping of oil content in peanut seed
    ZHANG Yue, WANG Zhi-Hui, HUAI Dong-Xin, LIU Nian, JIANG Hui-Fang, LIAO Bo-Shou, LEI Yong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 529-542.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34083
    Abstract488)   HTML116)    PDF(pc) (590KB)(511)       Save

    Peanut is an important oilseed crop in China, and oil content is an important quality trait and breeding target of peanut. One percentage point increase in peanut oil content is equivalent to an increase of two percentage points in yield, and oil processing profit can be increased by seven percentage points. This study outlined four predominant methods for phenotyping peanut oil content. The genetic characteristics of oil content in peanut were quantitative traits under polygenic control, that were affected by additive and dominant effects, and influenced by G×E interaction. There were 124 QTL reported for oil content, with 36 major effect loci by (phenotypic variation explained) more than 10%. Eight major effect QTL on A03, A05, and A08 can be consistently identified. A consistent genetic map of oil content in peanut was constructed, with a hotspot region on the 33.59-50.24 Mb of A08. In addition, the research progress of lipid synthesis and the regulatory mechanisms of associated genes was detailed. This review aspires to provide theoretical guidance for the genetic improvement of oil content and the breeding of high oil varieties of peanut.

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    Development, genetic deciphering, and breeding utilization of dwarf lines in foxtail millet
    DIAO Xian-Min, WANG Li-Wei, ZHI Hui, ZHANG Jun, LI Shun-Guo, CHENG Ru-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (2): 265-279.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34131
    Abstract443)   HTML44)    PDF(pc) (4944KB)(566)       Save

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important cereal crop in northern China’s arid and semiarid dry land agriculture, which has recently been proposed as a novel model for functional genomics. Breeding dwarf varieties is the development trend of foxtail millet industry. To date, more than 70 foxtail millet dwarf lines have been developed and reported worldwide. According to morphological characteristics, foxtail millet dwarf lines can be divided into two types: compact type with erect leaves and conventional type with droopy leaves. Gibberellins (GA) sensitivity assay indicated that four materials were not sensitive to GA and the others were sensitive. Genetic analyses detected that most of the dwarf phenotype lines were controlled by recessive genes, but the height phenotype of Ai 88 was controlled by multi-dwarf-gene. So far, 79 QTL related with plant height regulation were detected by natural population GWAS or linkage analysis. Among seven genes or QTL fine mapped in foxtail millet, the semi-dominant dwarfism gene SiD1 in 84113 was the only one cloned and functionally characterized. In the history of breeding dwarf foxtail millet variety, Ai 88 was a backbone line, which had been utilized to develop 139 cultivars with reducing plant height to meet the requirement of logging resistance and mechanized harvest. In this study, we reviewed systematically the research progress of dwarfing gene in foxtail millet, sorted out the dwarfing genes that had been located and cloned, discussed the problems in the research of dwarfing genetics and breeding, and prospected the future development in foxtail.

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    Identification of OsGMS2 and construction of seed production system for genic male sterile line in rice
    TANG Jie, LONG Tuan, WU Chun-Yu, LI Xin-Peng, ZENG Xiang, WU Yong-Zhong, HUANG Pei-Jin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2025-2038.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.22051
    Abstract434)   HTML63)    PDF(pc) (15834KB)(486)       Save

    Male sterility is the basis for application of crop heterosis. The common nuclear male sterile mutant osgms2 was isolated from a mutant library created by 60Co-γ-treated indica cultivar 93-11. The male of the mutant was completely aborted, the female was nomal, and other agronomic characters were consistent with those of the wild type. Genetic analyses indicated that the male sterility phenotype was stably controlled by a single recessive gene. The OsGMS2 gene was fine-mapped within the 86 kb physical interval between two molecular markers S3b and 4826 on the long arm of chromosome 4 with a mapping population of osgms2 and Minghui 63. Further sequencing found the gene LOC_Os04g48490, encoding a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein, had a 9-bp deletion at position 118 to 126 from start codon of translation, resulting in three codons mutation. The osgms2 gene was a novel allele of OsFLA1. Subsequent gene knockout and genetic complementation experiments in Zhonghua 11 background confirmed the function of the gene. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that the gene was expressed in all tissues, with the highest level at the flowering and immature seed stages. Alignment analyses revealed that the protein sequence was conserved in different species. By creating the OsGMS2-T maintainer, seed production of the common sterile line was achieved. The identification of the allelic mutant osgms2 provides the new materials for the study on rice nuclear male sterility and application of heterosis.

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    Differences of physiological responses and transcriptional regulation of alfalfa with different drought tolerances under drought stresses
    CHEN Li, WANG Jing, QIU Xiao, SUN Hai-Lian, ZHANG Wen-Hao, WANG Tian-Zuo
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2122-2132.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24205
    Abstract428)   HTML42)    PDF(pc) (1732KB)(651)       Save

    Alfalfa is the most important legume forage, which is often planted in aird or semi-arid regions. The objective of this study is to explore the responsive mechanism of alfalfa with different drought tolerance to drought stress, which provides the theoretical basis for tolerant breeding of alfalfa. In this study, the new variety Medicago sativa ‘Zhongke 1’ was used as the test material, and M. sativa ‘Sanditi’ was used as the control. The effects of drought stress on growth traits, photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration, leaf water content, osmotic adjustment substances, and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by natural drought strategy in pots. The deferentially expressed genes were compared by transcriptome analysis. Drought stress significantly reduced plant height, biomass, relative water content of leaves, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide and chlorophyll concentration of alfalfa. Compared with Sanditi, Zhongke 1 revealed the lower malondialdehyde concentration and electrical conductivity under drought stress, but stronger osmotic regulation ability and superoxide radical scavenging ability. Transcriptome sequencing identified 5308 and 8053 drought-responsive genes of Zhongke 1 and Sanditi, respectively. GO functional annotation demonstrated that 346 drought-responsive genes were significantly enriched in six GO item categories in Zhongke 1, while 1683 drought-responsive genes in Sanditi were significantly enriched in 29 GO item categories. The relative expression levels of 19 key drought-tolerant genes in Zhongke 1 were significantly higher than those in Sanditi. Alfalfa may maintain a relatively high photosynthetic rate by up-regulating the relative expression levels of drought tolerant genes SUS, P5CS, LEA, SOD, POD, PEPC, and NCED, thus improving osmotic regulation ability and antioxidant enzyme activity. The results provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of alfalfa’s candidate genes in response to drought stress and drought tolerant breeding.

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    Genetic analysis of elite stripe rust resistance genes of founder parent Zhou 8425B in its derived varieties
    LI Yu-Jia, XU Hao, YU Shi-Nan, TANG Jian-Wei, LI Qiao-Yun, GAO Yan, ZHENG Ji-Zhou, DONG Chun-Hao, YUAN Yu-Hao, ZHENG Tian-Cun, YIN Gui-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 16-31.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31013
    Abstract426)   HTML45)    PDF(pc) (4495KB)(236)       Save

    Zhou 8425B is a widely used dwarf large panicle and disease-resistant and stress-resistant Wheat Founder Parent in the wheat production areas of the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers regions. The analysis of stripe rust resistance of derived varieties and the genetic transmission information of stripe rust resistance gene carried by Zhou 8425B is of great value for wheat new variety breeding. In this study, we used a highly toxic race of stripe rust, Tiaozhong 34 (CYR34), to identify the resistance of 222 collected Zhou 8425B derived varieties to stripe rust at seedling stage. The hybrid strain mainly CYR34 was used to identify the resistance to stripe rust at adult stage of the derived varieties. Subsequently, molecular markers closely linked to the stripe rust resistance genes (YrZH84, YrZH84.2, Yr30, YrZH22, and Yr9 carried by Zhou 8425B) were used for genotype detection of the derived varieties. The results showed that Zhou 8425B was highly resistant to stripe rust stripe rust at seedling stage and adult stage to the current virulent dominant race CYR34. Among the 222 derivative varieties of Zhou 8425B, 14 of them, including Changmai 9, Jiyanmai 10, Bainong 4199, Saidemai 7, and Zhengmai 103, etc., showed stable disease resistance in two years, accounting for 6.3%; 52 derivative varieties, include Zhoumai 11, Zhoumai 22, Zhoumai 26, Zhoumai 36, Lantian 36, Cunmai 16 and Zhengpinmai 8, etc., had stable disease resistance during the whole growth period, accounting for 23.4%. Many derivative varieties of Zhou 8425B were mainly derived from six offspring, including Zhoumai 11, Zhoumai 12, Zhoumai 13, Zhoumai 15, Zhoumai 16, and Zhoumai 17. In the first generation, Zhoumai 16 and Zhoumai 13 directly derived more varieties because of their good agronomic characters, while Zhoumai 15 and Zhoumai 17 derived fewer varieties. Zhoumai 12 and Zhoumai 13 bred the second generation, Zhoumai 22, and then derived 45 sub-generations, and Zhoumai 11 bred Aikang 58, and then derived 54 sub-generations. The excellent stripe rust resistance gene of Zhou 8425B was continuously separated and polymerized in the process of genetic breeding. The frequencies of YrZH84, YrZH84.2, YrZH22, Yr30, and Yr9 in the derived offspring were 34.7%, 14.9%, 41.9%, 66.2%, and 67.1%, respectively. Among the derivative varieties carrying only one disease resistance gene, the average severity of YrZH84 was the lowest (14.4%). Among the derived varieties that aggregate two disease resistance genes, the average severity of carrying YrZH84+YrZH22 was the lowest (20.0%); among the derived varieties that aggregate three disease resistance genes, the average severity of carrying YrZH84+YrZH22+Yr9 was the lowest (17.2%). Among the derived varieties that aggregate four disease resistance genes, the average severity of carrying YrZH84+YrZH22+Yr30+Yr9 was 16.9%, and the average severity of carrying YrZH84.2+YrZH22+Yr30+Yr9 was 38.4%. At seedling stage, derived varieties that carried the YrZH84 resistance gene or a combination of genes containing YrZH84 during the entire growth period had better disease resistance. These results provide the information of stripe rust gene for the continuous improvement and utilization of the Founder Parent Zhou 8425B in China, identify the new derived germplasm with high resistance and high yield to the highly virulent physiological race CYR34, which providing a reference for the genetic breeding of wheat resistance to stripe rust in China.

