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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of B-box gene family in wheat
    WANG Yan-Peng, LING Lei, ZHANG Wen-Rui, WANG Dan, GUO Chang-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1437-1449.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01077
    Abstract531)   HTML49)    PDF(pc) (3123KB)(384)       Save

    B-box (BBX) is a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The number, gene structure and phylogenetic relationship of wheat B-box transcription factors, as well as their expression specificity in different tissues and response to abiotic stress were investigated. A total of 87 members of B-box gene family were identified from wheat genome and all contained the B-box domain. TaBBXs encoded 146 to 489 amino acids and the isoelectric points ranged from 4.32 to 10.42. Chromosome mapping showed that these genes were distributed on 18 wheat chromosomes except 1A, 1B, and 1D. Based on phylogenetic analysis, TaBBXs were divided into five subfamilies, with 0-4 introns. The members of the subfamily in the same phylogenetic tree branch in the same group had highly similar gene structures. The qRT-PCR revealed that the investigated 20 genes had different expression patterns, and most genes were highly expressed in leaves, and TaBBX10 and TaBBX39 were only highly expressed in leaves, while TaBBX74 was expressed in spikes, TaBBX43 was specifically expressed in roots. These genes showed different expression patterns under different stress. 11 genes were up-regulated after low temperature stress, 13 genes were down-regulated after ABA treatment, 10 genes were up-regulated after salt stress, and 7 genes were down-regulated after drought stress. TaBBX10, TaBBX39, TaBBX60, TaBBX67, and TaBBX74 were significantly up-regulated under two or more stresses.

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    Research advances of cover crops and their important roles
    JIAN Shu-Lian, LI Shu-Xin, LIU Sheng-Qun, LI Xiang-Nan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03058
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    In crop planting system, the influences of field weeds and soil properties on crop growth and development, yield, and quality have always been paid close attention to agriculture field. Overdose applications of chemical fertilizers and herbicides are beneficial for crop yield and well control of weeds, however, their negative impacts on soil and environment seriously restrict the sustainable development of agricultural production. Planting cover crops have been considered as a novel strategy to achieve sustainable agricultural development, which can help to control weeds, reduce nitrogen application, and improve soil quality. We summarize the current research advance progress of cover crops and their application in crop cultivation, including the origin and development process, main types, functions, and cropping systems of cover crops, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the research and application of cover crops in agriculture production in China.

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    Identification of gene co-expression modules of peanut main stem growth by WGCNA
    WANG Ying, GAO Fang, LIU Zhao-Xin, ZHAO Ji-Hao, LAI Hua-Jiang, PAN Xiao-Yi, BI Chen, LI Xiang-Dong, YANG Dong-Qing
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (9): 1639-1653.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04223
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    This study was investigated the difference of transcriptome using three different peanut varieties with high main stem by RNA-seq. Transcriptomics combined with weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to explore the hub genes related to main stem growth and the molecular mechanisms of morphological formation of peanut stems. Results showed that 5872 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the Df216 and Huayu 33 comparation group, while 6662 DEGs were detected in the Df216 and Shanhua 108 comparation group. GO analysis suggested that these DEGs were mainly involved in molecular function and biological process, including the primary and secondary cell wall organization and biogenesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic and metabolic process, lignin biosynthetic process, and cellulose synthase activity, respectively. There were 33 modules were identified by WGCNA, among which five modules (Grey60, Cyan, Darkolivegreen, Brown, and Blue) were highly significant association with main stem height. According to the connectivity of genes in modules, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, transcription factorATAF2, WAT1 (walls are thin1), and GDSL esterase/lipase were the hub genes, respectively. The results of hub gene networks by weighted values indicated that coumaroylquinate 3’-monooxygenase, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, rapid alkalinization factor,COBRA-like protein, and zinc finger protein had high connections with ADRL3Lin the Grey60 module, while β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase, pectin acetylesterase, leucine-rich repeat extensin-like protein had high connections with TZB0A2 in the Brown module. The identification of co-expression modules and their hub genes, and the analysis of gene function and gene networks of key genes will be helpful for revealing the genetic basis of the main height in peanut.

