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    Research progress regarding the function and mechanism of rice AP2/ERF transcription factor in stress response
    CHEN Yue, SUN Ming-Zhe, JIA Bo-Wei, LENG Yue, SUN Xiao-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 781-790.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12026
    Abstract568)   HTML63)    PDF(pc) (277KB)(457)       Save

    AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor) is a family of plant specific transcription factors that are widely involved in various biological processes including plant growth and development and stress responses. Rice is an important food crop in China, but it is severely affected by multiple adverse environmental factors during growth period. It has been found that AP2/ERF transcription factors play important roles in stress response in rice. In this paper, we reviewed the classification and structure architecture of rice AP2/ERF transcription factors and summarized the function and molecular mechanism of different AP2/ERF subfamilies in rice response to disease, drought, saline, and low temperature stresses. This study provides a reference for further interpretation of the molecular network of rice AP2/ERFs-mediated regulatory network in stress responses and their application potential for stress resistance improvement of rice cultivars.

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    Contents and compositions of amino acids in rice grains and their regulation: a review
    YANG Jian-Chang, LI Chao-Qing, JIANG Yi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1037-1050.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12062
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    Amino acids in cereal grains are important nutrients for both human and animals. Increasing the content of amino acids in the rice grain, especially lysine and other essential amino acids, plays a very important role in improving the nutritional standard of people in the countries with rice as staple food. This paper reviewed some research progresses in the contents and compositions of amino acids in the mature grain of rice and their distribution in the different parts of a grain, the synthesis and metabolism of amino acids in the grain, the role of plant hormones in regulating the synthesis and metabolism of on amino acids, and the effects of environmental factors and cultivation practices on the contents and compositions of amino acids in the grain, and discussed the existing problems and key points for future research. It merits further investigating the temporal (at different filling stages) and spatial (at different parts of a grain) distribution characteristics of the contents and compositions of amino acids in a grain during the filling, their physiological and biochemical mechanism, and cultivation regulation and its principle. Such a study is expected to gain new insight into the mechanism in the formation and distributions of amino acids in a rice grain, and explore a new way to increase the contents of amino acids, especially essential amino acids such as lysine, in milled rice.

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    Enhancement of plant variety protection and regulation using molecular marker technology
    XU Yunbi, WANG Bing-Bing, ZAHNG Jian, ZHANG Jia-Nan, LI Jian-Sheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (8): 1853-1870.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.23001
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    Plant variety protection is one of the important approaches for plant intellectual property protection. The distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) and essentially derived variety (EDV) are two major concepts in plant variety protection. DUS-EDV has been evaluated largely through morphological traits and pedigrees at the very beginning, to an integrated approach using morphological traits, pedigrees and molecular marker information and now to a stage largely driven by molecular diagnostics. Molecular diagnostic technology has been evolved from RFLP to SSR and SNP marker systems. The liquid SNP chip, represented by genotyping by target sequencing through capture in solution, has advantages of low cost, high flexibility in marker combinations and wide suitability for DUS-EDV evaluation across plant species. There are two important strategies in DUS-EDV evaluation, one being examined based on the analysis and comparison at the whole genome level and the other being examined at specific genomic regions for target functional loci associated with important phenotypes. Evaluation criteria should be established separately for DUS and EDV. The former can be evaluated based on the criteria constructed for specific fingerprint maps, haplotypes, unique alleles, genomic regions, target functional markers, minimum genetic homozygosity, and within-variety variation, whereas the latter can be examined by the genetic similarity between the potential EDV and check variety estimated using a large number of molecular markers evenly distributed across the genome, rather than by the number of markers. The number and the genomic coverage of molecular markers are two key factors affecting the efficiency and reliability in DUS and EDV assessment. Using only a small number of markers in such assessment will likely result in a large sampling error for the estimates. The threshold of genetic similarity required for distinguishing EDV and non-EDV can vary greatly across plant species and with the levels of plant variety protection. After reviewed the current status of plant variety protection across countries, the authors proposed that a national consultant expert committee should be established for consistent support to implement and improve DUS-EDV system, and an official database system should be constructed for public service and comparison of variety DNA fingerprint data to facilitate innovative activities in plant breeding.

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    Genetic diversity analysis of Chinese fresh corn hybrids using SNP Chips
    XIAO Ying-Ni, YU Yong-Tao, XIE Li-Hua, QI Xi-Tao, LI Chun-Yan, WEN Tian-Xiang, LI Gao-Ke, HU Jian-Guang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1301-1311.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13031
    Abstract494)   HTML62)    PDF(pc) (5135KB)(485)       Save

    China is a major fresh corn production and consumption country in the world. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among fresh corn hybrids in China has great benefit for hybrid identification and breed cultivation. In this study, an Illumina Maize 6K chip was employed to perform genome-wide scanning for the population structure and genetic distance of 385 fresh corn hybrids nationwide. The results showed that the average genetic diversity of 5067 SNP markers in 385 fresh corn hybrids was 0.406, with a range of 0.097-0.500. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.319, with a range of 0.092-0.375. The results of PCA and population genetic structure analysis revealed that the hybrids were mainly divided into three groups, which were non-sweet corn group (185 varieties), temperate sweet corn group (123 varieties), and tropical sweet corn group (77 varieties). The genetic distance between any two hybrids ranged from 0.132 to 0.472, with an average of 0.37. A total of 160 genome regions indicated strong population differentiation among different groups following FST analysis. Four key genes (sh2, su1, su2, and wx1) of starch synthesis pathway in maize grains were detected. Two candidate genes (sh2 and DGAT1-2) demonstrated different selection patterns in fresh corn groups and were validated using molecular markers. These results provide important theoretical guidance for the breeding and improvement of fresh corn varieties in China.

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    Molecular mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis in plants
    HAN Bei, SUN Si-Min, SUN Wei-Nan, YANG Xi-Yan, ZHANG Xian-Long
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (2): 299-309.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24103
    Abstract478)   HTML95)    PDF(pc) (289KB)(366)       Save

    Plant cell totipotency refers to that each cell has all the genetic information of the plant, and in vitro tissues or cells has the potential to develop into a whole plant under appropriate culture conditions. Somatic embryogenesis is the most efficient way to reflect the totipotency of plant cells. It has broad application prospects in the fields of artificial seeds, haploid breeding, asexual reproduction, and germplasm preservation, and its mechanism is also a hotspot in basic research. In recent years, with the development of technology and in-depth research, the molecular regulation mechanism of plant somatic embryogenesis has made important progress. Plant somatic embryogenesis is the result of the expression and regulation of a series of genes in spatiotemporal order. In this review, we systematically reviewed the roles of hormones and stress signal transduction, embryonic development related transcription factors, extracellular proteins, and epigenetic regulation in somatic embryogenesis, and prospected future research priorities and directions in this field.

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    Research progress of photosynthetic physiological mechanism and approaches to application in dense planting maize
    GUO Yao, CHAI Qiang, YIN Wen, FAN Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (8): 1871-1883.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13024
    Abstract470)   HTML62)    PDF(pc) (767KB)(401)       Save

    To ensure enough crop production of limited land area is important to food security. The key to solve this issue is to increase yield per unit area. Dense planting is an effective agronomic management practice to increase yield per unit area, photosynthetic rate would not be decreased or even improved by increasing planting density moderately, and then enhancing the yield per unit area. It is a key research focus on revealing the mechanism of photosynthetic physiology for improving yield per unit area by dense planting condition of maize. Dense planting would lead to change photosynthetic characteristics, so controlling the physiological factors that restricts photosynthesis is essential for increasing yield. Tap the photosynthetic physiologic potential for maize condition is physiological basis to ensure yield, which plays an important role in addressing food security issues. Therefore, this review focuses on the changes of the research methods and ideas in photosynthetic physiology, and the research status of the photosynthetic physiological response of maize adapted to dense planting and related agronomic regulation pathways at home and abroad, based on previous research results, so as to provide the theoretical and technical methods basis for photosynthetic physiology research. Based on the development trend of modern technology, it is believed that tapping photosynthetic potential and narrowing the gap between photosynthetic potential and actual photosynthetic efficiency are still the main goals of maize dense planting research by traditional research methods combined with molecular biology techniques in the future. In further study, research emphasis should be to investigate the responses of differential expression of photosynthetic physiological function genes to cultivation measures, clarifying the relationship and interaction between agronomic management practice and information expression of photosynthetic-related genes in densely planted maize, enhancing photosynthetic potential for maize via agronomic management practice and molecular biology technology, in order to provide photosynthetic physiological theory and practice to support for maize dense planting.