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    Genetic analysis of seed coat and flower color based on a soybean nested association mapping population
    SONG Jian, XIONG Ya-Jun, CHEN Yi-Jie, XU Rui-Xin, LIU Kang-Lin, GUO Qing-Yuan, HONG Hui-Long, GAO Hua-Wei, GU Yong-Zhe, ZHANG Li-Juan, GUO Yong, YAN Zhe, LIU Zhang-Xiong, GUAN Rong-Xia, LI Ying-Hui, WANG Xiao-Bo, GUO Bing-Fu, SUN Ru-Jian, YAN Long, WANG Hao-Rang, JI Yue-Mei, CHANG Ru-Zhen, WANG Jun, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 556-575.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34094
    Abstract418)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (12248KB)(230)       Save

    Nested Association Mapping (NAM) population is widely applied in genetic study and breeding practice in many crops. A NAM panel was constructed by crossing of 35 parental lines with the common maternal lines (Zhongdou 41) based on previous evaluation of soybean germplasm. Principle component analysis and clustering analysis showed that clear genetic structure was observed between subpanel of RIL populations. Genetic analysis was performed on flower color and seed coat color in NAM subpanel with significant difference between paternal and maternal parents, and we found that qFC13-1 was significantly associated with flower color, which coincided with the W1 locus. Twelve loci identified were significantly correlated with seed coat color, among which nine loci were co-located by more than three methods, and the other three loci were co-located by two methods, including four reported loci and eight novel loci. In conclusion, NAM population was suitable for genetic analysis of soybean, which provided material basis for genetic interpretation and breeding practice for complex traits in soybean.

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    Identification of ZmC2s gene family and functional analysis of ZmC2-15 under heat tolerance in maize
    HUANG Yu-Jie, ZHANG Xiao-Tian, CHEN Hui-Li, WANG Hong-Wei, DING Shuang-Cheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2331-2343.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23069
    Abstract414)   HTML78)    PDF(pc) (22439KB)(524)       Save

    The objective of this study is to identify the members of maize ZmC2s gene family, to analyze the association between their genetic variations and heat tolerance, and to lay a foundation for clarifying its function and molecular mechanism in maize heat tolerance. Using the C2 protein domain PF00168, hmmsearch was applied to search for the members of the ZmC2s gene family from maize B73 genome. The protein isoelectric point, molecular weight, phylogenetic evolution, and gene family replication were analyzed. Using the method of candidate gene association analysis, the association between the natural variations of ZmC2s and the heat tolerance of maize seedlings was conducted, and the important heat-tolerant candidate genes of maize ZmC2s gene family were found. The relative gene expression level of the heat-tolerant candidate gene under stress was identified by Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The subcellular expression sites of heat-tolerant candidate gene were identified by transforming maize protoplasts. A total of 95 maize ZmC2s genes were identified from the reference genome B73 in maize. According to the order of their physical coordinates, 95 maize ZmC2s genes were named from ZmC2-1 to ZmC2-95, respectively. The length of the 95 proteins was 130-2141, the isoelectric point was 4.1-10.8, and the molecular weight was 14.1-230.1. The evolution tree of C2 gene in maize, rice, and sorghum genomes was constructed. We found that C2 genes can be divided into three major cluster branches, and each cluster branch can be subdivided into two small cluster branches. Analyzing the whole genome collinearity data of maize, rice, and sorghum, 59 ZmC2s genes were detected to have corresponding replication genes in rice and sorghum genomes. A candidate-gene based on the association analysis of ZmC2s showed that ZmC2-15/60/91 were important candidate genes for heat tolerance in maize (P ≤ 0.001, MLM), among which ZmC2-15 was the most significantly associated to heat tolerance at seedling stage (P ≤ 0.000,01, MLM), and the relative expression level of ZmC2-15 was up-regulated under various stress treatments. Subcellular localization indicated that ZmC2-15 was localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear membrane, and endoplasmic reticulum. The overexpression of ZmC2-15 improved plant heat tolerance. ZmC2-15 can be used as an important candidate gene for regulating heat tolerance in maize.

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    ALGWAS: two-stage Adaptive Lasso-based genome-wide association study
    YANG Wen-Yu, WU Cheng-Xiu, XIAO Ying-Jie, YAN Jian-Bing
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2321-2330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23072
    Abstract403)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (874KB)(735)       Save

    As mainstream methods for genome-wide association analysis, mixed linear model methods have been widely used. However, the existing methods still have the problem of low detection power. In this study, a two-stage Adaptive Lasso-based genome-wide association analysis (ALGWAS) method was proposed. In the first stage, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with target traits were screened by Adaptive Lasso, a variable selection method. In the second stage, SNPs selected from the first stage were put into the linear model as the covariates for genome-wide scanning. Compared with fastGWA, GEMMA and EMMAX, the ALGWAS method had the highest detection power and lower false discovery rate (FDR) in the simulation experiments. The above four methods were applied to genome-wide association analysis of Complete-diallel plus Unbalanced Breeding-like Inter-Cross (CUBIC) population of 1341 individuals in maize. ALGWAS method can detect the genes (ZmMADS69, ZmMADS15/31, ZmZCN8, and ZmRAP2.7) related to days to tasseling, the genes (ZmBRD1 and ZmBR2) related to plant height, and the genes (ZmUB2, ZmKRN2, and ZmCLE7) related to yield, while the other three commonly used genome-wide association analysis methods had low detection efficiency. In this study, a non-mixed linear model class of genome-wide association analysis method was proposed, which had higher detection advantage for microeffect polygenes and provided a new way for genetic analysis of complex traits.

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    Haplotype analysis of soybean leaf type regulator gene Ln and its homologous genes
    LI Gang, ZHOU Yan-Chen, XIONG Ya-Jun, CHEN Yi-Jie, GUO Qing-Yuan, GAO Jie, SONG Jian, WANG Jun, LI Ying-Hui, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2051-2063.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24208
    Abstract386)   HTML35)    PDF(pc) (1158KB)(690)       Save

    Soybean leaf type is an important component of ideal plant type, which is of great significance for the breeding of soybean varieties. In this study, we analyzed the haplotype of Ln and its homologous gene (Glyma.10G273800) in 598 materials from different regions of China. Ln gene and homologous gene contained three haplotypes (Hap1-Hap3), respectively. There was no significant difference in leaf length between the three haplotypes of Ln gene, and Hap2 was significantly different from Hap1/Hap3 in leaf width, leaf area, and leaf length width ratio. There were significant differences between Hap3 and Hap2 of Ln homologous gene in different leaf types. There was no difference in the ratio of leaf length to width between Hap1 and Hap2. There was no significant difference in leaf width phenotype at the 4th leaf site, and Hap1 at the 5th leaf site was significantly lower than Hap2. Leaf length, leaf area, and leaf circumference Hap1 were significantly lower than Hap2. In terms of geographical distribution, Hap2 of Ln gene was mainly distributed in high latitude and high altitude regions, and no obvious regional bias was detected in the distribution of the three haplotypes of its homologous genes. Genetic analysis showed that only D9H of Hap2 in Ln gene had artificial selection signal, while the other two mutation sites in Ln gene and two mutation sites in homologous gene had no artificial selection signal. This study provides the theoretical basis for soybean leaf type breeding and has positive significance for increasing soybean yield.