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    Chromosome transmission in hybrids between tetraploid and hexaploid wheat
    LUO Jiang-Tao, ZHENG Jian-Min, PU Zong-Jun, FAN Chao-Lan, LIU Deng-Cai, HAO Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1427-1436.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01067
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    Tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., AABB) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) are two main types of cultivated wheat. Transferring the genes from tetraploid wheat (or hexaploid wheat) into hexaploid wheat (or tetraploid wheat) by distant hybridization is an important method for wheat genetic improvement. However, the F1 hybrid of tetraploid/ hexaploid wheat was pentaploid with unbalanced genome composition, containing two sets of genomes A and B, and only one set of genome D. The genetic divergences from both nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the two parents may affect the chromosome transmission efficiency of pentaploid hybrids. In the present study, tetraploid or hexaploid wheats with different genetic backgrounds were used as female or male parents to generate pentaploid F1s. The chromosome composition of F2s were analyzed by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results showed that the genetic background of parent lines has a significant effect on the self-setting rate of F1s. The A and B genome chromosomes were relatively stable during F1 self-process, and the mean total number of A and B chromosomes per F2 individual was close to 28 in both AABB/AABBDD and AABBDD/AABB F2s (27.9 vs. 28.0). However, the average number of D chromosomes retained in F2s with tetraploid wheat as female parent was significantly higher than that with hexaploid wheat as female parent (7.0 vs. 2.9). Therefore, when tetraploid wheat was the final target progeny, hexaploid wheat should be used as the primary female parent to generate F1 hybrids; vice versa, tetraploid wheat should be used.

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    Research advance on optimizing annual distribution of solar and heat resources for double cropping system in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain
    ZHOU Bao-Yuan, GE Jun-Zhu, SUN Xue-Fang, HAN Yu-Ling, MA Wei, DING Zai-Song, LI Cong-Feng, ZHAO Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (10): 1843-1853.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.13012
    Abstract466)   HTML33)    PDF(pc) (298KB)(340)       Save

    Optimizing the distribution of annual solar and heat resources is an important way to improve the annual yield and resource use efficiency without increasing input for the winter wheat-summer maize of the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain. During 1980s, the researchers began to explore ways to increase the efficiency utilization of solar and heat resources from the sowing/harvest adjustment, variety selection, and intensive cropping system innovation. Based on study of matching relation between crop growth and resources, a technological approach to optimize the distribution of solar and heat resources was put forward by strengthening the high photosynthetic efficiency of “C4 maize”. Then, the winter wheat and summer maize “double late” technology, winter wheat/spring maize/summer maize, winter wheat/spring maize/summer maize/autumn maize cropping systems were established, which realized high yield and high efficient utilization of resources. In this paper, we reviewed current theoretical and regulation approaches for optimizing distribution of solar and heat resources of double cropping system in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain. Then proposed a quantitative and optimal resources distribution method for double cropping system, and set up the unified quantitative indexes for resources distribution between winter wheat and summer maize, which could provide theory support for further increasing anniversary production and resource utilization efficiency of the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain.

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    Research progress regarding the function and mechanism of rice AP2/ERF transcription factor in stress response
    CHEN Yue, SUN Ming-Zhe, JIA Bo-Wei, LENG Yue, SUN Xiao-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 781-790.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12026
    Abstract434)   HTML55)    PDF(pc) (277KB)(364)       Save

    AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor) is a family of plant specific transcription factors that are widely involved in various biological processes including plant growth and development and stress responses. Rice is an important food crop in China, but it is severely affected by multiple adverse environmental factors during growth period. It has been found that AP2/ERF transcription factors play important roles in stress response in rice. In this paper, we reviewed the classification and structure architecture of rice AP2/ERF transcription factors and summarized the function and molecular mechanism of different AP2/ERF subfamilies in rice response to disease, drought, saline, and low temperature stresses. This study provides a reference for further interpretation of the molecular network of rice AP2/ERFs-mediated regulatory network in stress responses and their application potential for stress resistance improvement of rice cultivars.

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    Cloning and expression analysis of lncRNA27195 and its target gene TaRTS in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)
    WANG Na, BAI Jian-Fang, MA You-Zhi, GUO Hao-Yu, WANG Yong-Bo, CHEN Zhao-Bo, ZHAO Chang-Ping, ZHANG Ling-Ping
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1417-1426.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01071
    Abstract428)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (3770KB)(367)       Save