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    Photosynthetic physiological characteristics of high yield super rice variety Nanjing 5718
    WEI Xiao-Dong, ZHANG Ya-Dong, SONG Xue-Mei, CHEN Tao, ZHU Zhen, ZHAO Qin-Yong, ZHAO Ling, LU Kai, LIANG Wen-Hua, HE Lei, HUANG Sheng-Dong, XIE Yin-Feng, WANG Cai-Lin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (11): 2879-2890.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12078
    Abstract455)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (2398KB)(212)       Save

    Nanjing 5718 is a rice variety with good eating quality approved by Jiangsu province in 2019 and was confirmed as super rice by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2021. Studying its yield composition characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological basis can be helpful to investigate photosynthetic traits of super rice variety, improve its photosynthetic performance through genetic improvement, and provide the theoretical basis for high-yield breeding and cultivation of japonica rice. In this study, the parents of Nanjing 5718 and Huaidao 5, a widely popularized rice variety with the same growth period type, as the control, dry weight of aboveground of plant, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rates, and photochemical characteristics of photosystem II (PSII), core antenna protein expression, photosynthetic enzyme activities, and chloroplast ultrastructure were investigated in Nanjing 5718 from full expansion of flag leaves at the beginning of booting to 35 days after flowering. The results showed the pigment contents of the leaves in Nanjing 5718 were higher, which were close to male parent Yanjing 608. The net photosynthetic rates, dry weight, and PSII electron transfer activities of flag leaves at the late growth stage were significantly higher in Nanjing 5718 than those in parents and Huaidao 5. The light energy conversion performance of PSII was superior. The core antenna protein CP43 and CP47 were more stable under strong light and high temperature, and their adjustment ability of Nanjing 5718 was better than that of parents and Huaidao 5. In addition, the activities of RuBP carboxylase in flag leaves were higher, the contents of photosynthetic products were higher, the chloroplast structure was more stable, the senescence characteristics appeared later, and the chloroplast decay rates were slower in Nanjing 5718, compared with parents and Huaidao 5. The results indicated that high photosynthetic performance of flag leaves was the basis for the formation of high yield characteristics of super rice Nanjing 5718 with large panicles. The great activity and function of photosystem proteins were main factors of improving leaf photosynthesis, and the stability of chloroplast structure could provide powerful support for high photosynthetic efficiency of leaves.

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    Genome wide association analysis of petiole angle based on 783 soybean resources ( Glycine max L.)
    CHEN Ling-Ling, LI Zhan, LIU Ting-Xuan, GU Yong-Zhe, SONG Jian, WANG Jun, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1333-1345.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14102
    Abstract433)   HTML33)    PDF(pc) (7956KB)(365)       Save

    Petiole angle is one of the important factors that affects the high-efficiency light posture of plants. It is very important to improve soybean plant architecture by adjusting the leaf angle petioles. Soybean petiole angle is a quantitative trait, which is limited to QTLs mapping for most studies up to date. The reported gene GmILPA1controlling leaf petiole angle gene was cloned from mutants. Identification of more regulatory genes and elite alleles is urgent both for the clarification of genetic mechanism for petiole angle and its breeding utilization. In this study, 783 and 690 soybean germplasms were phenotypic for petiole angle in Hainan and Beijing in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and genome-wide associated study (GWAS) were performed using genome-wide distributed SNPs. Results showed that the petiole angle at different nodes (top, middle, and bottom nodes) were in normal distribution, suggesting that the trait of typical quantitative was inheritance. A total of 325 SNPs associated with petiole angle were identified by two-point GWAS analysis in two years, including 51, 230, 10, and 34 SNPs for petiole angles of the top, middle, bottom, and mean value of different nodes, respectively. Three candidate genes (Glyma.05G059700: auxin regulatory protein, Glyma.06G076900: AFR, and Glyma.06G076000: COP9) were obtained by LD block analysis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that all these three candidate genes had high expression level in shoot apical meristem (SAM), however, high expression level were also identified in leaf for Glyma.06G076900, leaf and stem for Glyma.06G076000.

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    Identification of sugar transporter gene family SiSTPs in foxtail millet and its participation in stress response
    JIN Min-Shan, QU Rui-Fang, LI Hong-Ying, HAN Yan-Qing, MA Fang-Fang, HAN Yuan-Huai, XING Guo-Fang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 825-839.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14080
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    Sugar transporter proteins (STPs), a class of monosaccharide transporters that mainly transport hexose, play an important role in the growth, development, and stress resistance of crops. Foxtail millet is the main cultivated crop in green dryland agriculture, and also is the model plant for C4 photosynthesis mechanism and stress resistance gene mining of Gramineae crops. However, no systematical study of SiSTPs gene has been performed in foxtail millet. In this study, we identified the whole genome of six Gramineae crops including foxtail millet by bioinformatics method, and focused on the physicochemical properties, the chromosomal localization, the systematic evolution, gene structure, and the conserved domain. Moreover, the relative expression level of SiSTPs gene and its resistance to the infection of Sclerospora graminicola under drought stress and low phosphate stress in foxtail millet were investigated. The results showed that a total of 24, 26, 23, 22, 33, and 27 STP gene family members were individually identified in Setaria italica, Setaria viridis, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, and Oryza sativa, which were divided into four clades by phylogenetic analysis. The 24 SiSTP genes were distributed unevenly on 7 chromosomes, and the size of the encoded amino acids ranged from 499 aa to 581 aa. The SiSTP all had the Sugar_tr (PF00083) conserved domain. The cis-acting elements included a large number of light-responsive elements and stress-responsive elements. These SiSTPs was subjected to strong purification and selection pressure during the evolutionary process of foxtail millet, and had obvious tissue expression specificity and photoinduced phenomena. Different SiSTPs showed different temporal and spatial expression and response to the drought stress, the low phosphate stress, and Sclerospora graminicola infection. Our results provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the function and response mechanism to stress of SiSTP.

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    Cloning and functional analysis of BnMAPK2 gene in Brassica napus
    YUAN Da-Shuang, DENG Wan-Yu, WANG Zhen, PENG Qian, ZHANG Xiao-Li, YAO Meng-Nan, MIAO Wen-Jie, ZHU Dong-Ming, LI Jia-Na, LIANG Ying
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 840-850.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14061
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    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is involved in plant growth and development and it is in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a BnMAPK2 (BnaC01g28210D) gene was isolated and cloned from Brassica napus. The cDNA and its coding sequence were 1516 bp and 1113 bp in length, respectively, encoding 371 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the molecular weight of BnMAPK2 protein was 42,497.0 kD, the isoelectric point was 6.36, protein instability coefficient was 38.74, it was a hydrophobic protein, and it had STKc_TEY_MAPK_ plant (cd07858) conserved structure domain unique to MAPKs protein, protein secondary level. The alpha helix accounted for the largest proportion of 44.05% in the secondary structure of protein, and there was no signal peptide, which was more closely related to the C group AtMAPK2 of Arabidopsis. The core element prediction indicated that BnMAPK2-P contained related cis-acting elements in response to salicylic acid hormone, heat stress, and light, including TCA-element, HSE, AAAC-motif, and MYB binding sites. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that BnMAPK2 was expressed in various tissues and organs in Brassica napus, which was induced by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, H2O2, injury, high temperature, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The phenotypic data of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BnMAPK2 heterologously showed that compared with the wild type, the overexpression of BnMAPK2 made the bolting period of Arabidopsis plants earlier, and significantly increased plant height, the effective length of main inflorescence, and the number of siliques. We speculated that BnMAPK2 gene was involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. This study provides reference materials and data support for in-depth exploration of the molecular mechanism of BnMAPK2 regulating the growth and development in Brassica napus.

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    Transcriptome analysis of leaves responses to elevated CO 2 concentration, drought and interaction conditions in soybean [ Glycine max (Linn.) Merr.]
    LI A-Li, FENG Ya-Nan, LI Ping, ZHANG Dong-Sheng, ZONG Yu-Zheng, LIN Wen, HAO Xing-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1103-1118.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14055
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    Global consensus on climate warming and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has increased the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (droughts) and brought uncertainty about soybean production. In this study, the effects of elevated CO2 concentration, drought and their interaction on gene expression in soybean were elucidated by phenotypic and leaf transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. To provide theoretical reference for soybean breeding under the background of future climate change, we identified the regulatory pathway of CO2 affecting soybean drought tolerance. The phenotypic results showed that elevated CO2 concentration promoted the growth and alleviated the negative effects of drought stress on soybean. The results revealed that a total of 89 CO2-responsive genes were identified by transcriptome sequencing analysis. KEGG classification demonstrated that these genes were mainly involved in antioxidant metabolism (terpenoid, flavonoid, etc.), meanwhile, Functional of the specific differentially expressed gene mainly focused on cell components, growth, and development. Under drought condition, 1006 highly differentially expressed (16-fold) genes were screened out. These genes were mainly involved in various amino acid (proline, tryptophan, etc.) metabolic pathways, and almost all genes involved in protein synthesis and transport were up-regulated, indicating that there were a lot of material exchange processes in soybean leaves under drought stress. A total of 8566 differentially expressed genes, mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism pathway, were detected under the interaction, and almost all genes related to the photosynthesis-antenna protein pathway were down-regulated, suggesting that the photosynthetic capacity of soybean was decreased under the interaction. 34 genes were found to be differentially expressed under all three conditions. These genes were mainly concentrated in antioxidant metabolism (flavonoids, glutathione, phenylpropanoids, etc.), and most of these genes were involved in the metabolism of various plant hormones and stimulus responses. The qRT-PCR results of six differentially expressed genes related to drought resistance in two soybean varieties with different genetic background showed that the RNA-seq data were accurate. In conclusion, elevated CO2 concentration could increase the relative expression levels of genes related to antioxidant metabolism, growth and development in soybean leaves. Drought stress induced the relative expression levels of genes related to amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis pathway. The photosynthetic capacity of soybean was inhibited under the interactive condition. Elevated CO2 concentration enhanced the tolerance of soybean to drought stress by regulating hormone metabolism, antioxidant (antioxidant enzyme, flavonoid, phenylpropanoid) metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Characteristics of carbon emission and approaches of carbon mitigation and sequestration for carbon neutrality in China’s crop production
    YAN Sheng-Ji, DENG Ai-Xing, SHANG Zi-Yin, TANG Zhi-Wei, CHEN Chang-Qing, ZHANG Jun, ZHANG Wei-Jian
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 930-941.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12073
    Abstract364)   HTML30)    PDF(pc) (777KB)(410)       Save