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    Identification of candidate genes implicated in low-nitrogen-stress tolerance based on RNA-Seq in sorghum
    WANG Rui, ZHANG Fu-Yao, ZHAN Peng-Jie, CHU Jian-Qiang, JIN Min-Shan, ZHAO Wei-Jun, CHENG Qing-Jun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 669-685.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34055
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    The objective of this study is to explore gene differential expression between different sorghum materials under low nitrogen stress conditions and to provide the references for probing into the breeding of low-nitrogen-tolerant sorghum varieties and the molecular mechanism of low-nitrogen-stress tolerance in sorghum. Two low-nitrogen-tolerant sorghum varieties (BSX44 and BTx378) were selected as experimental materials, and both of them were subjected to normal-growth treatment and low-nitrogen-stress treatment respectively before the gene expression of sorghum was detected at seedling stage, heading stage and flowering stage via RNA-Seq technology. The biological functions and metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed by bioinformatics to screen genes that may be involved in the low-nitrogen regulation, and to understand the possible molecular pathways for nitrogen efficient materials in the process of nitrogen absorption and utilization. The results showed that: For BTx378 and BSX44, under normal-growth and low-nitrogen-stress treatments, 937 and 787 DEGs were detected at the seedling stage, 1305 and 935 at the heading stage, and 1402 and 963 at the flowering stage, for BTx378 and BSX44 respectively. Then the converged DEGs at the three stages were identified, and it was found that 246 genes were differentially expressed in the two low-nitrogen-tolerant sorghum varieties at the seedling stage, 371 at the heading stage, and 306 at the flowering stage. Furthermore, a total of 28 genes were consistently detected as DEGs at all three stages in the two low-nitrogen tolerant varieties, among which 5 genes were up-regulated and 23 genes were down-regulated. The KEGG analysis of the 28 common DEGs showed that they were mainly enriched in nitrogen metabolism, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. This suggested that regulation of the genes in these pathways mainly affects the low nitrogen stress tolerance in sorghum.

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    Effects of salt stress on ion dynamics and the relative expression level of salt tolerance genes in peanut seedlings
    XU Yang, ZHANG Dai, KANG Tao, WEN Sai-Qun, ZHANG Guan-Chu, DING Hong, GUO Qing, QIN Fei-Fei, DAI Liang-Xiang, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2373-2384.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24242
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    Different peanut varieties have different salt tolerance. In this study, to determine the flow rates of ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, NH4+, NO3-, and Cl- in root tips of peanut seedlings under salt stress via Non-invasive Micro-test technique, a salt-tolerant peanut variety Huayu 25 (HY25) and a salt-sensitive variety Huayu 20 (HY20) were used as the experimental materials. The growth traits, the relative expression level of major salt tolerance genes, and the contents of osmotic regulatory substances (soluble sugar and proline) were also measured to establish the difference of ion absorption and stress resistance regulation in different varieties. The results showed as follows: (1) Under NaCl stress, Na+ influx was inhibited, and its efflux increased, but promoted the influx of K+. The efflux rate of Na+ and influx rate of K+ in HY25 were higher than HY20, which may improve salinity tolerance by preserving K+ and discharging Na+. (2) Salt stress promoted Ca2+ influx, and the Ca2+ influx rate of salt-tolerant varieties was higher than the salt-sensitive varieties, which might be related to salt tolerance. (3) NO3- exhibited efflux in both varieties under salt stress, but the efflux rate of the salt-tolerant variety HY25 was lower, indicating that HY25 could resist the harm of salt stress by slowing the loss of NO3-. (4) Salt stress induced Cl- efflux in HY25 but influx in salt-sensitive variety, indicating that HY25 could reduce the toxicity of Cl- by accelerating the efflux of Cl-. (5) Salt stress significantly up-regulated the relative expression level of salt-tolerant genes AhNHX1, AhHA1, AhSAMDC1, and AhLeaD in salt-tolerant variety HY25, which could help improve its salt tolerance. Clarifying the dynamic changes of root ion flow and resistance mechanism under salt stress can provide the theoretical support for improving the emergence, establishment, and development of peanut seedlings in saline-alkali land and the establishment of regulation technology.

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    Functional analysis of OsFLZ13, the gene encoding a small peptide zinc finger protein in rice
    ZHANG Li-Jie, ZHOU Hai-Yu, MUHAMMAD Zeshan, MUNSIF Ali Shad, YANG Ming-Chong, LI Bo, HAN Shi-Jian, ZHANG Cui-Cui, HU Li-Hua, WANG Ling-Qiang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 543-555.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32023
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    FCS-like zinc finger (FLZ) is a protein associated with plant growth and stress. At present, there are few reports on FLZ gene family analysis and functional studies in rice. In this study, TBtools were used to blast rice genome, and a total of 29 OsFLZ genes were identified. Their gene location, gene structure, motif and promoter sequences were analyzed. The relative expression level of FLZ genes in rice from CREP database showed that, OsFLZ13, a member of this family, was predominantly expressed in anthers before flowering. β-D-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays exhibited that OsFLZ13 began to express at stage 9 and gradually peaked at stage 14 of stamen development before flowering. Furthermore, two independent mutant lines, namely Osflz13-1 and Osflz13-2, were obtained with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. Compared with the 94% seed-setting rate of wild type Zhonghua 11, the setting rates of Osflz13-1 and Osflz13-2 were reduced to 44% and 36%, respectively. This study throws light on the evolution of FLZ in planta and indicates the roles of OsFLZ13 in anthers development and pollen fertility, which will be beneficial further studies of its functions. Additionally, it provides a reference for exploring the function of the FLZ family and highlights its potential value for the utilization in male sterility systems in rice.

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    Cloning and functional analysis of sucrose transporter protein SsSWEET11 gene in sugarcane ( Saccharum spontaneum L.)
    DU Cui-Cui, WU Ming-Xing, ZHANG Ya-Ting, XIE Wan-Jie, ZHANG Ji-Sen, WANG Heng-Bo
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2385-2397.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24232
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    SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins are widely involved in the physiological and biochemical processes of plant growth and development and response to pathogen stress by regulating the transportation, distribution, transformation, and storage of sugar in plants. This study revealed the biological function of SWEET genes in the growth and development of sugarcane and its interaction with red stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa). Firstly, based on the PacBio full-length transcriptome cDNA library of S. spontaneum SES208 and comparative genomics, the specific primers were designed according to the re-annotated SsSWEET11 gene sequence. The full-length sequence was mined from the cDNA library by quantitative RT-PCR technology. The characteristics of the SWEET proteins were analyzed using various biological information tools, and the SWEET proteins from some plants were constructed a phylogenetic tree. Secondly, RT-qPCR detected the relative expressions of the SsSWEET11 gene with different tissues and two cultivars, ROC22 (resistant to red stripe) and MT11-610 (susceptible to red stripe). Finally, transient overexpression and subcellular localization performed the function of the SsSWEET11 gene. The results showed that the full-length cDNA sequence of the SsSWEET11 gene (GenBank accession number: OP554214) was cloned from S. spontaneum SES208, with an open reading frame of 927 bp and encoding 308 amino acid residues, which contained two MtN3_saliva domains and seven transmembrane domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SWEET protein family could be divided into four subfamilies, and SsSWEET11 belonged to subfamily III. The amino acid sequence similarity between SsSWEET11 and SbSWEET11 protein from sorghum is 97.99%. qRT-PCR demonstrated that the SsSWEET11 gene was constitutively expressed in different tissues of S. spontaneum and the relative expression level in leaves and roots was significantly higher than that in other tissues. Under the stress of Aaa, the SsSWEET11 gene presented a different expression pattern between sugarcane cultivars (ROC22) and (MT11-610) and was significantly reduced in the resistant sugarcane cultivar compared with the blank control. However, the expression of ShSWEET11 was significantly up-regulated in the susceptible sugarcane cultivar after 48 hours post-inoculation (hpi) and 72 hpi, which were 5.90 times and 5.43 times higher than the control, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that the SsSWEET11-GFP fusion protein was located in the plasma membrane. After transiently overexpression of the SsSWEET11 gene for one day, the color of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves remained unchanged by DAB staining, and seven days after inoculation with Pseudomonas solanacearum, and Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, the incidence of transient overexpression of ShSWEET11 gene in N. benthamiana leaves were more susceptible than that of the control. Allergic reaction-related genes, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid metabolism pathway-related genes were up-regulated, but ethylene pathway-related genes did not respond, suggesting that the SsSWEET11 gene is involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signal transduction pathways, and the infection of N. benthamiana leaves by pathogens can induce an allergic reaction. These results not only provided an accumulation for the development of molecular markers associated with sugarcane resistance to Aaa but also laid a foundation for in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanism in sugarcane in response to Aaa infection.

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    Effects of water and nitrogen application on root characteristics and nitrogen utilization in winter wheat
    LIU Shi-Jie, YANG Xi-Wen, MA Geng, FENG Hao-Xiang, HAN Zhi-Dong, HAN Xiao-Jie, ZHANG Xiao-Yan, HE De-Xian, MA Dong-Yun, XIE Ying-Xin, WANG Li-Fang, WANG Chen-Yang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2296-2307.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21051
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    The morphological and physiological characteristics of the root system determine the ability of a plant to obtain nutrients and water. In winter wheat, to building a sensible root population structure, coordinating root-shoot growth, and improving the efficiency of N fertilizer utilization, root morphological characteristic and root activity in response to water and nitrogen (N) and their relationships with dry matter accumulation in shoots, yield, and N utilization were analyzed. A field experiment was conducted using split-plot on design two factors. Two main levels of water supply, W0 (no irrigation during the whole growth period) and W1 (irrigation once each at the jointing and flowering stages), and three secondary levels of N application [N0 (0 kg hm-2), N180 (180 kg hm-2), and N300 (300 kg hm-2)] were set. Compared with W0, W1 inhibited the increase of root length density but increased the root average diameter in the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers, increased root surface area and root dry weight density in the 0-20 cm soil layer, significantly increased root activity by 4.98%-22.7%, reduced root-shoot ratio by 1.47%-11.25%, and yield, N uptake efficiency, and partial productivity of N fertilizer increased by 15.50%, 13.40%, and 14.91%, respectively. Compared with N0, N application promoted root growth, significantly increased the average root diameter, root length density, root surface area, root dry weight density, and root activity, while decreasing the root-shoot ratio. N180 was more beneficial to root growth than N300, N180 improved root morphological indicators and activity, while increasing yield, N uptake efficiency and agronomic use efficiency of N fertilizer by 2.53%, 44.51%, and 39.37%, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that root dry weight density from jointing stage to flowering stages was positively correlated with the yield and N use efficiency, while the root-shoot ratio was negatively correlated with yield and positively correlated with N use efficiency. Therefore, appropriate levels of irrigation and N application optimized root morphology and distribution, improved root activity, coordinated root and shoot dry matter distribution and improved yield and N utilization. In winter wheat production, W1N180 is beneficial to promote the synergistic improvement of yield and N use efficiency.