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a non-coding RNA length over 200 bp, which is abundant in plants. It plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response by regulating gene expression or protein function. In the previous study, a fertility-related lncRNA named lncRNA27195 was screened and obtained by transcriptome sequencing from the anther of wheat Photoperiod-thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (PTGMS) line BS366. To investigate the function of lncRNA27195 in wheat, the lncRNA27195 gene and its target gene TaRTS were cloned from BS366. Bioinformatics analysis were performed on TaRTS. The expressions of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS in different tissues and their expression correlation between them were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS under different light and temperature treatments, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were investigated. The results showed that the TaRTS gene with 315 bp length, encoded 104 amino acids. Additionally, RTS proteins were only found as anther-specific proteins in gramineae plants. Both lncRNA27195 and TaRTS with a significantly positive correlation were highly expressed in stamens, and revealed different expression patterns in different fertility environments. The results demonstrated that the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS were also regulated by light and temperature. In addition, we found that the appropriate concentration of MeJA could promote the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS while SA could inhibit the expression. The results indicated that under the induction of photoperiod, temperature, and plant hormones, IncRNA27195 positively regulated TaRTS gene expression, resulting in affecting pollen development and male fertility. This study contributed to the mechanism research and production application of PTGMS wheat.

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    Research progress on genetic regulatory mechanism of seed color in soybean ( Glycine max)
    QIU Hong-Mei, CHEN Liang, HOU Yun-Long, WANG Xin-Feng, CHEN Jian, MA Xiao-Ping, CUI Zheng-Guo, ZHANG Ling, HU Jin-Hai, WANG Yue-Qiang, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (12): 2299-2313.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.14022
    Abstract418)   HTML48)    PDF(pc) (2315KB)(350)       Save

    The color of soybean seeds is an important morphological marker and evolutionary trait. During the process of domestication, seed coat has gradually evolved from black to yellow, green, black, brown, and bicolor, and cotyledons has evolved from green to yellow. The dark seed coat contains anthocyanins, which are natural pigments with medicinal and nutritional values. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the genetic regulation mechanism of seed color for evolutionary theory, variety breeding, and practical application. The pigment content and composition of seeds result in diverse seed coat colors through complex molecular regulatory mechanisms. In this paper, we described the research progress on genetic loci, related genes, regulatory mechanisms, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways that controlling the color of soybean seeds. Specifically, we introduced the 9 classical genetic loci I, R, T, O, W1, K1, G, D1, D2, and related molecular markers, as well as the interactions between the loci; 22 related genes that controlling seed color, and the regulatory mechanisms of some allelic variants; as well as the physiological functions of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways and major metabolites involved in the related genes. The progress of researches on genetic regulation of the color of seed coat, seed hilum, and cotyledon in soybean was reviewed, in addition the regulatory network was mapped with genetic loci, genes, allelic regulatory mechanisms, and flavonoid metabolic pathways, in order to provide references for the quality of seed appearance and genetic improvement of anthocyanin components.

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    Research progress on traits and assessment methods of stalk lodging resistance in maize
    ZHAO Xue, ZHOU Shun-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 15-26.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03055
    Abstract411)   HTML45)    PDF(pc) (959KB)(583)       Save

    Maize stalk lodging causes yield loss, decreases grain quality, increases harvest costs, and makes it impossible for grain dehydration after physiological maturity which limits mechanical grain harvest. Previous researches have been conducted to study the traits related to stalk lodging, including morphological and anatomical traits, chemical constituents of the plant and internode. However, there exist some disagreements, and lack quantitative studies on stalk lodging resistance. In this study, we review the evaluation methods and indicators of stalk lodging resistance, the determination methods of mechanical properties as well as analysis methods of stalk lodging related traits and some factors that may have effects on the results. Furthermore, we put forward the existing problems in previous researches on traits and evaluation indicators related to stalk lodging resistance and the contents need to be given further attention. These results provide a reference for further study of maize stalk lodging resistance traits and evaluation methods, lodging resistance breeding and optimization of cultivation measures.

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    Contents and compositions of amino acids in rice grains and their regulation: a review
    YANG Jian-Chang, LI Chao-Qing, JIANG Yi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1037-1050.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12062
    Abstract387)   HTML53)    PDF(pc) (658KB)(375)       Save

    Amino acids in cereal grains are important nutrients for both human and animals. Increasing the content of amino acids in the rice grain, especially lysine and other essential amino acids, plays a very important role in improving the nutritional standard of people in the countries with rice as staple food. This paper reviewed some research progresses in the contents and compositions of amino acids in the mature grain of rice and their distribution in the different parts of a grain, the synthesis and metabolism of amino acids in the grain, the role of plant hormones in regulating the synthesis and metabolism of on amino acids, and the effects of environmental factors and cultivation practices on the contents and compositions of amino acids in the grain, and discussed the existing problems and key points for future research. It merits further investigating the temporal (at different filling stages) and spatial (at different parts of a grain) distribution characteristics of the contents and compositions of amino acids in a grain during the filling, their physiological and biochemical mechanism, and cultivation regulation and its principle. Such a study is expected to gain new insight into the mechanism in the formation and distributions of amino acids in a rice grain, and explore a new way to increase the contents of amino acids, especially essential amino acids such as lysine, in milled rice.