    Crop production not only ensures national food security, but also is the main source of agricultural carbon emissions and an important pool of carbon sequestration. To clarify the characteristics of carbon emissions from crop production and discuss the approaches to reach the peak and neutrality in major agricultural areas can provide important scientific basis to the decision making of green and high-quality agricultural development and “dual-carbon” goal. Based on the national statistical data, this study compared and analyzed the characteristics of carbon emissions in crop planting regions in China, and presented the recommendations for carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission mitigation. The carbon emissions of crop production accounted for 45.5% of the national agricultural total carbon emissions in 2018, and the emissions of farmland methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) of diesel consumption accounted for 22.9%, 14.7%, and 7.9% of the total carbon emissions of agricultural production, respectively. In terms of the regional emissions, both the total carbon emission of crop production and the carbon emission per sowing area are higher in South than North China, with the highest emissions in East and central China and the greatest potential for emission mitigation. In the carbon emission from crop production, CH4 emission from rice fields accounts for the main part (50.3%) and is the focus of emission reduction. The annual carbon emission of crop production in China peaked in 2015, and then dropped down. It was mainly attributed to the decrease trend of rice sown area, agricultural nitrogen application rate, and diesel oil consumption. If the existing agricultural imports are not significantly affected, the carbon emissions in crop production have basically reached the peak. However, it is very difficult to achieve carbon neutrality in crop production if only by soil carbon sequestration of farmland, and it is necessary to consider both farmland emission reduction and carbon sequestration. On the premise of high and stable grain yield, the carbon neutrality of modern crop production should prioritize CH4 and N2O reduction, and fully exploit the integrated carbon sequestration potential of farmland ecosystems, such as straw utilization, combination of the use and protection of farmland, and construction of farmland forest network.

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    A critical review on the principles and procedures for cultivar development and evaluation
    YAN Weikai
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (9): 2137-2154.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11105
    Abstract343)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (890KB)(515)       Save

    Plant breeding plays an indispensable role in meeting the increasing need for food and comfort of the mankind in a changing climate. Numerous concepts and procedures aiming at improving breeding efficiency have been put forward, such as various strategies for dealing with genotype by environment interaction, stability analyses, mega-environment analyses, experimental designs and analyses, biplot analyses, and selection indices. In addition, genomic selection has evolved into a stage that plant breeders must consider and cannot ignore. It is of practical importance to understand the relationships among these concepts and procedures, their usefulness, drawbacks, and pitfalls, as well as their place in the theoretical framework of plant breeding and genotype evaluation. Based primarily on personal research and experience, this article attempted to develop a systematic narrative on the principles, key concepts, and analytic procedures related to cultivar development and evaluation, with demonstrations using real-world data.

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    Genome-wide association study of leaf angle traits and mining of elite alleles from the major loci in maize
    QIN Wen-Xuan, BAO Jian-Xi, WANG Yan-Bo, MA Ya-Jie, LONG Yan, LI Jin-Ping, DONG Zhen-Ying, WAN Xiang-Yuan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (11): 2691-2705.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.23019
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    Leaf angle (LA) is one of the important components of the canopy structure in maize, which can directly affect the distribution of light and CO2 in the canopy and the light capture efficiency of the population, thus affecting the yield of maize. In order to analysis the genetic basis of maize LA traits, an association panel including 854 maize inbred lines was used to analyze the first (ULA1), second (ULA2), and third (ULA3) upper leaf angle of ears in five environments, and then 2795 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers distributed on 10 chromosomes of maize genome were used for genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of LA traits based on FarmCPU (fixed and random model circulating probability unification) model. Eighty-one significant SNP associations were identified, among which 26, 27, and 28 significant SNPs associated with ULA1, ULA2, and ULA3, and phenotypic variation explained (PVE) for each SNP was 0.03%-9.68%, 0.06%-9.30%, and 0.01%-8.23%, respectively. We further identified 17 heigh-confidence SNPs repeatedly detected for specific trait, among which three loci were firstly reported in this study, 14 loci located within the intervals that had been previously mapped, and nine SNPs were associated with more than one LA trait. Seven SNPs with PVE > 5% were classified as major SNPs, and thus nine germplasms combining the seven elite alleles with small LAs were isolated. Through searching the candidate regions of the 17 high-confidence SNPs, a total of 131 candidate genes were predicated, and a key gene DRL1 known to regulate LA of maize that located 70 kb downstream of PZE-101039301 on chromosome 1 was also identified as one of candidate genes. In summary, the genetic loci and candidate genes identified by this study will be useful for revealing the genetic mechanism of maize LA traits, and provide clues for cloning LA correlated genes. The identified elite alleles and germplasm resources can be used to increase maize yield by molecular marker-assisted selection of LA traits.

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    Effects of close planting densities on assimilate accumulation and yield of soybean with different plant branching types
    LI Rui-Dong, YIN Yang-Yang, SONG Wen-Wen, WU Ting-Ting, SUN Shi, HAN Tian-Fu, XU Cai-Long, WU Cun-Xiang, HU Shui-Xiu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 942-951.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14045
    Abstract329)   HTML35)    PDF(pc) (547KB)(204)       Save

    To investigate the effects of planting density on leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and distribution, and yield components of different varieties, field experiments were conducted using two soybean varieties with different branching types (Zhongzuo XA12938, a main stem type variety; Zhonghuang 13, a branched type variety) under six planting densities (D1: 13.5×104 plants hm-2; D2: 18.0×104 plants hm-2; D3: 22.5×104 plants hm-2; D4: 27.0×104 plants hm-2; D5: 31.5×104 plants hm-2; D6: 36.0×104 plants hm-2). The results showed that as planting densities increased, soybean LAI reached the highest values (>4) earlier, from 47.0 d and 54.6 d (D1) to 31.0 d and 32.9 d (D6) after seedling emergence for Zhongzuo XA12938 and Zhonghuang 13, respectively. Compared to Zhonghuang 13, the high LAI values in Zhongzuo XA12938 lasted longer and decreased less at the middle and late stages. The degree of increase in dry matter with density varied between treatments. At podding stage, dry weight increased by 77.53% and 51.21% in the high-density treatment (D6) compared to the low-density treatment (D1) for Zhongzuo XA12938 and Zhonghuang 13, respectively. The percentage of dry matter in reproductive organs at maturity stage increased and then decreased with increasing density. The highest yields were achieved under D5 (5000.45 kg hm-2) treatment and remained stable at increasing densities for Zhongzuo XA12938. The highest yields for both years were achieved under D4 (4477.90 kg hm-2) and D5 (3935.30 kg hm-2) treatments for Zhonghuang 13. The average yield of Zhongzuo XA12938 was significantly higher by 22.37% than that of Zhonghuang 13. Grey correlation analysis revealed that plant height and effective pods per unit area were closely related to yield in Zhongzuo XA12938, while effective grains per unit area and height of centre of gravity were more highly correlated with yield in Zhonghuang 13. Zhongzuo XA12938 moderate increase in density can increase the LAI and prolong the duration of its high value, promote dry matter accumulation, increase the proportion of reproductive organs, and improve the yield in soybean. Varieties with strong meristem regulation can be used to improve yields and increase benefits by appropriately increasing planting density in production.