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    Cloning, expression, and functional analysis of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) TaSPX1 gene in low nitrogen stress tolerance
    ZHANG Bao-Hua, LIU Jia-Jing, TIAN Xiao, TIAN Xu-Zhao, DONG Kuo, WU Yu-Jie, XIAO Kai, LI Xiao-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 576-589.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31025
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    The SPX gene family includes four subgroups: SPX, SPX-EXS, SPX-MFS, and SPX-RING, which play an important role in phosphate signal response, but so far, little is known about the functions of this family in wheat. Previously, we identified a gene TaSPX1 (GenBank No. Ak332300), belonged to SPX subfamily from wheat (Triticum aestivum). Subcellular localization analysis showed that it targeted onto nucleus. Phylogenetic tree of TaSPX1 and its homologous proteins from the wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice SPX families showed that it was closely related to OsSPX1, a member of rice SPX subfamily. The relative expression level of TaSPX1 significantly increased under low nitrogen (low-N) stress when investigated by RT-qPCR. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) overexpression lines were generated. Using the culture methods of Murashige & Skoog (MS) hydroponic solution, the phenotype of WT and OE under low-N stress treatment was investigated. We found that the plants of OE3 and OE4, two OE lines overexpressing TaSPX1, displayed increased growth vigor and leaf area, together with the enhanced plant fresh weight and root weight, and elevated photosynthetic parameters including photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr), along with the increased contents of nitrogen, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and chlorophyll content upon low-N stress with respect to WT. Studies on transport and assimilation related parameters showed that under low-N stress, the relative expression level of some related genes and the activities of nitrogen assimilation-related enzymes were increased. Assays on the SOD, POD, and CAT, the enzymes functional as cellular protector, revealed the higher activities of them in OE plants than those in WT. On the contrary, MDA content was decreased. Further RT-qPCR analysis indicated the expression levels of several protection enzymes mentioned above were higher in OE plants than those of WT under low-N stress. Therefore, TaSPX1 played an important role in mediating plant resistance to low-N stress by improving photosynthetic parameters, enhancing nitrogen absorption and transport, and strengthening the protective enzyme system. The results enrich new understanding on the function of wheat SPX family members involved in abiotic stress, and provide a theoretical basis for genetic improvement of crops against low-N stress.

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    Knockout of GmBADH1 gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technique to reduce salt tolerance in soybean
    SHI Yu-Xin, LIU Xin-Yue, SUN Jian-Qiang, LI Xiao-Fei, GUO Xiao-Yang, ZHOU Ya, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 100-109.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34056
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    Functional identification of salt-tolerant genes is crucial for the improvement of soybean varieties and the development and utilization of saline-alkali land. Under salt stress, crops reduce the effect of salt damage on crop yield by synthesizing and accumulating betaine as osmotic protective agent. BADH gene is been proved to regulate plant response to stress in many plants, but the regulation mechanism in soybean is not clear. In this study, GmBADH1 gene was cloned, and qRT-PCR showed that the gene was expressed stems and leaves, especially in roots. The expression vector constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 system was transferred into soybean variety JACK by Agrobacterium-mediated soybean genetic transformation technology, and three targeted mutations that could regulate the salt tolerance of soybean were produced. They all occurred in the coding region, which had three difference of deletion 19 bp, insertion 1 bp, and insertion 9 bp to replace 2 bp. The first two, premature termination codons, resulting in truncated BADH1 protein, the latter occurred frameshift mutation. The mutant homozygous plants were treated with salt at the emergence stage and seedling stage, respectively. The results showed that the salt tolerance of the mutant homozygous plants was significantly lower than that of the wild type at seedling stage, and there was no significant difference compared with the wild type at seeding stage, which indicating that GmBADH1 gene may mainly regulate the salt tolerance of seedling stage. This study provides a basis for further excavation of soybean salt-tolerant genes and cultivation of soybean salt-tolerant varieties.

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    Mining maize flowering traits related candidate genes based on GWAS and WGCNA data
    QIAN Fu, ZHANG Zhan-Qin, CHEN Shu-Bin, DING Yong-Fu, SANG Zhi-Qin, LI Wei-Hua
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (12): 3261-3276.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.33010
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    The flowering time is one of the important traits in maize. It is of great significance to analyze the genetic basis and to mine the key core genes in flowering for maize varieties with wide adaptability. A natural population consisting of 580 maize inbred lines were planted for three years, to determine the three flowering traits (including days to anthesis, days to silking, and anthesis silking interval). Genome-wide association analysis was conducted using 31,826 SNPs distributed throughout the whole genome. Combined with transcriptome data of 14 different developmental stages of inbred line B73, weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed to select tissue specific modules and key genes related to maize flowering time. A total of 14 SNPs for four flower traits under multiple environments and 10 potential candidate genes were mined by GWAS, WGCNA was used to mine 17 potential candidate genes in flowering time, three candidate genes were jointly mined by both approaches. Zm00001d052180 encodes a MADS box transcription factor 19, Zm00001d016814 encodes the NAC transcription factor 133, Zm00001d048082 encodes MADS box transcription factor 8, mainly involved in regulating inflorescence growth and development, which has certain research value and significance. These results provide a reference for the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms of flowering time related traits in maize.

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    Response of maize transcriptional factor ZmEREB211 to abiotic stress
    AI Rong, ZHANG Chun, YUE Man-Fang, ZOU Hua-Wen, WU Zhong-Yi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2433-2445.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23071
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    AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) transcription factor is one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, which plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development and responding to various stresses. Exploring the function of AP2/ERF family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) will provide the important genetic resources for the creation of new maize germplasm. In this study, ZmEREB211 (Gene ID: 103647485) gene was cloned and its basic characteristics, tissue expression characteristics, and the relative expression patterns in response to stress were analyzed by bioinformatics and qRT-PCR. The transgenic Arabidopsis lines were subjected to corresponding stress treatment and phenotypic identification. The results showed that the gene contained only one exon and the full-length cDNA was 792 bp which encoding 263 amino acids. The ZmEREB211 protein had a molecular weight of 27.9 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.01. It had a conserved domain unique to the AP2/ERF family. The relative expression level of ZmEREB211 gene was the highest in maize root system and the relative expression level in young roots was higher than mature roots. At the same time, the gene had different degrees of induced expression under dehydration, high salt, drought, and low temperature treatment conditions. On 1/2 MS medium containing different concentrations of NaCl, mannitol, and jasmonic acid (JA), root length of ZmEREB211 transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly longer than wild type. Under drought and high salt treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis lines had stronger tolerance than wild type, and the number of green leaves at seedling stage was significantly higher than wild type and the peroxidase (POD) activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher than wild type. ZmEREB211 may be involved in the regulation of root growth and development in maize, and can play a positive regulatory role in high salt, drought, osmotic stress, and JA hormone treatments. This study provides an important reference for further analysis of the biological function of ZmEREB211 in maize.

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    Comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ‘ROC’ sugarcane parents for exploring genes involved in Sporisorium scitamineum infection by using Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq
    HU Xin, LUO Zheng-Ying, LI Chun-Jia, WU Zhuan-Di, LI Xu-Juan, LIU Xin-Long
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2412-2432.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24228
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    Sugarcane smut, caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum, is the most challenging disease of sugarcane, causing significant losses in cane yield. There is a dearth of information on smut resistance mechanism in elite parents for the development of smut-resistant varieties. In the present study, we adopted joint Illumina- and Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT)-based RNA-seq analysis to identify transcript expression in an smut-resistant and -susceptible parents (ROC25 and ROC22) infected with S. scitamineum. A total of 79,885 high-quality transcripts was obtained, including 60,115 open reading frames, 3692 alternate splicing isoforms, 1799 long non-coding RNAs, 29,139 simple sequence repeats, and 7794 transcription factors. About 92.72% of the total transcripts were annotated, which should have increased the available data amount for transcriptome profile analysis. There were 2033 and 9716 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in ROC22 and ROC25, respectively. The analyses of GO and KEGG enrichment showed that more GO terms and KEGG pathways were observed in ROC25 than ROC22. It was found that MAPK signalling pathway-plant, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, linoleic acid metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism were enriched both in resistant and susceptible parents. In addition, MAPK superfamily genes were differentially regulated in different parents, more DETs of MEKK1 and MKK4 were detected in resistant parent, and the relative expression levels of MKK5, MPK10, and MPK12 genes were specifically altered in resistant parent. It suggested that MAPK superfamily genes might play the important roles in the regulation of sugarcane response to S. scitamineum infection. Moreover, lots of transcription factors (TFs) associated with plant disease resistance were found to respond to S. scitamineum infection in both ROC22 and ROC25 parents, including WRKY, MYB, NAC, and AP2/ERF-ERF. Majority of the TFs were up-regulated. Compared to the susceptible ROC22 parent, the number of activated transcription factors in the resistant ROC25 parent was higher, indicating that these extra TFs might have positive effects in the defense against S. scitamineum. This study provides a comprehensive set of reference transcripts for sugarcane and thus increases our understanding on the interactions between sugarcane and S. scitamineum, which should be helpful in guiding on exploitation and utilization of smut-resistance gene resources.