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    Phylogeny of wild Setaria species and their utilization in foxtail millet breeding
    ZHAO Mei-Cheng, DIAO Xian-Min
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (2): 267-279.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14047
    Abstract373)   HTML45)    PDF(pc) (526KB)(290)       Save

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was domesticated from the wild ancestor, green foxtail (S. viridis), about ten thousand years ago in China. Foxtail millet belongs to Setaria genus, which includes about 125 species of panicoid grasses worldwide, and 15 species of them in China varied from diploid to octoploid. Currently, six genomes in the Setaria genus have been identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Molecular phylogenetic analyses show that the Setaria genus is polyphyletic, in line with the characteristic of diversified genomes. Phylogeny of Setaria genus reveal that foxtail millet is most closely related with green foxtail, and then S. fabrei and S. verticillata, and that A genome of S. italica/S. viridis appears to be closer to B genome of S. adhaeran and C genome of S. grisebachii than the other known genomes. For utilization of wild species resources, foxtail millet breeders have successfully introduced the naturally mutated herbicide-resistant genes from green foxtail into cultivars, resulting in the herbicide-resistant foxtail millet variety. Here, we review the recent advances of wild species of foxtail millet in species classification, genome constitution and phylogenetic relationships, and highlight the utility of the wild species resources for breeding and domestication of foxtail millet. We also discuss the potentials of the wild Setaria species in discovery of domestication genes and breeding in foxtail millet in the future.

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    Effects of waterlogging on rhizosphere microorganisms communities of different soybean varieties
    YU Tao-Bing, SHI Qi-Han, NIAN-Hai , LIAN Teng-Xiang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (9): 1690-1702.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04137
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    Waterlogging affects the composition of rhizosphere microbial community of different soybean varieties. The tolerance of soybean plant with different genotypes to waterlogging is quite different. In this study, waterlogging tolerant soybean genotype (Qihuang 34) and waterlogging sensitive soybean genotype (Jidou 17) were selected. The bacterial diversity, community composition, and network characteristics in the rhizosphere of the two genotypes under different waterlogging time were analyzed via fluorescence quantitative qPCR and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the biomass of waterlogging tolerant genotype and bacterial abundance in its rhizosphere were significantly higher than those for waterlogging sensitive genotype. The PCoA analysis showed that the difference in microbial community composition between waterlogging tolerant and sensitive soybean genotypes changed with waterlogging time (P < 0.05). Under the condition of waterlogging, Yonghaparkia and Unclassified-WD2101, OTU274 (Clostridium) and OTU2334 (Desulfosporosinus) enriched in the rhizosphere of the waterlogging tolerant genotype. The enrichment of these bacteria might be related to waterlogging tolerance. This study provides evidence of the microbial potential in the rhizosphere of soybean against waterlogging.

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    Advances of QTL mapping for seed size related traits in peanut
    HUANG Li, CHEN Yu-Ning, LUO Huai-Yong, ZHOU Xiao-Jing, LIU Nian, CHEN Wei-Gang, LEI Yong, LIAO Bo-Shou, JIANG Hui-Fang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (2): 280-291.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14046
    Abstract369)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (851KB)(344)       Save

    Peanut is an important oil and economic crop in China. Currently, the domestic production of peanut remains far below the needs of consumers. Thus, further improving the yield per unit area is a crucial approach to meet the rising market demand. Seed size related traits are important agronomic traits in peanut, fundamentally contributing to improving yield per unit area. This review summarized the research progress on the regulatory pathways of seed size in plants, molecular markers, genetic linkage map construction, and QTL mapping of seed size related traits in peanut. We discussed the frontline challenges and opportunities for the coming researches of peanut seed related traits and the perspectives of yield improvement in peanut.