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    Characterization and genetic mapping of a classic-abortive-type recessive genic-male-sterile mutant ap90 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
    CHEN Chi, CHEN Dai-Bo, SUN Zhi-Hao, PENG Ze-Qun, Adil Abbas, HE Deng-Mei, ZHANG Ying-Xin, CHENG Hai-Tao, YU Ping, MA Zhao-Hui, SONG Jian, CAO Li-Yong, CHENG Shi-Hua, SUN Lian-Ping, ZHAN Xiao-Deng, LYU Wen-Yan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (7): 1569-1582.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12044
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    In this study, we obtained a stable male sterile mutant abortive pollen 90 (ap90) from the mutant library of Zhonghui 8015 (wild-type, WT), an indica restorer line, induced by Ethyl Methy Sulfone (EMS). Compared to the WT, the ap90 mutant displayed no significant differences in plant height, plant type, tiller number, heading date and other agronomic traits, but the anthers were thinner, light creamy yellow and pollen grains were completely abortive. Semi-thin sections observation of anther development at different stages showed that the ap90 mutant carried an abnormal development process of anther wall cells. Namely, the tapetum cell degradation was obviously abnormal, the microspore cells could not form a normal pollen wall structure during mitosis and the starch filling process was blocked which eventually resulted in the degradation of microspores into threadlets and failure of anther dehiscence. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of the anther surface and pollen exine suggested that the anther epidermis of mutant ap90 were shrunk and covered by more compactly arranged cuticles. The shape of Ubisch distributed on the inner surface of anther locule were irregular, closely arranged and disordered. The pollen grains were shriveled and the sporopollenin on the pollen exine were abnormally arranged. Genetic analysis showed that the ap90 phenotype was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear genes. Gene preliminary mapping located the mutation site into a 491.73 kb interval between RM21421 and RM21435 on the long arm of rice chromosome 7. Further Mut-Map sequencing analysis confirmed that there was a 37 bp deletion and a following single base substitution in the second exon region of LOC_Os07g22850 in the ap90 mutant, which resulted in the shifted coding sequence, prematurely terminated transcription and translation, leading to the entire abortive pollen and sterile spikelet in the ap90 mutant. Expression pattern analysis results demonstrated that the OsAP90 gene was specifically expressed in anthers and the OsAP90 protein was mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The qPCR results suggested that the relative expression level of many male sterility-related genes in the ap90 mutant was affected by the mutation site, which further proved that OsAP90 played an important role during the formation of Ubisch and pollen wall in rice anther development.

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    Analysis of drought responsive regulatory network in sugarcane based on transcriptome and WGCNA
    LI Pei-Ting, ZHAO Zhen-Li, HUANG Chao-Hua, HUANG Guo-Qiang, XU Liang-Nian, DENG Zu-Hu, ZHANG Yu, ZHAO Xin-Wang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (7): 1583-1600.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14121
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    Drought is one of the important factors restricting the development of sugarcane industry. Previous studies have shown that E. arundinaceus has good resistance genes, which can be inherited through distant hybridization. In this study, we used YCE96-40, a F1 hybrid clone of E. arundinaceus and sugarcane, as material to analyze the transcriptome of leaves and roots after drought treatment for 0 and 24 hours at seedling stage. We compared the differences in response of roots and leaves to drought at transcriptional level, and identified 21,885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (DR vs CR: 10176, DL vs CL: 7907). The root response to drought stress was more intense. GO functional enrichment analysis showed that DEGs in roots and leaves were enriched in items related to dehydration response and hormone signal transduction process, such as “response to osmotic stress biological process” and “response to water shortage biological process”. Different from leaves, a large number of DEGs in roots were significantly enriched in the items related to cell membrane. Several lignin related DEGs were identified in roots, which indicated that lignin was involved in root drought response. Through WGCNA analysis of all DEGs, a total of 11 gene co-expression modules were identified, including five modules significantly related to root after drought treatment and two modules significantly related to leaf after drought treatment. Furthermore, 26 transcription factors were selected as candidate transcription factors for drought response in sugarcane, and the regulatory network was constructed. The results provide theoretical guidance for further understanding the molecular mechanism of sugarcane drought resistance and sugarcane drought resistance breeding.

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    Effects of nutrient uptake and utilization on yield of maize-legume strip intercropping system
    YANG Huan, ZHOU Ying, CHEN Ping, DU Qing, ZHENG Ben-Chuan, PU Tian, WEN Jing, YANG Wen-Yu, YONG Tai-Wen
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1476-1487.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13017
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    To clarify the difference of nutrient uptake and utilization to yield advantage between maize-soybean relay intercropping and maize-peanut intercropping, we conducted a field experiment for two consecutive years. The results were obtained by comparing nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) absorption efficiency and utilization in the intercropping with sole cropping. The results showed that land equivalent ratio (LER) of maize-soybean relay intercropping was 1.16-1.72, which had the advantage of intercropping yield, but the LER of maize-peanut intercropping was 0.89-1.13, which had no obvious yield disadvantage. In maize-soybean relay intercropping system, the amount of N, P, and K uptake was higher than that of the corresponding sole cropping by 32.60%-54.22%, 27.35%-34.64, and 17.74%-24.42%, respectively, but the N utilization efficiency was lower by 21.99%-42.07%. The contributions of the N, P, and K uptake efficiencies to LER were 0.34-0.62, 0.31-0.46, and 0.22-0.32, and the utilization efficiencies contributions were -0.11 to -0.35, -0.03 to -0.31, and -0.11 to 0.22, respectively. In maize-peanut intercropping system, the amount of N, P, and K uptake was higher than that of the corresponding sole cropping by -7.86% to 31.58%, 23.09%-46.52%, and 1.60%-55.48%, respectively, and the N utilization efficiency was higher by 7.55-26.60. The contributions of the N, P and K uptake efficiencies to LER were 0-0.22, 0.05-0.27, and -0.11-0.32, respectively, and the utilization efficiencies contributions were -0.25-0.19, -0.32-0.11, and -0.47-0.32, respectively. In conclusion, yield advantage of maize-soybean relay intercropping was mainly from enhanced nutrient uptake efficiency, but there was no obvious yield advantage in maize-peanut intercropping mainly due to relatively less contribution of nutrient uptake to yield advantage.

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    Genome editing of BnMLO6 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 for the improvement of disease resistance in Brassica napus L
    SHI Yu-Qin, SUN Meng-Dan, CHEN Fan, CHENG Hong-Tao, HU Xue-Zhi, FU Li, HU Qiong, MEI De-Sheng, LI Chao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 801-811.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14077
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    Gene editing technology can modify the target gene efficiently and accurately, which opens up a new way for crop genetic improvement. Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) gene is a key negative regulator of plant defense against powdery mildew. Mutation of MLO gene can enhance plant resistance to powdery mildew, but whether it has the same function is not reported in oilseed rape. In this study, the relative expression analysis suggested that BnMLO6 gene was induced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. To explore the potential role of BnMLO6 gene in pathogen resistance, six homologous copies of BnMLO6 gene mutated synchronously by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology and mlo6-212 mutant line was generated for further analysis. Genetic analysis revealed that CRISPR/Cas9 induced mutagenesis of BnMLO6 gene could be stably inherited. In addition, mlo6-212 mutant line indicated obvious resistance to powdery mildew in both field and greenhouse condition. The lesion area of mlo6-212 mutant was reduced by 19.5% after 24 hours inoculation with S. sclerotiorum. Meanwhile, mutation of BnMLO6 gene could stimulate the spontaneous accumulation of callose in leaves and activate ethylene and jasmonic acid transduction pathway. Thus, BnMLO6 gene was probably involved in multiple pathogen resistance pathways to negatively regulate resistance to powdery mildew and S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. The results not only provide theoretical basis for the study of BnMLO6 involved resistance regulation of multiple pathogens, but also provide resistant resources and technical support for genetic improvement of disease resistance in oilseed rape.

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    Molecular cloning of two maize ( Zea mays) ZmCOP1 genes and their transcription abundances in response to different light treatments
    CUI Lian-Hua, ZHAN Wei-Min, YANG Lu-Hao, WANG Shao-Ci, MA Wen-Qi, JIANG Liang-Liang, ZHANG Yan-Pei, YANG Jian-Ping, YANG Qing-Hua
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1312-1324.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13040
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    As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) mediates ubiquitination and degradation of positive regulatory factors such as HY5, LAF1, HFR1, and CO of the light signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana, thus mediating seedling photomorphogenesis, anthocyanin synthesis, and flowering time. To explore functional differentiation of ZmCOP1 genes, we cloned two ZmCOP1 genes, designated as ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b, from maize inbred line B73 by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The physicochemical properties, domain prediction and phylogenetic tree of ZmCOP1 were analyzed by bioinformatics software and website. The transcription abundances of two ZmCOP1 genes in different tissues and their responses to different light treatments at seedling stage were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that the open reading frames (ORFs) of ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b possessed 2082 and 2061 nucleotides, encoding 693 and 686 amino acids, respectively. The COP1 proteins of maize, rice, sorghum, millet, and Arabidopsis shared the same structural domains and high amino acid sequence identity, indicating that they may have similar functions. The two ZmCOP1 genes were mainly expressed in the above-ground tissues. Both of them could rapidly respond to different light treatments, while the transcription abundances of ZmCOP1a were generally higher than those of ZmCOP1b. It might suggest that ZmCOP1a may play more important roles under different light conditions. Under long-day or short-day condition, the transcription abundances of both ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b during the dark phase were higher than those during the light phase. Another interesting case is that both genes kept similar expression patterns during the light phase, while, transcription abundances of ZmCOP1b were higher than those of ZmCOP1a during the dark phase. It might imply that ZmCOP1b may be more important than ZmCOP1a in response to long-day or short-day treatment. In conclusion, both ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b had got functional redundancy and differentiation. Both genes could participate in different light signal pathways, and regulate maize photomorphogenesis and flowering period. Our results also provide a research foundation for further exploration of two ZmCOP1 genes and application in molecular breeding in maize.