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    Effects of salinity stress on grain-filling characteristics and yield of rice
    WEI Huan-He, ZHANG Xiang, ZHU Wang, GENG Xiao-Yu, MA Wei-Yi, ZUO Bo-Yuan, MENG Tian-Yao, GAO Ping-Lei, CHEN Ying-Long, XU Ke, DAI Qi-Gen
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 734-746.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32021
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    To investigate the effect of salinity stress on grain-filling and yield of rice, the conventional japonica rice Nanjing 9108 and Huaidao 5 which were widely planted in saline alkali soil of Jiangsu province were used as the experimental materials. The treatments including the control (CK, 0 salt concentration), medium-salinity (medium-salinity, MS, 0.15% salt concentration), and high salt (high salinity, 0.3% salt concentration) were set. The results showed that, compared with the CK: (1) MS and HS both significantly reduced rice grain yield by 26.3% and 57.7% (average of the two cultivars), respectively. The number of panicles, spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentage, and 1000-grain weight were all significantly decreased under salinity stress. (2) Salinity stress significantly reduced rice panicle length, the number of superior and inferior grains per panicle, filled-grain percentage, and 1000-grain weight. The decreases in filled-grain percentage and 1000-grain weight of superior grains per panicle under salinity stress were lower than those of inferior grains. (3) Salinity stress significantly reduced the dry matter weight of plants at heading and maturity stages, and the dry matter accumulation from heading to maturity, while increased the harvest index. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value at 15 and 30 days after heading of rice leaves under salinity stress were significantly lower than CK. (4) Salinity stress reduced the maximum and mean grain-filling rates of grains during grain-filling period, while the time to achieve the maximum grain-filling rate and effective grain-filling duration of grains increased. Salinity stress increased the days at the first, middle, and late stages during grain-filling period for superior and inferior grains, while the mean grain-filling rate and grain filling amount significantly decreased at the first, middle, and late stages during grain-filling period. The decrease in grain filling amount of superior grains at the first, middle, and late stages during grain-filling period was lower than that of inferior grains. (5) Salinity stress significantly decreased activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthases (SSS), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzymes (SBE), and the decrease was greater in inferior grains than superior grains. In conclusion, the grain-filling days for superior and inferior grains increased under salinity stress, but the decrease in grain filling rate and activities of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis was greater, resulting in a significant deterioration in grain filling traits and a significant decrease in grain weight and yield. The inhibitory effects of salinity stress on grain-filling rate and grain filling amount of inferior grains were higher than those of superior grains.

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    Effects of exogenous trehalose on physiological characteristics and yield of wheat flag leaves under high temperature stress at grain filling stage
    LI Yu-Xing, MA Liang-Liang, ZHANG Yue, QIN Bo-Ya, ZHANG Wen-Jing, MA Shang-Yu, HUANG Zheng-Lai, FAN Yong-Hui
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2210-2224.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21057
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    In order to investigate the effect of exogenous trehalose (TRE) on the physiological characteristics and yield of flag leaves of wheat varieties with different tolerance under high temperature stress during grain filling period, the experiments were conducted in the high-tech agricultural park of Anhui Agricultural University from 2020 to 2022. The sensitive wheat varieties Fanmai 5 (FM5) and heat-resistant wheat varieties Huaimai 33 (HM33) with significant difference in heat resistance were selected as the experimental materials, there were five treatments of spraying water + non high temperature (CK1), water + high temperature stress (CK2), 10 mmol L-1 trehalose + high temperature stress (T10H), 15 mmol L-1 trehalose + high temperature stress (T15H), and 20 mmol L-1 trehalose + high temperature stress (T20H) on the leaf surface. The results showed that under high temperature stress conditions, compared to non-high temperature adversity, the green leaf area, chlorophyll relative content (SPAD), and dry matter accumulation were significantly decreased, wheat yield was significantly reduced, spike number, and spike grain number did not change significantly, and 1000-grain weight was the dominant factor in yield reduction. Compared to water spraying, the yield after spraying trehalose was higher than that under high temperature stress, the accumulation of dry matter in various organs was increased, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were increased, and the range of change was different among varieties. The decrease of SPAD value of heat-resistant varieties was smaller than that of malondialdehyde, but the increase of CAT activity was larger, indicating the production reduction was small. Further analysis showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), SPAD, SOD, and POD had an extremely significant positive correlation with 1000-grain weight, while MDA had an extremely significant negative correlation with yield. These results suggested that high temperature stress inhibited photosynthesis in wheat by reducing Pn, Gs, and Tr, decreasing photosynthetic product production and causing eventual yield reduction. Spraying TRE, Pn, Gs, Tr, SPAD, and CAT were the main indicators to reduce the injury caused by high temperature stress, and the mitigation effect of sensitive varieties was obvious. In addition, the effect of spraying 15 mmol L-1 trehalose at flowering stage was the best. The results could provide a theoretical basis for the mechanism of wheat photosynthetic response difference and wheat antioxidant metabolism under high temperature stress during trehalose filling stage.

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    Genome-wide association analysis of morphological traits of flag leaf in wheat
    WANG Rui, REN Yi, CHENG Yu-Kun, WANG Wei, ZHANG Zhi-Hui, GENG Hong-Wei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (11): 2886-2901.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21085
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    The flag leaf of wheat is the primary functional leaf for photosynthesis and contributes significantly to yield. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the genetic process of flag leaf morphology and identify the candidate genes for flag leaf morphology-related features. We combined 90K SNP gene chips and 300 wheat varieties (lines) for genome-wide association analysis of flag leaf length, width, and area under normal irrigation (NI), and drought stress (DS) conditions in five environments. The results showed that flag leaf length, width, and area exhibited significant differences between the two moisture treatments and displayed rich phenotypic variation with the coefficients of variation ranging from 0.07-0.23 in different environments (P<0.05). Moreover, genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed that a total of 37 stable genetic loci were significantly associated with flag leaf length, width, and area. These loci were distributed on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3D, 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B, with individual SNP loci explaining 3.70%-9.05% of the genetic variation, including 22 stable genetic loci detected under normal irrigation and 15 stable genetic loci detected under drought stress. Eight stable genetic loci at the same time detected under both water treatments were discovered on chromosomes 2B, 3A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 7B, while the five stable genetic loci related by several traits were simultaneously detected on chromosomes 2B, 3A, 6A, and 7A. By analyzing haplotypes at markers with stable inheritance and high contribution, it was found that the Kukri_c1406_275 (R2=9.05%) marker was significantly associated with flag leaf length, with three haplotypes of FLL-Hap1, FLL-Hap2, and FLL-Hap3, and the wsnp_bq170165A_Ta_1_1 (R2=7.88%) marker was also detected in three haplotypes, FLA-Hap1, FLA-Hap2, and FLA-Hap3. In combination with phenotypic analysis, the flag leaf length of 300 winter wheat varieties (lines) containing FLL-Hap1 (77.78% frequency of occurrence) or FLL-Hap2 (18.89%) haplotypes was significantly higher than that of FLL-Hap3 (3.33%) haplotypes. The flag leaf area was significantly higher in haplotypes containing FLA-Hap1 (48.19%) than in haplotypes containing FLA-Hap2 (30.80%) or FLA-Hap3 (21.01%) (P<0.05). Different haplotypes were distributed differently in different winter wheat varieties (lines). Haplotype FLL-Hap1 was more frequently distributed in foreign varieties (lines), while haplotypes FLL-Hap2 and FLL-Hap3 were more frequently distributed in the northern winter wheat region and the southwestern winter wheat region, respectively. Haplotypes FLA-Hap1 and FLA-Hap2 were more frequently distributed in the southwestern winter wheat region and the northern winter wheat region, respectively, while haplotypes FLA-Hap3 were no more frequently distributed in all winter wheat regions. Searching for stable genetic loci under both water treatments yielded and screening of five candidate genes associated with flag leaf morphology, which could be used as the important genes for flag leaf-related traits.