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    Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting traits in wheat
    XIE Lei, REN Yi, ZHANG Xin-Zhong, WANG Ji-Qing, ZHANG Zhi-Hui, SHI Shu-Bing, GENG Hong-Wei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (10): 1891-1902.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01078
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    To understand the genetic mechanism of wheat pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat breeding, it is significant to explore marker loci and candidate genes associated with PHS resistance using intact spikes. In this study, a total of 207 wheat varieties (lines) from China and 16,686 SNP markers were analyzed in wheat whole genome. The mixed liner model (Q + K) was used to analyze PHS phenotypic data in three environments. Genome-wide association study showed that there were abundant phenotypic variations in different environments and wheat varieties (lines). The coefficient of variation was 0.34 and 0.25, the polymorphic information content of value (PIC) was from 0.01 to 0.38, and the attenuation distance of whole genome LD was 3 Mb. The population structure and principal component analysis revealed that 207 wheat varieties (lines) could be divided into three subgroups. GWAS results indicated that 34 SNP markers were detected, which were significantly associated with pre-harvest sprouting at P < 0.001. They were located on chromosomes 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5D, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7B, and 7D, and each explained 5.55%-11.63% of phenotypic variation. There were 16 markers loci detected in more than two environments, and the marker Np_Ex_c14101_22,012,676 on 6B chromosome detected in E1, E2, and average environment. Meanwhile, 13 candidate genes were screened out by mining association loci with large phenotypic effect value and stable inheritance. TraesCS3A01G589400LC, TraesCS6B01G138600/TraesCS6B01G516700LC/TraesCS6B01G548900LC, TraesCS6D01G103600, and TraesCS7B01G200100 could affect seed dormancy by regulating the sensitivity of endogenous ABA in plants. The F-box proteins were encoded by TraesCS3B01G415900LC, TraesCS6A01G144700LC, and TraesCS6B01G294800, which played major roles in plant hormone signal transduction, light signal transduction, and flower organ development. TraesCS6A01G108800, TraesCS6B01G138200/ TraesCS6B01G293700 encoded Myb transcription factor family. These candidate genes are important genes related to wheat sprouting.

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    Genetic diversity analysis of Chinese fresh corn hybrids using SNP Chips
    XIAO Ying-Ni, YU Yong-Tao, XIE Li-Hua, QI Xi-Tao, LI Chun-Yan, WEN Tian-Xiang, LI Gao-Ke, HU Jian-Guang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1301-1311.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13031
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    China is a major fresh corn production and consumption country in the world. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among fresh corn hybrids in China has great benefit for hybrid identification and breed cultivation. In this study, an Illumina Maize 6K chip was employed to perform genome-wide scanning for the population structure and genetic distance of 385 fresh corn hybrids nationwide. The results showed that the average genetic diversity of 5067 SNP markers in 385 fresh corn hybrids was 0.406, with a range of 0.097-0.500. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.319, with a range of 0.092-0.375. The results of PCA and population genetic structure analysis revealed that the hybrids were mainly divided into three groups, which were non-sweet corn group (185 varieties), temperate sweet corn group (123 varieties), and tropical sweet corn group (77 varieties). The genetic distance between any two hybrids ranged from 0.132 to 0.472, with an average of 0.37. A total of 160 genome regions indicated strong population differentiation among different groups following FST analysis. Four key genes (sh2, su1, su2, and wx1) of starch synthesis pathway in maize grains were detected. Two candidate genes (sh2 and DGAT1-2) demonstrated different selection patterns in fresh corn groups and were validated using molecular markers. These results provide important theoretical guidance for the breeding and improvement of fresh corn varieties in China.

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    Effects of hydrogen peroxide soaking on germination and physiological metabolism of seeds in peanut
    HAO Xi, CUI Ya-Nan, ZHANG Jun, LIU Juan, ZANG Xiu-Wang, GAO Wei, LIU Bing, DONG Wen-Zhao, TANG Feng-Shou
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (9): 1834-1840.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04187
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    To investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide soaking on peanut germination and seed physiological metabolism, the seed germination and related physiological indexes after seed soaking were determined using peanut variety Kainong 176 as experimental material. The results showed that the germination vigor of peanut was increased from 0 to 24.45%, and the germination percentage was increased from 39.33% to 90.99% by hydrogen peroxide soaking. Hydrogen peroxide treatment increased the content of gibberellin in peanut seeds and decreased the content of abscisic acid at germination stage. The contents of gibberellin in germinating seeds at 0, 24, and 48 hour(s) were 10.82%, 5.73%, and 18.64% higher than those of control, and the contents of abscisic acid were 44.98%, 36.45%, and 39.70% lower than that of control, respectively. At the same time, hydrogen peroxide treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzyme SOD and CAT, increased the contents of soluble sugar and soluble protein, decreased the content of MDA, promoted the catabolism of macromolecular storage substances such as fat, protein, and starch, and provided more ATP and substrates for protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Studies revealed that hydrogen peroxide could promote peanut seed germination under low-temperature stress by mediating antioxidant enzymes, ABA and GA, and storage matter decomposition.