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    Molecular mapping and validation of quantitative trait loci for spike-related traits and plant height in wheat
    HU Wen-Jing, LI Dong-Sheng, YI Xin, ZHANG Chun-Mei, ZHANG Yong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1346-1356.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11055
    Abstract322)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (786KB)(184)       Save

    Spike-related traits and plant height are important target traits in wheat breeding. In the present study, a population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between a CIMMYT wheat line C615 and Yangmai 13 (YM13) was constructed, followed by genotyping with Wheat 90K SNP array and phenotyping of spike-related traits and plant height in three environments to excavate QTLs (quantitative trait loci) for these traits. Using composite interval mapping method, we identified one QTL for total spikelet number per spike (TSS), two QTLs for spike length (SL), two QTLs for spikelet compactness (SC), and three QTLs for plant height (PH). QSN.yaas-3B and QPH.yaas-3B overlapped on the chromosome 3B. QSL.yaas-5A, QSC.yaas-5A and QPH.yaas-5A overlapped on the chromosome 5A. QSL.yaas-6A and QSC.yaas-6A overlapped on the chromosome 6A. QSN.yaas-3B/QPH.yaas-3B and QSL.yaas-6A/QSC.yaas-6A had not been reported yet, and were likely to be novel loci. The SNP marker closely linked to QSL.yaas-5A/QSC.yaas-5A/QPH.yaas-5A was then converted into one Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) marker (QC615-5A-KASP), and validated in a panel of 105 wheat lines. The results would be useful for improvement of yield related traits in wheat breeding.

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    Analysis of blast resistance genes in Longliangyou and Jingliangyou hybrid rice varieties
    DENG Zhao, JIANG Nan, FU Chen-Jian, YAN Tian-Zhe, FU Xing-Xue, HU Xiao-Chun, QIN Peng, LIU Shan-Shan, WANG Kai, YANG Yuan-Zhu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1071-1080.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12002
    Abstract322)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (1601KB)(177)       Save

    Longke 638S and Jing 4155S, developed by Yuan Longping High-Tech Agriculture Co., Ltd. in 2014, were two thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines with disease resistance, high grain quality and combining ability for producing mid-season indica hybrid rice. In this study, we analyzed the blast resistance evaluation data from the regional trials of the Longliangyou and Jingliangyou hybrid rice varieties approved by the state from 2015 to 2019. Meanwhile, to provide theoretical basis for distribution and further improvement of these hybrid rice varieties, a genotyping panel containing 16 rice blast resistance (R) genes based on KASP (Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR) technology was developed and used for molecular detection of these hybrid rice varieties. The results showed that 43.92% of Longliangyou and Jingliangyou hybrid rice varieties conferred moderate resistance to high resistance to blast disease. The mean value of integrated disease index (IDI) and highest scale of panicle blast severity (HSPBS) was 3.3 and 4.7, respectively. These hybrid rice varieties carried different number of R genes, ranging from 3 to 7. The average number of R genes in each variety was 5.1. The distribution frequency of the five genes including Pia, Pita, Pi2, Pi5, and Piz were higher by more 50%, among which, it was 100% for Pia gene. In contrast, Pi9, Pi35, Pi36, and Pb1 genes were not detected in Longliangyou and Jingliangyou hybrid rice varieties. With the increase of the number of R genes in the varieties, the mean values of IDI and HSPBS were generally decreased. In conclusion, we suggested that introduction of Pi9 into Longke 638S and Jing 4155s might lead to the further improvement of blast resistance of Longliangyou and Jingliangyou hybrid rice varieties.

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    Effect of agricultural meteorological disasters on the production corn in the Northeast China
    LI Yi-Jun, LYU Hou-Quan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1537-1545.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03061
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    Agricultural meteorological disasters are the main natural disasters that threaten grain output. In recent years, with climate change, agricultural meteorological disasters are more and more frequent, and their impact on northeast China is also increasing. In this paper, to make better use of advantages and avoid disadvantages in actual production to ensure food production safety, spring corn in three provinces of northeast China was taken as the research object to discuss the impact of major agricultural meteorological disasters in this region on spring corn yield and its degree. The results showed that agricultural meteorological disasters could explain about 50% of the fluctuation of spring corn yield in Northeast China, and the main agricultural meteorological disasters that affected spring corn production had changed from cold damage in the traditional sense to drought. Under the background of climate warming, the main factor affecting spring corn production was changed from thermal condition to water condition, and drought had become the primary disaster threatening spring corn production. The agricultural meteorological disasters that affected the spring corn yield in Liaoning province were drought, flood, and wind in order of the degree of influence. The agricultural meteorological disaster that affected spring corn yield in Jilin province was only drought. The agricultural meteorological disasters affecting the yield of spring corn in Heilongjiang province were ranked as flood, drought, and cold damage according to the degree of impact. In conclusion, due to geographical differences, the main agro-meteorological disasters affecting the corn production in the three provinces of Northeast China were also different, and their complexity was not the same, which cannot be generalized in the specific study.

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    Functional analysis of GmTGA26 gene under salt stress in soybean
    KE Dan-Xia, HUO Ya-Ya, LIU Yi, LI Jin-Ying, LIU Xiao-Xue
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (7): 1697-1708.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14123
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    TGA transcription factors are a subfamily of bZIP, which play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A TGA transcription factor family gene GmTGA26 was screened and cloned from soybean in this study. Homologous protein comparison showed that GmTGA26 had a conserved leucine zipper domain and had the highest homology with wild soybean. The analysis of gene expression characteristics revealed that GmTGA26 gene was induced by salt stress in soybean. In addition, GmTGA26 gene encoded nuclear localization protein and had transcriptional activation activity. The “complex” soybean plants overexpressing GmTGA26 were obtained through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation of soybean. The growth state of “complex” soybean plants was better than the empty vector control under salt stress. Meanwhile, the MDA content and relative plasma membrane permeability decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while the chlorophyll content and root activity increased significantly (P < 0.05). The qRT-PCR results indicated that overexpression of GmTGA26 in soybean hairy roots under salt stress could significantly up-regulate the expression of stress response genes. The above results showed that overexpression of GmTGA26 significantly enhanced the salt tolerance of “complex” soybean plants. It is speculated that GmTGA26 participates in the regulation of soybean salt stress response by regulating a series of downstream stress response genes.

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    Overexpression of ZmCIPKHT enhances heat tolerance in plant
    XU Jing, GAO Jing-Yang, LI Cheng-Cheng, SONG Yun-Xia, DONG Chao-Pei, WANG Zhao, LI Yun-Meng, LUAN Yi-Fan, CHEN Jia-Fa, ZHOU Zi-Jian, WU Jian-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 851-859.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13013
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    The effects of high temperature stress on the normal growth and yield of plants is more and more serious. To adapt the changes of external environment, plants have evolved a series of molecular genetic mechanisms to respond to high temperature stress. The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is actively involved in response to high temperature stress depended on ABA signal transduction pathway in plants. Based on previous genome-wide association analysis, a candidate gene ZmCIPKHT related to maize high temperature tolerance was cloned in this study. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that ZmCIPKHT gene was significantly induced by high temperature stress. Transient transformation of maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCIPKHT was localized in the nucleus. Overexpressing ZmCIPKHT plants of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana had significantly higher survival rate and better growth status than wild type under high temperature stress. The yeast two-hybrid experiment confirmed that the interaction between ZmCIPKHT protein and ZmCBL4 protein in maize CBLs family. The relative expression levels of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana with ZmCIPKHT under high temperature stress were changed accordingly, indicating that the regulations of ZmCIPKHT genes under high temperature stress were in the ABA-dependent pathway. These results provide a new experimental basis for elucidating the molecular mechanism of maize CBL-CIPK signaling pathway dependent on ABA pathway to abiotic stress in plants.