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    Effects of light intensity and nitrogen fertilizer interaction on carbon and nitrogen metabolism at grain-filling stage and its relationship with yield and quality of southern soft japonica rice
    CHEN Xin-Yi, ZHU Ying, MA Zhong-Tao, ZHANG Ming-Yue, WEI Hai-Yan, ZHANG Hong-Cheng, LIU Guo-Dong, HU Qun, LI Guang-Yan, XU Fang-Fu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (11): 3042-3062.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.22054
    Abstract321)   HTML35)    PDF(pc) (1970KB)(769)       Save

    Southern soft japonica rice Nanjing 9108 and Yangnongxiang 28 were selected as the experimental materials, and two light intensity treatments, and four nitrogen treatments were set. Light intensity treatments [100% natural light intensity (L1) and 50% natural light intensity (L2)] and four nitrogen treatments [no nitrogen fertilizer (N1) in the middle and late growth stages, one-time nitrogen fertilizer applied at the top sixth leaf stage (N2), one-time nitrogen fertilizer applied at the top fourth leaf stage (N3), and one-time nitrogen fertilizer applied at the top second leaf stage (N4)] were conducted at grain-filling stage. The difference of carbon and nitrogen metabolism at grain-filling stage and its effects on rice yield and quality under the conditions of different light intensity and nitrogen application period as well as light-nitrogen interaction conditions were investigated. The results showed that with the decrease of light intensity at grain-filling stage the net photosynthetic rate of flag leaf decreased by 7.35%-42.36% on average, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SS) had low activity, the C/N ratio of leaves decreased by 3.98-6.49, the transportation of photosynthetic products to grains decreased, and the content of grain starch (including amylose) decreased. Meanwhile, the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) increased, plant nitrogen concentration increased, and the accumulation of protein increased relatively, which were not conducive to the formation of yield and good quality. After the application of nitrogen fertilizer at the middle and late growth stages, the activities of key enzyme in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in leaves were significantly increased, the aging of leaves was slowed down, and the grain-filling period of rice was prolonged, which were conducive to the increase of yield. With the delay of nitrogen fertilizer application period, nitrogen metabolism became more vigorous, and the protein content in grain had a relative significant increase, resulting in the decrease of the ratio of starch to protein and the ratio of amylose to protein, and the decrease of taste value. Under the experimental condition, normal light intensity combined with nitrogen fertilizer treatment (L1-N3) at the top fourth leaf stage synergistically improved the activities of key enzymes of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in leaves, thus the photosynthetic products and nitrogen-containing compounds were transported to grains in the appropriate proportions. Ultimately, the ratio of starch to protein in grain ranged from 11.43 to 12.03, and the ratio of amylose to protein ranged from 1.34 to 1.50, the rice had low hardness, high viscosity, and balance as well as good taste, high yield, and excellent quality could be obtained simultaneously.

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    Relative expression patterns of laccase gene family members in upland Gossypium hirsutum L.
    ZUO Chun-Yang, LI Ya-Wei, LI Yan-Long, JIN Shuang-Xia, ZHU Long-Fu, ZHANG Xian-Long, MIN Ling
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2344-2361.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24246
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    Laccase, a member of the blue copper oxidase protein family, plays an important role in plant lignin synthesis and improving plant resistance to stress. In this study, 104 members of the Laccase gene (GhLAC) family were identified from the upland cotton genome. Phylogenetic tree and tissue expression map were constructed. Twenty genes were randomly selected for qRT-PCR analysis to verify the results of expression heat map. To further explore the role of laccase in cotton, promoter-GUS fusion vectors were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The detailed expression patterns of six members of the Laccase gene family (GhLAC12A, GhLAC14A, GhLAC20A, GhLAC25D, GhLAC59D, and GhLAC63D) were studied by GUS staining in different tissues during different developmental period of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. To explore the role of laccase in stress, the expression of the six laccase genes was analyzed by cutting and piercing, and the corresponding genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR using the anther of two cotton strains ‘84021’ (high temperature tolerant) and ‘H05’ (high temperature sensitive) at different stages under normal and high temperature conditions. The results showed that 20 randomly selected genes were differentially expressed in six tissues of root, stem, leaf, petal, anther, and stigma, and the relative expression levels of most genes were consistent with the transcriptome data. The promoter of six laccase genes could drive GUS gene expression in different levels at germination, two-leaf, and four-leaf stages. The trauma treatment indicated that the promoter of GhLAC12A and GhLAC14A significantly improved the ability to drive GUS protein expression in leaves after trauma induction, suggesting that the two genes might be involved in traumatic stress response. In addition, the relative expression levels of the six GhLACs genes were significantly down-regulated after high temperature stress at the tetrad stage and anther dehiscence stage of cotton strain ‘84021’, suggesting GhLACs gene might negatively regulate the high temperature tolerance of cotton anthers. The results of this study provide the reference for further exploring the function of laccase family genes.

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    Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of 378 introduced sweetpotato germplasm collections
    SU Yi-Jun, ZHAO Lu-Kuan, TANG Fen, DAI Xi-Bin, SUN Ya-Wei, ZHOU Zhi-Lin, LIU Ya-Ju, CAO Qing-He
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2582-2593.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24195
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    Sweetpotato is originated from South and Central America, and the introduction of foreign species can not only increase the total quantity amount of germplasm resources of China, but also dramatically change the breeding bottleneck of sweetpotato with narrow genetic base. In this study, 378 sweetpotato germplasm collections from the national sweetpotato in vitro Genebank in Xuzhou were genotyped using 30 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers by high-throughput nucleic acid fragment analyzer. Phylogenetic affinities among the introduced sweetpotato germplasm were analyzed to provide a theoretical basis for sweetpotato germplasm innovation and utilization. The bands were read using PROSize 3.0 software to establish the 01 database. The 01 database were imported into Darwin software to calculate Jaccard genetic distance matrix, clustered analysis of genetic distance matrix using MEGA 10, and then annotated with iTOL. Population structure of sweetpotato germplasm was constructed using Structure 2.3.4. The results showed that a total of 120 polymorphic loci were amplified in 378 sweetpotato germplasm, with an average of four polymorphic loci per primer pair. The genetic distance matrix revealed that the average genetic distance was 0.4027, the maximum genetic distance was 0.6207 and the minimum genetic distance was 0.0448. Clustering analysis of 378 sweetpotato germplasm were divided into three groups in 0.2960 genetic distance. Group I, II, and III contained 29, 104, and 245 collections, respectively. Population structure analysis indicated two clades were identified base on the largest value at ΔK=2. Clade II (95.4%) was dominated by newly introduced germplasm after 2015, indicating that the newly introduced germplasm enriched the genetic diversity of sweetpotato collections and broadening the population structure in the original resource base. Therefore, the genetic diversity and population structure analysis of 378 introduced sweetpotato germplasm can provide a reference for sweetpotato germplasm innovation, genetic breeding, and elite alleles mining and utilization.

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    Mutation effects of OsCDF1 gene and its genomic variations in rice
    HU Yan-Juan, XUE Dan, GENG Di, ZHU Mo, WANG Tian-Qiong, WANG Xiao-Xue
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2362-2372.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.22062
    Abstract317)   HTML55)    PDF(pc) (10411KB)(279)       Save

    Flowering time (heading date) affects yield, quality, and regional adaptability of rice. The Cycling DOF Factor 1 (CDF1) protein is a transcriptional repressor of CONSTANS (CO) and negatively regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of OsCDF1 in rice is not quite clear. To explore the biological functions of OsCDF1 and its effects on flowering time control in rice, we constructed two binary vectors carrying guide RNAs targeting OsCDF1 gene via CRISPR/Cas9 system. The resultant plasmids were transferred into SN9816 which was the variety widely cultivated in northern China by using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the mutations of OsCDF1 was firstly generated in SN9816. The flowering time and yield related traits of SN9816 and oscdf1 mutants were investigated in the paddy field. The main results were as follows: Two homozygous oscdf1 lines were identified, including a five bp deletion at 16th bp of the first exon and a single base pair A insertion at 338th bp of the second exon. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the two types of mutations resulted in frame-shift and premature translation termination. Mutations of OsCDF1 delayed flowering time, but increased yield under natural long day conditions in rice. Analysis of OsCDF1 genetic variations and haplotype networks revealed that the rice accessions had evolved high genomic diversity in OsCDF1 locus. The knockout mutants of OsCDF1 created by CRISPR/Cas9 provided the theoretical basis to further study the role of OsCDF1 gene in rice and the potential gene and germplasm resources for genetic improvement in rice.

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    Functional identification of maize transcription factor ZmMYB12 to enhance drought resistance and low phosphorus tolerance in plants
    WANG Li-Ping, WANG Xiao-Yu, FU Jing-Ye, WANG Qiang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 76-88.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33007
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    Maize usually suffers from various abiotic stresses such as drought, high temperature, high salt, and deficiency of nutrient elements during growth and development period, which will eventually lead to the decline of yield and quality, resulting in serious agricultural yield reduction. MYB transcription factors are widely distributed in plants and involved in the whole process of plant growth and development and environmental response. Therefore, the screening and identification of MYB transcription factors conferring stress resistance can provide the theoretical basis and technical support for genetic improvement in maize. In this study, a R2R3-MYB family transcription factor gene, ZmMYB12, was cloned from maize materials under drought treatment. This gene showed inducible expression in response to drought, ABA, and PEG treatments. Maize plants with virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of ZmMYB12 had higher sensitivity to drought and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as smaller roots. The survival rate of ZmMYB12 silencing plants was lower after re-watering than the wild type plants (WT), indicating that ZmMYB12 was a positive regulator of drought response. Overexpression of ZmMYB12 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in less ROS accumulation and more lateral roots than WT, thus elevating drought resistance. After low phosphorus stress, ZmMYB12 overexpression Arabidopsis had more lateral roots and stronger root system, as well as higher contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The content of inorganic phosphorus in ZmMYB12 overexpression Arabidopsis was also higher than WT. In conclusion, this study indicates that ZmMYB12 positively regulates drought response and increases the uptake and utilization of phosphorus in plants, providing an elite gene for maize breeding to increase abiotic resistance.