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    Enhancement of plant variety protection and regulation using molecular marker technology
    XU Yunbi, WANG Bing-Bing, ZAHNG Jian, ZHANG Jia-Nan, LI Jian-Sheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (8): 1853-1870.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.23001
    Abstract347)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (834KB)(280)       Save

    Plant variety protection is one of the important approaches for plant intellectual property protection. The distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) and essentially derived variety (EDV) are two major concepts in plant variety protection. DUS-EDV has been evaluated largely through morphological traits and pedigrees at the very beginning, to an integrated approach using morphological traits, pedigrees and molecular marker information and now to a stage largely driven by molecular diagnostics. Molecular diagnostic technology has been evolved from RFLP to SSR and SNP marker systems. The liquid SNP chip, represented by genotyping by target sequencing through capture in solution, has advantages of low cost, high flexibility in marker combinations and wide suitability for DUS-EDV evaluation across plant species. There are two important strategies in DUS-EDV evaluation, one being examined based on the analysis and comparison at the whole genome level and the other being examined at specific genomic regions for target functional loci associated with important phenotypes. Evaluation criteria should be established separately for DUS and EDV. The former can be evaluated based on the criteria constructed for specific fingerprint maps, haplotypes, unique alleles, genomic regions, target functional markers, minimum genetic homozygosity, and within-variety variation, whereas the latter can be examined by the genetic similarity between the potential EDV and check variety estimated using a large number of molecular markers evenly distributed across the genome, rather than by the number of markers. The number and the genomic coverage of molecular markers are two key factors affecting the efficiency and reliability in DUS and EDV assessment. Using only a small number of markers in such assessment will likely result in a large sampling error for the estimates. The threshold of genetic similarity required for distinguishing EDV and non-EDV can vary greatly across plant species and with the levels of plant variety protection. After reviewed the current status of plant variety protection across countries, the authors proposed that a national consultant expert committee should be established for consistent support to implement and improve DUS-EDV system, and an official database system should be constructed for public service and comparison of variety DNA fingerprint data to facilitate innovative activities in plant breeding.

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    Integrating GWAS and WGCNA to screen and identify candidate genes for biological yield in Brassica napus L.
    WANG Yan-Hua, LIU Jing-Sen, LI Jia-Na
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1491-1510.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04175
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    Biomass yield is especially important for Brassica napus, as it is the basis for high yields of crops. In this study, the phenotypic data of the natural populations composed of 588 materials were used for genome-wide association analysis (GWAS). We performed the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of biomass yield using ‘CQ45’ (high biological yield material) and ‘CQ46’ (low biological yield material). A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) network was constructed by integrating transcriptome data of six tissues of the extreme materials, such as stalks, leaves, 30 day after flowering (DAF) seeds of main inflorescence and lateral branch, 30 DAF pod keratin of main branch and lateral branch. We finally screened the candidate genes related to biomass yield. The main results are as follows: Biomass yields in B. napus had positive effects on most yield-related traits; K + PCA model was the best model for biomass analysis of the natural population, and nine significant loci were detected in the best model (P < 1/385691 or P < 0.05/385691); according to 36 groups of transcriptome data, MAD value of each gene was calculated. A total of 5052 genes with MAD value of the top 5% were selected to construct WGCNA. Fifteen gene modules were obtained, among which, five genes co-expression modules were significantly correlated with leaves, stems, and seeds of 30 DAF. The hub genes of the key modules in WGCNA, the significant SNP loci obtained from GWAS, and the extreme phenotypic differential genes were integrated to identify the candidate genes. Their Arabidopsis homologous genes were HCEF1, HOG1, SBPASE, and ACT2, which played the important roles in the Calvin cycle, carbon assimilation, and material accumulation of photosynthesis.