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    Content diversity of phenolic compounds of waxy sorghum grains in different provinces, cities, and autonomous regions of China
    WANG Qian, LIU Shao-Xiong, CHAI Xiao-Jiao, LI Hai, ZHANG Fen, LU Ping, WANG Rui-Yun, LIU Min-Xuan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (10): 2505-2516.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14161
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    To comprehensively evaluate the relationship between the contents of phenolic compounds in waxy sorghum grains, the color of grains, and the source of origin in the main sorghum producing areas in China, in this study, the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin and condensed tannin in 92 waxy sorghum varieties from 15 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH method, GB/T 15686 method, and vanillin-hydrochloric acid method. The results showed that there were significant differences in the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin, and condensed tannin in different waxy sorghum varieties. The coefficient of variation ranged from 44.68% (tannin) to 79.37% (condensed tannin) and the average values were 1.25%, 1.61%, 1.41%, and 0.50%, respectively. The contents of the four phenols were consistent with the intensity of the grain color (orange-yellow > yellow > brown > red > white). There were significant differences in the contents of four phenols in waxy sorghum grains from different provinces at P < 0.05. Among them, the contents of four phenols in waxy sorghum grains in Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, and Sichuan located in southern and southwestern China were high, and the four phenols in the waxy sorghum varieties from the four areas of Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Beijing, and Shandong located in northeastern China were low. The cumulative variance contribution of the first 3 principal components of principal component analysis reached 91.60%, among which Guangxi waxy sorghum (00013082) performed well in comprehensive traits. The contents of phenolic compounds in the core collection of waxy sorghum in China were relatively rich and there were obvious regional differences.

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    Fine mapping of yellow-green leaf gene ( ygl2) in soybean ( Glycine max L.)
    WANG Hao-Rang, ZHANG Yong, YU Chun-Miao, DONG Quan-Zhong, LI Wei-Wei, HU Kai-Feng, ZHANG Ming-Ming, XUE Hong, YANG Meng-Ping, SONG Ji-Ling, WANG Lei, YANG Xing-Yong, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 791-800.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14062
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    Leaf is the main organ of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in soybean, and its color is not only related to the trapping power and conversion efficiency of light energy, but also closely related to the yield of soybean. Therefore, the mining of soybean leaf color-related genes is of great significance to analyze the yield of soybean from the pathway of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Yellow-green leaf is a mutation type different from common green leaves of soybean, and it is an important genetic material to explore the genes related to leaf color of soybean. In this study, we found a yellow-green leaf mutant ygl2 (yellow-green leaf 2), which was naturally mutated from soybean strain GL11, and its yellow-green leaf phenotype could be stably inherited. Compared with the green leaf wild type GL11, the leaf chlorophyll content of mutant ygl2 decreased significantly, and there were significant differences in plant height, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The segregated population was constructed by GL11 and ygl2. Genetic analysis showed that the yellow-green leaf phenotype of ygl2 was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear genes. The yellow-green leaf gene ygl2 was located between SSR markers 02_104 and 02_107 at the end of chromosome 2 using the isolated population, with an interval physical distance of 56.1 kb, and contained nine genes. These results laid a solid foundation for map-based cloning and molecular marker-assisted breeding of yellow and green leaf genes in soybean.

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    Different responses of rice cultivars to salt stress and the underlying mechanisms
    YAN Jia-Qian, GU Yi-Biao, XUE Zhang-Yi, ZHOU Tian-Yang, GE Qian-Qian, ZHANG Hao, LIU Li-Jun, WANG Zhi-Qin, GU Jun-Fei, YANG Jian-Chang, ZHOU Zhen-Ling, XU Da-Yong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1463-1475.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12027
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    The objective of this study is to elucidate the responses of physiological traits and yield with different salt stress to salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible rice cultivars. Five salt-tolerant rice cultivars and two salt-susceptible rice cultivars were grown in pots with five different salt concentration levels including 0, 1, 2, 2.5, and 3 g kg-1 of per pot for two years. Results showed that the yields of salt-tolerant cultivars were less reduced than that of salt-susceptible cultivars, and salt-tolerant cultivars was able to tolerate higher salt concentration of 2.5 g kg-1. Salt-tolerant varieties produced higher grain yield mainly due to the greater total spikelets per area and higher filled grain percentage under salt stress. Salt-tolerant rice cultivars also had higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), higher contents of osmotic substances such as fructose, trehalose, and sorbitol, and higher K+/Na+ ratio from mid-tillering to heading. The crop growth rate from tillering to jointing and from heading to maturity, and photosynthetic rate at heading stage were higher in salt-tolerant cultivars than in salt-susceptible cultivars. The above results revealed that the differences in grain yields between salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible rice varieties were mainly due to the performances of physiological traits at mid-tillering, panicle initiation, and heading stages. These growth stages were the key stages that determined the number of panicles, spikelets per panicle, and the percentage of filled grains. The better physiological traits in the salt-tolerant rice varieties during key stages were the basis for higher grain yield. The results of this study could be helpful for the physiological researches and the breeding of salt-tolerant rice.

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    Effects of sowing dates, sowing rates, and nitrogen rates on growth and spectral indices in winter wheat
    LI Xin-Ge, GAO Yang, LIU Xiao-Jun, TIAN Yong-Chao, ZHU Yan, CAO Wei-Xing, CAO Qiang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 975-987.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11033
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    To clarify the effects of sowing dates, sowing rates, and nitrogen rates on growth and spectral indices in winter wheat, a two-year winter wheat field experiment under different sowing dates, sowing rates, and nitrogen rates was conducted. We studied systematically the effects of three factors and their interactions on yield, leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference red edge (NDRE) of winter wheat at critical growth stages. Furthermore, to facilitate real-time monitoring of winter wheat growth dynamics, we also established the appropriate time-series curves of winter wheat canopy NDRE under different yield levels. The results indicated that the change patterns of NDRE and LAI at critical growth stages were very consistent, and the response of three factors to the two indices at critical growth stages was basically the same in winter wheat. In 2018 and 2019, the yield, LAI, and NDRE of winter wheat at each growth stages decreased with the delay of sowing date. In 2019 and 2020, the yield, peaks of LAI and NDRE under late sowing date were the largest except for the filling stage. The LAI and NDRE of winter wheat at different growth stages in the two years increased with the increase of nitrogen rates. However, there was basically no significant difference among sowing rates. Among the three factors, the sowing dates and nitrogen rates had a significant influence on the time-series curves of winter wheat canopy NDRE. The NDRE time series curves of winter wheat were stretched with the increase of nitrogen rates, the descending part of NDRE time series curve shifted to the left with the delay of the sowing date. In 2018 and 2019, the peak values of NDRE time series curves of winter wheat were declined with the delay of the sowing date. In 2019 and 2020, the peak values of the NDRE time series curves of late sowing and over-late sowing winter wheat were higher than that of suitable sowing wheat. The data of two years were merged to establish suitable time-series curves of winter wheat canopy NDRE under three yield levels, and the yield levels were less than 6.75 t hm-2, 6.75-8.25 t hm-2, and higher than 8.25 t hm-2, respectively. The peak values and width of the NDRE time-series curves increased with the increase of yield level. In summary, winter wheat should be sown early at an appropriate date, but if the accumulated temperature before winter was higher, the sowing date should be postponed appropriately. And the growth of late sowing winter wheat could be improved by increasing a certain amount of sowing rates and nitrogen rates. At the same time, these results could provide a technical support for monitoring the growth of winter wheat under different sowing dates and different yield levels.

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    Cloning and functional identification of TaGS2 gene related to kernel size in bread wheat
    WANG Sha-Sha, HUANG Chao, WANG Qing-Chang, CHAO Yue-En, CHEN Feng, SUN Jian-Guo, SONG Xiao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (8): 1926-1937.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11067
    Abstract307)   HTML43)    PDF(pc) (4209KB)(211)       Save

    The kernel size affects kernel weight in wheat, and then affects yield. Up to date, the genes related to kernel size have been reported in bread wheat. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulates the size of wheat kernels remains unclear. In this study, the TaGS2 gene related to kernel size was successfully cloned from bread wheat based on in silico cloning and its sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics. Subcellular localization analysis of tobacco indicated that TaGS2 was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Relative expression levels of different tissues showed that the TaGS2 gene was highly expressed at different developmental stages of the kernels. RNA interference vector TaGS2-PLGY-02-RNAi was constructed and transferred into wheat. The results indicated that the relative expression levels of TaGS2 gene was significantly reduced in RNAi transgenic wheat. In addition, the kernel length and width of RNAi transgenic wheat was shortened, and the thousand-kernel weight was reduced as well. Therefore, it was speculated that TaGS2 gene was probably involved in the regulation of wheat kernel size or thousand-kernel weight. This study preliminarily reveals the TaGS2 gene function and provides important genetic resources for the improvement of thousand-kernel weight in wheat breeding program.