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    Identification and gene localization of a novel maize nuclear male sterility mutant ms6
    WANG Xing-Rong, ZHANG Yan-Jun, TU Qi-Qi, GONG Dian-Ming, QIU Fa-Zhan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2077-2087.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23062
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    The localization, cloning, and functional mechanism research of male sterility genes can not only deepen our understanding of the molecular regulation mechanism of male flower growth and development, but also effectively promote the development of male sterility technology system and its application in maize breeding and seed production in maize. In this study, maize inbred line Mo17 was used as the wild-type background material, and a maize male sterile mutant, named male sterile 6 (ms6), was obtained by EMS mutagenesis. Phenotypic identification of ms6 mutant plants showed that they could perform normal tasseling, but the male flower glume could not dehiscence and powder could not disperse normally, and the pollen grains were dry, indicating pollen free sterility. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences between ms6 and Mo17 wild type (WT) in plant architecture, ear-related traits, kernel size, and other related traits, demonstrating that the ms6 gene only affected plant fertility, but did not affect other agronomic traits. Cytological observation revealed that the microspore of ms6 mutant was abnormal at the late stage of microspore development, which showed that tapetal cells were degenerated in advance, and the microspore could not undergo mitosis and gradually split. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the anther epidermis of mutant ms6 were shrunk, and there was no intact pollen or ubisch on the inner surface of anther locule. Genetic analysis revealed that the ms6 phenotype was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear genes. Combined with phenotypic and genotypic linkage analysis, ms6 was initially located between C6-19 and C6-30 on maize chromosome 6 by using the ms6 × B73 F2 genetic mapping population and about 200 pairs of polymorphic SSR markers in the whole genome, and 10 pairs of newly developed polymorphic markers in the interval were further used. Finally, ms6 was located within the interval of about 480 kb between M13-M14. Gene mapping located the mutation site into a 480 kb interval between M13 and M14. Zm00001d035201 was preliminarily identified as the key candidate gene of ms6 by RNA-Seq combined with qRT-PCR. Zm00001d035201 encoded an acid ribosomal protein. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the function of ms6 gene. Meanwhile, as a novel male sterile mutant, ms6 also provides the important material support for the production and application of new maize genetic sterile genes in the future.

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    Effects of interaction of nitrogen level and sowing rate on yield, growth, and ecological field characteristics of winter wheat
    ZHOU Qi, LI Lan-Tao, ZHANG Lu-Lu, MIAO Yu-Hong, WANG Yi-Lun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (11): 3100-3109.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21070
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    The objective of this study is to study the effects of different nitrogen level and sowing rate on the yield, growth and development, and ecological field characteristics of winter wheat, to explore the relationships between the wheat population competitiveness and its yield based on the ecological field theory, and to find a balance between nitrogen level and sowing dates for high yield and high efficiency in winter wheat. Field experiments were established as a split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 kg hm-2) and four sowing rates (135, 180, 225, and 270 kg hm-2) from 2020 to 2022 at Wen County, Henan Province. The grain yield, nitrogen accumulation, growth and development indexes (i.e., plant height, crown width, and tillering) were measured and calculated for the aforementioned treatments. Results showed that the optimal sowing rate were both 225 kg hm-2 for the two growing seasons, and the correspondingly nitrogen rates were 270 kg hm-2 and 180 kg hm-2, respectively, which achieving the highest grain yield. Compared to the other treatments, the yield increased by 7.5% and 18.1% with the optimal nitrogen and sowing rate treatment combinations. Moreover, nitrogen accumulation increased by 57.3% for nitrogen application treatments, and the potential energy of growth was increased by 72.7%. However, the tillering increased by 34.7%, and the development level per plant decreased with the sowing rates increased, the potential energy of growth decreased by 11.4%. Plant height and crown width were also significantly influenced by nitrogen level and the sowing rate. Compared to the 135 kg hm-2 sowing rate and without nitrogen, the scope of ecological field increased by 23.0% in the other treatments. The relationship between winter wheat population ecological field area and yield was a quadratic function. When nitrogen was applied and seeding rate was increased, the population ecological field area of winter wheat increased by 116.7% and 52.5%, respectively. The appropriate N level and sowing rate in winter wheat for improved growth, yield, and ecological field characteristics in the experimental area was 239.8 kg N hm-2 and 228.7 kg hm-2, respectively, which could be extended to the application in the northern of Henan.

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    Genome-wide identification of the HAK/KUP/KT potassium transporter family in foxtail millet and its response to K + deficiency and high salt stress
    DAI Shu-Tao, ZHU Can-Can, MA Xiao-Qian, QIN Na, SONG Ying-Hui, WEI Xin, WANG Chun-Yi, LI Jun-Xia
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2105-2121.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24194
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    KT/HAK/KUP (HAK) family is the most abundant potassium (K+) transporter family in plants, which plays important roles in plant growth and environmental adaptation. Foxtail millet (Setaria italic L. Beauv) is a model plant for studies on stress resistance mechanisms. However, the HAK family has not yet been well characterized in foxtail millet. In this study, 29 Setaria italic HAK genes (SiHAKs) were identified based on genome-wide sequence information, and the basic characteristics, protein structure, chromosome location, gene replication, expression pattern, and responses to stress were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed as followes: (1) SiHAKs were divided into five phylogenetic clusters (Cluster I-Cluster V), containing 11, 9, 3, 3 and 3 members, respectively. Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that SiHAKs was high conserved, and the conservatisms were as follows: Cluster III = Cluster V > Cluster II > Cluster I > Cluster IV. (2) Tandem replication was the main contribution to the amplification of SiHAKs. 15 SiHAKs were located in tandem replication. (3) 171 transcription factors, including a large number of members of ERF, NAC, MYB and WRKY families, may bind to the promoter sequences of SiHAKs, which may confer SiHAKs diverse response mechanisms to abiotic stress. (4) SiHAKs were divided into three groups (Group I, Group II, and Group III) by gene expression Cluster Ing. The relative expression patterns of most SiHAKs were consistent in the two varieties (Zhanggu and Yugu 1). The relative expression levels of SiHAKs from the five clusters were generally as follows: Cluster III > Cluster V > Cluster II > Cluster I> Cluster IV. (5) Eleven SiHAKs with high expression levels in root were selected to detect the responses to low K+ and high salt stress. Under K+ deficiency treatment, eight SiHAKs were markedly upregulated in the expression levels, one SiHAK was significantly decreased, and two SiHAKs had no obvious changes. Under high salt stress, Three SiHAKs were significantly increased in the expression levels, two SiHAKs were significantly decreased, and the remaining six SiHAKs had no obvious changes. Remarkably, SiHAK15 had the strongest response to K+ deficiency and high salt stress, its expression level was 151 times and 22 times of the control, respectively. (6) The differences of gene expression profiles reflected the function differences among SiHAKs from different clusters. SiHAKs from Cluster I were mainly expressed in root, implying their important roles in K+ absorption in root. SiHAKs from Cluster II generally had no tissue-specific expression characteristics, and might be involved in many biological processes, such as K+ absorption and transport, plant growth and development. SiHAKs from Cluster III were upregulated by K+ deficiency and high salt stress, inferring their potential roles in maintaining K+/Na+ balance and resisting salt stress. SiHAKs from Cluster IV were almost undetectable in gene expression in the tested tissues. SiHAKs from Cluster V had different responses to K+ deficiency and high salt stresses. Some of them were upregulated in gene expression, while others were inhibited, thus indicating that the members from Cluster V were functionally differentiated. This results not only provide the foundation for further functional studies of SiHAKs, but also provide the valuable guidance for the study of K+ efficient utilization and salt tolerance mechanism in plants.

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    RT-PCR cloning and functional analysis of ScbHLH13 in sugarcane
    MO Guang-Ling, YU Chen-Jing, LIANG Yan-Lan, ZHOU Ding-Gang, LUO Jun, WANG Mo, QUE You-Xiong, HUANG Ning, LING Hui
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2485-2497.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24233
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    The transcription factors in bHLH family are important regulators in controlling plant growth and development, secondary metabolism, and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In this study, we successfully cloned ScbHLH13 using sorghum bHLH13 (XM_002440799.2) as the probe sequence by RT-PCR in sugarcane. Meanwhile, the physicochemical properties of the gene and its encoded protein were predicted. Phylogenetic relationship, subcellular localization, and the relative expression pattern of ScbHLH13 were investigated. ScbHLH13 contained 586 amino acids, and mainly consisted of random coils and α-helice. It was hydrophilic, unstable, and weakly basic. Moreover, ScbHLH13 had the typical nuclear localization signals and no transmembrane. The sequence contained two typical conserved domains, bHLH-MYC, and HLH, which belonged to the bHLH superfamily. Analysis of sugarcane transcriptomes under low nitrogen, and Sorghum mosaic virus, and Sporisorium scitamineum invasion revealed that the transcriptional levels of ScbHLH13 were altered in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. When transiently expressed in tobacco, ScbHLH13-YFP was observed in nuclei and on cell membrane, whereas it specifically localized in nuclei of sugarcane protoplasts. QRT-PCR assays showed that relative expression level of ScbHLH13 in sugarcane protoplasts could not induce transcription of the relative genes in anthocyanin synthesis and the metabolism pathway, suggesting that ScbHLH13 may not involve in anthocyanin biosynthesis and metabolism. In conclusion, this study explores the basic features and functions of ScbHLH13, which will be helpful for the future research on characterizing the biological roles of bHLH members in regulating sugarcane growth and defense.