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    Identification of upstream regulators for mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 gene ( BnMAPK7) in rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)
    WANG Zhen, ZHANG Xiao-Li, MENG Xiao-Jing, YAO Meng-Nan, MIU Wen-Jie, YUAN Da-Shuang, ZHU Dong-Ming, QU Cun-Min, LU Kun, LI Jia-Na, LIANG Ying
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (12): 2379-2393.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04280
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    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascade plays a key role in plant growth and development, division, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress resistance. In this study, a 1612 bp promoter of C group BnMAPK7 gene, designated ProBnMAPK7, was cloned from Brassica napus. Promoter structure prediction by PlantCARE revealed that ProBnMAPK7 contained a lot of ACE, MRE, ABRE, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats cis-acting elements, which involved in light, hormones, defense, and wounding responsiveness. At the same time, we analyzed the expression patterns of MAPK7 genes in Arabidopsis and B. napus, and found that MAPK7 played an important regulatory role in growth and development process and responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Different lengths of ProBnMAPK7 were gradually ligated to the pCambia1305.1-GUS expression vector to identify the core fragment. GUS histochemical staining analysis showed that the core fragment of ProBnMAPK7 was located in the -467 to -239 bp (ProBnMAPK7-rPE) region. Three copies of the promoter core fragment were integrated into the genome of Y1H gold to test the AbA background. The data demonstrated that the expression background of ProBnMAPK7-rPE in yeast cells was completely inhibited by 500 ng mL-1 AbA. Using yeast one-hybrid, we screened the library of the upstream regulatory factors of BnMAPK7, and obtained three candidates, including BnNAD1B (NADH dehydrogenase 1B), BnERD6 (early response to dehydration 6), and BnPIG3 (quinone oxidoreductase PIG3-like). Taken together, these results suggested that BnNAD1B, BnERD6, and BnPIG3 might bind to ProBnMAPK7-rPE to regulate the transcription of BnMAPK7, to further involve in photosynthesis and responding to stresses. This study lays a foundation for further elucidating the function of BnMAPK7 in rapeseed, and provides a new perspective for research into MAPKs cascade.

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    Identification of the candidate genes of soybean resistance to bean pyralid ( Lamprosema indicata Fabricius) by BSA-Seq and RNA-Seq
    ZENG Wei-Ying, LAI Zhen-Guang, SUN Zu-Dong, YANG Shou-Zhen, CHEN Huai-Zhu, TANG Xiang-Min
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1460-1471.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04195
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    Bean pyralid is an important leaf-feeding insect in soybean. Identification of insect-tolerant genes from soybean has great significant to the crop insect-tolerant breeding and genetic improvement. In this study, an F2 population with 303 individuals was constructed using insect-resistant line Gantai-2-2 and insect-sensitive line Wan 82-178. 30 F2 insect-resistant individuals and 30 insect-sensitive individuals were selected respectively to construct two DNA pools which were used for the whole-genome re-sequencing. The results showed that there were a total of 11,963,077 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers identified in two parental lines and two mixed pools. According to the association analysis of SNP-index method, a total of 329 genes were located outside the 99% confidence interval. These genes were mainly concentrated in the regions of 5,601,065-5,865,237 bp with a total of 0.26 Mb on chromosome 7, 2,975,110-6,336,096 bp with a total of 3.36 Mb on chromosome 16, and 44,366,115-54,297,600 bp with a total of 9.93 Mb on chromosome 18. Correlation analysis of BSA-Seq and transcriptome sequencing showed that 12 genes were correlated. Then, 12 candidate genes, including CNGC4, WRKY transcription factor 16, AAP7, serine/threonine protein kinase and ZPR1B were identified by bioinformatics analysis, differential expression analysis, and homologous annotation. This study laid an important foundation for the analysis of the molecular mechanism of soybean resistance to bean pyralid and the cloning of anti-insect genes.

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    Preliminary study of genome editing of peanut FAD2 genes by CRISPR/Cas9
    ZHANG Wang, XIAN Jun-Lin, SUN Chao, WANG Chun-Ming, SHI Li, YU Wei-Chang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1481-1490.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04214
    Abstract327)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (3787KB)(301)       Save

    Oleate dehydrogenase (Δ12FAD or FAD2) is the key enzyme catalyzing the dehydrogenation of oleic acid (OA) at the C12 position to produce diunsaturated linoleic acid (LA). It controls the contents and ratios (O/L) of oleic acid and linoleic acid in plants. Increasing evidences in molecular biology research indicate that AhFAD2 is the key gene for the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid, and determines the relative content of oleic acid and linoleic acid in peanut seeds. In this study, the corresponding sgRNA sequences were designed based on AhFAD2 gene sequences, and a CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing vector was constructed to mutate the peanut FAD2A and FAD2B genes. After peanut gene transformation, gene mutations were identified by genomic sequence analysis of transgenic peanut flanking the sgRNA target sites. Target gene analysis indicated that 29 mutations of FAD2A gene in 16 transgenic peanut plants were obtained, among which 16 mutations caused protein sequence changes; 30 mutations in 11 transgenic peanut plants contained mutations in FAD2B gene, among which 17 mutations caused changes in protein sequence. Changes in the protein sequences of the FAD2A and FAD2B genes might affect the enzyme activity, change the catalytic dehydrogenation of oleic acid, hinder the synthesis of linoleic acid, and thus increase the content of peanut oleic acid. These FAD2 gene mutants are valuable in the study of fatty acid metabolism and the breeding of high oleic peanuts.