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    Adaptation of feed crops to saline-alkali soil stress and effect of improving saline-alkali soil
    WANG Wang-Nian, GE Jun-Zhu, YANG Hai-Chang, YIN Fa-Ting, HUANG Tai-Li, KUAI Jie, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, FU Ting-Dong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1451-1462.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14051
    Abstract305)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (814KB)(179)       Save

    Saline-alkali land widely distributes with large area in China. It is of great significance to select forage crops and realize planting and breeding cycle in saline-alkali land to promote the development of herbivorous animal husbandry and the improvement of saline-alkali land in China. In this study, the plots with high salinity difference were selected from the coastal saline-alkali land in Tianjin (NaCl type) and the inland saline-alkali land in northwest Xinjiang (Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type), respectively, and six field crops such as corn, sorghum, wheat, millet, soybean, and rapeseed with feed value were planted to determine the biomass, crude protein content, sodium and potassium ion content, and other indicators. The results were as follows. When the salt content was less than 1.82 g kg-1 and 2.00 g kg-1 in saline-alkali land NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type, respectively. The biomass and crude protein yield of the crops were close to those of conventional cultivated land, suggesting that saline-alkali land in low salt content could be used as forage production base. When the salt content reached 2.49 g kg-1 in the Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type saline-alkali soil, the biomass and crude protein yield of rapeseed were significantly higher than other crops. Thus, in the Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type saline-alkali soil with salt content lower than 2.49 g kg-1, rapeseed could be planted for fodder development and utilization. When the salt content in saline-alkali land of NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type reached 3.63 g kg-1 and 4.42 g kg-1, respectively. The biomass and crude protein yield of each crop was lower than 51.72% of that in conventional cultivated land, which made the utilization value of the cultivated land low. Therefore, it was recommended to use these saline-alkali land of NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 with high content salt and alkali after improvement. In the different plots of the two experimental sites, the enrichment of Na+ in soil by rapeseed was significantly higher than the other crops at P < 0.05, and it also significantly reduced the total soil salt and Na + content. In this experiment, in plots with salinity of 1.82, 2.00, and 2.49 g kg-1, rapeseed had the most obvious Na+ enrichment effect. The enrichment of rapeseed on soil Na+ was 39.45, 102.24, and 57.19 kg hm-2 respectively, accounting for 13.02%, 15.99%, and 8.94% of the Na+ in the 0-20 cm cultivated layer soil, respectively. The improvement effect of rapeseed on saline-alkali land was significant. The above results provide a reference for the utilization of the saline-alkali land in China for the production of herbivorous feed raw materials, the promotion of the development of herbivorous animal husbandry, and the improvement of saline-alkali land.

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    Root system architecture analysis and genome-wide association study of root system architecture related traits in cotton
    SUN Si-Min, HAN Bei, CHEN Lin, SUN Wei-Nan, ZHANG Xian-Long, YANG Xi-Yan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1081-1090.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14067
    Abstract303)   HTML38)    PDF(pc) (4931KB)(306)       Save

    Root is the main organ of plants that absorbs water and nutrients. The growth of the root system will directly affect the absorption and utilization of nutrients, the resistance to abiotic stress and finally the yield of cotton. In this study, a natural population of 220 upland cotton accessions and a chromosomal segment substitution line (CSSL) population with 325 lines, derived from the crossing and backcrossing of Gossypium barbadense acc. 3-79 with G. hirsutum cv. ‘Emian 22’ were selected to collect the major root phenotypic traits. Four major traits, namely main root length (MRL), root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW) and lateral root angle (LRA) were investigated, and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed for four root traits in natural populations in combination with genome resequencing. The results showed that the four root traits of the natural population are all in line with normal distribution, and the CSSL population were all in skewed distribution. The mean value of root index of CSSL population was higher than that of natural population. A total of 2,714,140 SNP was obtained from the resequencing data of the natural population. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the RFW and MRL could be used as two indexes for cotton root classification, through which the cotton root could be divided into nine types in each population. The analysis of population structure demonstrated that the natural population can be divided into five subgroups. Genome-wide association analysis rrevealed that two association sites were simultaneously associated by RFW and RDW in natural populations. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for further research on root system architecture (RSA) and its genetic mechanism, and it is also of great significance to cotton breeding of abiotic stress resistance.

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    Effects of seeding rates and panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing
    CHEN Yun, LI Si-Yu, ZHU An, LIU Kun, ZHANG Ya-Jun, ZHANG Hao, GU Jun-Fei, ZHANG Wei-Yang, LIU Li-Jun, YANG Jian-Chang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (3): 656-666.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12012
    Abstract303)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (1053KB)(388)       Save

    Seeding rate is one of the key factors affecting grain yield under direct sowing in rice, but there are fewer studies of its influence on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars (GTRC). The application of panicle fertilizer is an important measure for high-yielding cultivation in rice production, however, the effects of panicle fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in GTRC is still unclear. In this study, three representative GTRC (Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108) in Jiangsu province were used as materials, and the effects of seeding rates (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 kg hm-2) and the effect of nitrogen (N) application as panicle fertilizer on grain yield and quality were investigated under direct sowing when the rowing spacing was fixed at 25 cm. The main results were as follows: (1) The yields of Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108 all increased first and then decreased with the increase of seeding rates. The optimum seeding rates for the high yield of the three rice cultivars were 130.2-136.5 kg hm-2, 118.3-119.3 kg hm-2, and 90.0-96.4 kg hm-2, respectively. Rice processing quality was negatively correlated with the seeding rates to different extents, while chalky grain rate, chalkiness, protein content, and setback was significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the seeding rates. Gel consistency, amylose content, taste value, and breakdown were significantly or extremely significantly negatively correlated with seeding rates. (2) Under the optimum seeding rates with the high yield, compared with conventional panicle N application rate, halving the panicle N application had no significant effects on the yields of Nanjing 5055 and Nanjing 9108, but it could significantly improve the appearance quality and taste value. The above results indicated that the optimum seeding rate in GTRC under direct sowing varied with cultivars. Excessive seeding rate would decrease the processing quality, appearance quality, and taste value. Appropriately reducing the amount of N application as panicle fertilizer was beneficial to further improve the appearance and taste quality in GTRC under direct sowing.

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    Genome-wide characterization and expression analysis of Dof family genes in sweetpotato
    JIN Rong, JIANG Wei, LIU Ming, ZHAO Peng, ZHANG Qiang-Qiang, LI Tie-Xin, WANG Dan-Feng, FAN Wen-Jing, ZHANG Ai-Jun, TANG Zhong-Hou
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (3): 608-623.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14004
    Abstract301)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (4657KB)(215)       Save

    DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) transcription factors are widely involved in various life activities of plants. Forty-six IbDof genes from sweetpotato cv. Taizhong 6 with a highly conserved Dof domain structured as a C2C2-type zinc finger were identified and named from IbDof1 to IbDof46 according to their position on the chromosomes. IbDof family could be divided into four subgroups (A-D), which shared the similar motifs and gene structures. Motif 1 and Motf 2 occurred in all of the identified IbDofs, Motif 5 and Motif 9 only occurred in subgroup A, and Motif 6-Motif 8 and Motif 10 only occurred in subgroup D. Twelve segment duplicated gene pairs and five tandem duplicated gene pairs of IbDofs (IbDof2/IbDof3, IbDof12/IbDof13, IbDof9/IbDof10, IbDof28/IbDof29, and IbDof32/IbDof33) contributed to the expansion of IbDof family in sweetpotato. The average divergence times of segmental duplication gene pairs and tandem duplicated gene pairs seemed to have emerged 35.22 MYA and 1.86 MYA, and the Ka/Ks ratios of the paralogous IbDofs were range from 0.07 (IbDof12/IbDof13) to 0.68 (IbDof6/IbDof25). Tirty-eight orthologous IbDof gene pairs between sweetpotato and their wild relative species Ipomoea trifida were involved in duplicated genomic blocks based on synteny analysis. Transcriptome analysis indicated different subgroups expressed specifically in various tissues, and IbDofs in the same subgroup also revealed different expression tends. Various hormones and stresses response element were identified in the promoters of IbDof genes, and qRT-PCR demonstrated specific IbDof genes responded to various environmental stresses, including cold, drought, salt, and H2O2. Most IbDof genes were regulated by cold treatment; IbDof10 and IbDof14 were up-regulated by drought treatment; IbDof-2, -14, -37, -41, -43 were up regulated by high salt stress; and IbDof-8, -10, -25, -41 were up regulated by H2O2 treatment. In summary, our result indicated that IbDof family genes coordinately regulated the growth and development of sweetpotato and been involved in the various abiotic stresses process.

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    Insights on developing modern corn ecological breeding in southwest China
    PAN Guang-Tang, YANG Ke-Cheng, GAO Shi-Bin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (10): 2427-2434.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13065
    Abstract297)   HTML39)    PDF(pc) (295KB)(228)       Save

    Based on the principle of interaction between genotype and environment (G × E), we analyze the ecological zoning characteristics of maize breeding in southwest China, the development demand of national economy, the development trend of maize industry, the change of breeding target demand, the innovation of breeding technology system and so on. We focus on the systematic summary and explanation of the connotation of maize ecological breeding in southwest China in the new period. Further condensed with “full attention and utilization of (G × E) interaction” as the core, “industrialization of breeding objectives, diversification of variety types, special identification of variety selection, regionalization of variety layout, and collectivization of variety promotion.” the development concept of “modern ecological breeding” in Southwest corn region with the main content of “model of variety cultivation” systematically put forward the breeding goal of “low risk and high efficiency new hybrid” in the new period, which is characterized by “stable yield, high efficiency, environment-friendly, high quality and safety, easy seed production and harvest by machine ”. In order to promote the sustainable and healthy development of maize production and industry in southwest China, we proposed the following aspects should be emphasized in breeding technology system: 1) the path is to improve disease resistance and stress resistance of new varieties based on the premise of fine exploration and accurate identification of excellent and specific breeding resources; 2) the key is to utilize different heterotic groups, especially the cultivation of excellent inbred lines of tropical germplasm groups urgently needed in different ecological regions, and the identification of new hybrid combinations in specific ecological regions under multi-point biotic and abiotic strong stress for multi-year; 3) the guarantee is to popularize new varieties with stable yield, high yield and high efficiency guaranteed by efficient utilization of resources in specific ecological regions, environment-friendly and sustainable development of maize production.