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    Characterization and genetic analysis of a new allelic mutant of Miniature1 gene in maize
    WANG Juan, XU Xiang-Bo, ZHANG Mao-Lin, LIU Tie-Shan, XU Qian, DONG Rui, LIU Chun-Xiao, GUAN Hai-Ying, LIU Qiang, WANG Li-Ming, HE Chun-Mei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2088-2096.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23059
    Abstract308)   HTML40)    PDF(pc) (6073KB)(299)       Save

    Grain development is a key determinant for maize grain yield and quality, but the regulatory mechanisms have not been fully revealed. A maize mutant deficient in kernel development was found and selected in our field. The mutant exhibited an incomplete grain filling, reduced embryo and endosperm size, and shriveled mature grains and empty pericarp. Genetic analysis suggested that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. The candidate gene was preliminarily mapped to a 1.1 Mb interval on chromosome 2, and further a hAT transposon was inserted into the first exon of Miniature1 (Mn1) gene, which resulting in a frame-shift mutation and down-regulated expression of Mn1. The transposon insertion was fully linked to the defective kernel phenotype of the mutant, which was nominated as mn1-m2. Allelism test of mn1-m2 and mn1-89 suggested that mn1-m2 was a noval allelic mutant of Mn1 gene. In conclusion, we identified a new allelic mutant of Mn1 gene with different mutation site and type, which improved maize germplasm resources and provided new genetic materials for the analysis of the mechanism of Mn1 regulation on kernel development.

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    Effects of bandwidth and plant spacing on biomass accumulation and allocation and yield formation in strip intercropping soybean
    YUAN Xiao-Ting, WANG Tian, LUO Kai, LIU Shan-Shan, PENG Xin-Yue, YANG Li-Da, PU Tian, WANG Xiao-Chun, YANG Wen-Yu, YONG Tai-Wen
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 161-171.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34070
    Abstract307)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (523KB)(502)       Save

    Reasonable field configuration can improve crop growth environment and increase system yield in intercropping systems. To further improve the field configuration technology for high yield and efficiency in the soybean-maize strip intercropping system in Southwest China, the soybean-maize strip intercropping system was used as the research object, and two factor split zone design was adopted. The effects of two bandwidths of 2.0 m (B1) and 2.4 m (B2) and four plant spacings of 9 cm (P1), 11 cm (P2), 14 cm (P3), and 18 cm (P4) on soybean biomass accumulation, allocation, grain filling, and yield were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate of each plant spacing treatment under B2 bandwidth was higher than that of B1, and the two-year average increased by 14.26% compared with B1 under B2. At the same bandwidth, the net photosynthetic rate reached the maximum in B1P4 and B2P4, which increased by 13.57% and 25.21% compared with B1P1 and B2P1 at flowering stage, respectively. The biomass accumulation of soybean population increased and then decreased with the increase of plant spacing under the two bandwidths, and reached the maximum at B1P3 and B2P2, respectively, and B2 increased by 9.82%-22.08% compared with B1 at maturity stage. And the increase of bandwidth and plant spacing promoted the accumulation and transfer of soybean post-flowering matter to grain. Compared with B1, post-flowering dry matter accumulation and dry matter transfer increased by 13.82-28.01% and 13.38%-37.76% under B2 treatment, respectively, and the proportion of grain matter accumulation increased to 41.80%-44.26%. The increase of biomass accumulation improved the grain filling process, and the active grain-filling period (D) of soybean under B2 was extended by 2-3 days compared with B1. The mean grain-filling rate reached its maximum at P4 and increased by 5.80% and 6.58% compared with P1 under the two bandwidths. The yield results showed that, with the increase of bandwidth and plant spacing, the effective plants decreased, and the seeds per plan and 100-seed weight increased in the soybean-maize strip intercropping model. The soybean yield under B2 bandwidth increased by 22.32%-36.87% compared with B1, it reached the maximum in B1P3 and B2P2 under the two bandwidths, respectively, and increased by 17.83%-26.44% and 10.71%-10.76% compared with B1P1 and B2P1 for two years. In summary, the soybean plant spacing of 11 cm at the bandwidth of 2.4 m can effectively improve the post-flowering dry matter accumulation and allocation, promote grain filling, increase the number of seeds per plant and 100-seed weight, improve soybean population yield, and achieve the high yield and high efficiency in the soybean-maize intercropping system.

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    Mapping and cloning of plant height gene PHR1 in maize
    YANG Chen-Xi, ZHOU Wen-Qi, ZHOU Xiang-Yan, LIU Zhong-Xiang, ZHOU Yu-Qian, LIU Jie-Shan, YANG Yan-Zhong, HE Hai-Jun, WANG Xiao-Juan, LIAN Xiao-Rong, LI Yong-Sheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 55-66.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33011
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    Plant height is an important index for the ideal maize breeding, which not only affects the mechanical harvest of maize, but also closely relates to the lodging resistance and the biological yield of maize. In this study, a plant height reducing mutant-1 (phr-1) was obtained by using low-dose fast neutron (4.19 Gy) irradiation to mutate the maize inbred line KWS39 at the low ear position. Phenotypic traits were investigated and analyzed in the field, and candidate genes were identified by mining and functional annotation of genes in the target region based on the B73 reference genome using the extreme trait pool sequencing analysis (BSA-seq) and the method of target region recombination exchange identification with F2 segregation population of phr-1×B73. These results indicated that there might be a variation site in Bin1.06 interval on chromosome 1, and the target region was precisely located between two markers, Umc1122 and Umc1583a, with a 600 kb interval by using the large segregation population and polymorphic markers. Brachytic2 (BR2), encoding a sugar protein regulating the polar transport of auxin in maize stems, is a known gene controlling plant height in this region. The sequencing of candidate genes revealed that phr-1 was a new allelic mutation of br2-1, with a 165 bp insertion in the fourth exon of the BR2 gene resulting in the amino acid at position 547 changing to a stop codon and premature protein translation termination. The mutation site and variation mode of phr-1 were completely different from those of br2-1 single base mutation site. The allelic hybridization experiment confirmed that the PHR1 candidate gene is a new allelic mutation of the BR2 gene. This study provides new germplasm resources for maize BR2 gene in plant height genetic improvement.

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    Application of maize 6H-60K chip in identification of maize essentially derived varieties
    TIAN Hong-Li, ZHANG Ru-Yang, FAN Ya-Ming, YANG Yang, ZHANG Yun-Long, YI Hong-Mei, XING Jin-Feng, WANG Feng-Ge, ZHAO Jiu-Ran
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (11): 2876-2885.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23066
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    The identification of maize essentially derived variety has become the hot spot in the intellectual property protection of seed industry. In order to speed up the establishment of its accurate and efficient molecular identification technology, this article used multiple types of derived varieties as research materials: Jing 2416 and Jing 2416C (two inbred lines with highly similar genetic backgrounds), Jing 724 and Jing 72464 (two inbred lines with similar genetic backgrounds), as well as 893 DH lines of genetic population constructed by Jing 724 and Jing 72464. The study researched and analyzed the potential of maize 6H-60K chip including 61,214 SNPs in identification of maize essentially derived varieties. The results were as follows: (1) There were 829 SNPs differences between Jing 2416 and Jing 2416C, the GS value (genetic similarity) was 98.7%, and 56.7% of the difference loci were concentrated in the 39 Mb region of chromosome 5. (2) There were 4912 SNPs differences between Jing 724 and Jing 72464, the GS value was 90.1%, and 44.8% of the difference loci were concentrated on chromosome 3. (3) The distribution of genetic similarity values between 893 DH lines and two parents (Jing 724 and Jing 72464) was continuous. The GS value range between 893 DH lines and Jing 724 was 88.0%-97.0%, with an average of 92.6%. The GS value range between 893 DH lines and Jing 72464 was 88.3%-98.6%, with an average of 94.5%. (4) 893 DH lines were paired comparison, a total of 398,278 pairs were compared. There were specific SNP differences between all DH lines. The GS values of 893 DH lines in pairs ranged from 87.5% to 99.9%, with an average of 94.3%. Among them, the proportion of GS value ≥ 97.0% was 8.6%, and the proportion of GS value ≥ 99.0% was 1.3%. This study showed that maize 6H-60K SNP sets could accurately evaluate the genetic background of maize derived, similar or extremely similar inbred and DH lines, identify and distinguish all materials one by one, and had the potential to further lock the linkage markers of derived traits. It is suggested that the technical system for maize essentially derived variety molecular identification based on Maize6H-60K SNP sets using chip, genotyping by target sequencing (GBTS) and other platforms should be urgently established, so as to provide technical support for intellectual property protection and variety innovation of maize varieties.

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Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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