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    Mechanism of drought and salt tolerance of OsLPL2/PIR gene in rice
    ZHOU Wen-Qi, QIANG Xiao-Xia, WANG Sen, JIANG Jing-Wen, WEI Wan-Rong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1401-1415.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12032
    Abstract296)   HTML38)    PDF(pc) (24995KB)(383)       Save

    Drought threatens global agricultural production and limits the prospects for sustainable agricultural development. Plant leaf epidermis plays a vital role in the process of growth, development, and resistance to adversity stress, and water and gas exchange with the external environment. In this study, compared with the wild-type Zhonghua 11 (ZH11), we found that mutants less pronounced lobe epidermal cell 2-1 (lpl2-1) and less pronounced lobe epidermal cell 2-2 (lpl2-2) were more sensitive to drought and salt stress response, and the survival rate after rewatering was extremely significantly reduced, which was less than half of the control. Compared with ZH11, lpl2-1 and lpl2-2 had shorter plant height, shorter root length, significantly increased stomatal density and stomatal openings in the same phyllodes, and the serrated lobe of the epidermal cell margin becomes smoother, and the epidermal cell nesting was not tight, which might result in faster and more water loss of lpl2-1 and lpl2-2 than ZH11. The water loss experiment of separated leaves also proved that the water loss rate of lpl2-1 and lpl2-2 leaves was higher than that of the ZH11 in equal time. Overexpression of OsLPL2 was transferred into lpl2-1, and the OE-OsLPL2/lpl2-1 transgenic positive plants recovered the smooth epidermis of lpl2-1 and the sensitive phenotype to drought and salt stress. These results showed that OsLPL2 gene not only controlled the microfilament synthesis and morphogenesis of rice epidermal cells, but also played a key role in response to plant stress by regulating stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and root growth and development. This study provides a theoretical basis for revealing the molecular regulation mechanism of OsLPL2 in response to drought stress in rice.

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    Changes of anthocyanins and expression analysis of synthesis-related genes in potato during storage period
    LI Jie-Ya, LI Hong-Yan, YE Guang-Ji, SU Wang, SUN Hai-Hong, WANG Jian
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (7): 1669-1682.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14111
    Abstract296)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (4108KB)(280)       Save

    Researches on the biosynthesis mechanism of anthocyanins have been widely done in plants, while little information is available on the mechanism of anthocyanins degradation and compositions in anthocyanins. The storage period affects the quality of potatoes. During storage period, the changes in anthocyanins content and composition of colored potato tubers remains unclear. In this study, the contents and components of anthocyanins and reducing sugar content were measured during storage period. Additionally, the relative expression of anthocyanins metabolism related genes (StPAL, StC4H, St4CL, StF3H, StDFR, StUFGT, StF35H, StAN1, and StbHLH1) were analyzed using qRT-RCR. The results showed that with the extension of storage period, the total contents and components of anthocyanins decreased. The relative expression levels of anthocyanins metabolism-related genes were down-regulated, but not StDFR in Heijingang. During storage period, the elevated reducing sugar might affect the anthocyanin content. Overall, these results indicated that a high level of anthocyanin during storage contributed to the high-quality colored potato, providing theoretical basis for breeding new colored potato varieties and manufacture products in future.

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    Application of Fhb1 gene in wheat breeding programs for the Yellow-Huai Rivers valley winter wheat zone of China
    MA Hong-Bo, LIU Dong-Tao, FENG Guo-Hua, WANG Jing, ZHU Xue-Cheng, ZHANG Hui-Yun, LIU Jing, LIU Li-Wei, YI Yuan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (3): 747-758.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11019
    Abstract293)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1279KB)(159)       Save

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is an important disease that seriously threatens the safety of wheat production. Breeding progress of resistant cultivars has been limited due to absence of the resistant sources with facultative growth habit and poor screening environment in the Huang-Huai region, the main wheat producing area of China. Fhb1, as the most effective and stable gene, is the only gene widely used in the global breeding programs for improving FHB resistance of wheat. However, utilization of Fhb1 in the Yellow-Huai River Valleys Winter Wheat Zone is limited so far. In this study, several excellent advanced lines with Fhb1 were developed by limited backcrossing and molecular marker-assisted selection in the BC2F1 progenies of the susceptible variety Aikang 58 (the recurrent parent) and H35 (the donor parent of Fhb1 gene). Then, the individuals were used to cross with Xumai 36 and Xumai 2023 (with high yield but susceptible to FHB), and a series of elite lines with Fhb1 were developed using the doubled haploid and the traditional pedigree selection methods. Xumai DH9 and Xumai 17252 were moderate resistance to FHB in different screening environments for several years. The average resistance level of the lines with Fhb1 gene was significantly higher than that of the susceptible control. The introduction of Fhb1 significantly improved the resistance to FHB, but some lines were still highly susceptible, indicating that the resistance to FHB was affected by other genetic factors. This study provides an example for the use of Fhb1 gene in improving FHB resistance in the Yellow-Huai River Valleys Winter Wheat Zone of China.

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    Estimation and evaluation of paddy rice canopy characteristics based on images from UAV and ground camera
    WANG Ze, ZHOU Qin-Yang, LIU Cong, MU Yue, GUO Wei, DING Yan-Feng, NINOMIYA Seishi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1248-1261.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02065
    Abstract293)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (12317KB)(467)       Save

    Phenotypic monitoring of rice in the field can be used to analyze traits related to rice yield, which is of great significance to guide rice cultivation management and yield prediction. In this study, to explore the applicability of image analysis methods to evaluate rice growth in different fields under multiple cultivars and cultivation environments, we estimated and evaluated the main phenotypic parameters of rice canopy in paddy fields with six different cultivars under three nitrogen treatments. Based on UAV and field fixed camera images, this study used image processing, three-dimensional modeling and machine learning to automatically estimate rice canopy coverage, plant height, and panicle number in the field, and evaluated the accuracy combining with the actual measurement results. The results showed that the rice canopy segmentation based on the decision tree classification model using UAV images were consistent with the manually segmented results (mean value and variance of Qseg was 0.75 and 0.08), and the rice canopy coverage calculated by this method had a relatively high correlation with that calculated by manually segmentation (R2= 0.83, RMSE = 5.36%). The average rice plant height estimated by the canopy height model in each plot had a high correlation with the mean plant height measured in the field (R2= 0.81, RMSE = 9.81 cm), but it was underestimated as a whole. Based on the ground image, the panicle count results obtained by decision tree classification and morphological parameter filter had a relatively high correlation with the measured panicle number (R2= 0.83, RMSE = 10.99). Overall, combined with image analysis algorithm, using low-altitude UAV remote sensing technology to high-throughput and automatically estimate rice canopy coverage and plant height can achieve relatively high accuracy; using image from ground camera to accurately count the rice panicle number is of significant potentiality. The proposed pipeline in this research could be used to analyze nitrogen effect on rice growth status and evaluate nitrogen response of different rice cultivars, and it is of great significance for mining rice field phenotypic information and yield prediction.

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    Genome-wide association analysis and candidate gene selection of yield related traits in rice
    YANG Fei, ZHANG Zheng-Feng, NAN Bo, XIAO Ben-Ze
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (7): 1813-1821.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12047
    Abstract292)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (4541KB)(383)       Save

    Rice is the most important food crop for more than half of the world’s population, and the cultivation of rice varieties with high and stable yield is crucial for solving the world’s food problems. In this study, 226 rice core materials with relatively consistent growth stage were selected from “3K Rice Genome Project” and 2429 kb of high density genotype and 10 agronomic traits including growth period, plant height, effective panicle number, panicle length, spikelet density, seed setting rate, thousand-grains weight, yield per plant, spikelet per panicle, and grains per panicle were investigated by genome-wide associate study combined with 2429 kb of high-density genotype data. A total of 43 loci significantly associated with main agronomic traits were identified, including seven known loci, such as qRGP7.2, qPH12, qPL6.2, qSD6.2, qTGW1.1, qGP1, and qGP5.2. Six candidate genes were screened out, including LOC_Os12g18760 related to plant height, LOC_Os03g33530 related to effective panicle number, LOC_Os06g30940 related to panicle length, LOC_Os01g49810 related to thousand grains weight, LOC_Os09g25260 related to yield per plant, and LOC_Os09g32620 related to spikelet density and spikelet per panicle. These results provide important gene resources and the theoretical reference for genetic improvement of rice yield.

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Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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