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    Research progress of crop diseases monitoring based on reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence data
    JING Xia, ZOU Qin, BAI Zong-Fan, HUANG Wen-Jiang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (11): 2067-2079.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03057
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    Crop diseases are biological disasters that affect grain production and quality. The infestation of diseases consumes the nutrients and water, disrupts its normal life process, and causes changes in the internal physiological and biochemical state and external appearance of the crop. Canopy reflectance spectrum can detect crop population structure information well, and chlorophyll fluorescence data can sensitively reflect changes in crop photosynthetic physiology, both methods are capable of detecting crop diseases via remote sensing technology. This article outlined the current research status of crop diseases detection based on reflectance spectrum through remote sensing technology from the aspects of monitoring methods and monitoring scales, summarized the research progress of using active fluorescence, passive fluorescence and coordinated solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy to monitor crop diseases, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of reflectance spectrum and chlorophyll fluorescence data in crop disease early warning detection, and discussed the possible problems in the remote sensing detection of crop diseases. On the basis, we made a prospect for the development of remote sensing monitoring crop diseases. This paper provides an important reference for the subsequent applications of crop diseases detection based on reflectance spectrum and chlorophyll fluorescence data.

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    Genome-wide identification of peanut resistance genes and their response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection
    ZHANG Huan, LUO Huai-Yong, LI Wei-Tao, GUO Jian-Bin, CHEN Wei-Gang, ZHOU Xiao-Jing, HUANG Li, LIU Nian, YAN Li-Ying, LEI Yong, LIAO Bo-Shou, JIANG Hui-Fang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (12): 2314-2323.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04266
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    Peanut is one of the main oil crops, which is harmed by many pathogenic microorganisms during growth and development period. Breeding and selection of disease-resistant varieties is one of the most economical and effective ways to control disease, and disease resistance genes are important genes for plant resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. Here, the whole genome-wide identification of peanut disease resistance genes was carried out for the first time. A total of 4156 candidate disease resistance genes were identified. Among them, 536, 490, 232, 182, and 149 genes were RLK, RLP, NL, CNL, and TNL, respectively. The distribution of disease resistance genes was uneven on chromosomes, and most of them were concentrated on chromosome B02. Transcriptome profiling revealed that 111 genes were specifically expressed in resistant materials, 104 genes were specifically expressed in susceptible materials, 2216 genes were expressed in both resistant and susceptible materials, while 1725 genes were not expressed in both resistant and susceptible materials. Two kinds of differentiate expressed R genes were identified, including five genes in the first group responded to the infection of Ralstonia solanacearum at specific time and 65 genes in the second group which exhibited higher expressions in resistant cultivar than susceptible cultivar. A candidate gene Arahy.5D95TJ was successfully validated by qRT-PCR. In this study, the identification and analysis of peanut disease resistance genes provides the important reference for further research of their functions and molecular breeding of peanut disease resistance.

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    Genome-wide identification and characterization of PIF genes and their response to high temperature stress in potato
    JIAN Hong-Ju, SHANG Li-Na, JIN Zhong-Hui, DING Yi, LI Yan, WANG Ji-Chun, HU Bai-Geng, Vadim Khassanov, LYU Dian-Qiu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 86-98.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04285
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    Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, which integrates external environmental signals such as light and temperature with plant endogenous signal pathways, and then form a complex signal transduction network to precisely regulate the growth and development of plants. Up to now, there are few studies of PIF family genes in potato. Identification and analysis of StPIF family members will help to further improve the yield and quality of potatoes. In this study, BlastP analysis was performed in the potato genome database using Arabidopsis PIFs family member protein sequences as source sequences and seven StPIFs family members were identified. Systemic evolution, chromosome distribution, replication events, protein physicochemical properties, gene structure, motif prediction, promoter cis-acting elements, gene expression pattern, and the response to high temperature stress were also conducted. These results showed that all members of the StPIFs gene family contain Motif 1 (bHLH domain) and Motif 2 (APB domain); multiple cis-regulatory elements involved in light response, hormones, drought, low temperature, and circadian rhythm as well as defense and stress response regulatory elements were predicted in the promoter regions of the StPIF genes. Results of gene expression patterns and high temperature stress response at budding stage revealed that StPIFs family members had obvious tissue expression specificity, indicating their functional differentiation, and most StPIFs members had obvious responses to biotic stress and abiotic stresses including high temperature. In conclusion, these foundlings greatly enriched the understanding of the members of the StPIF family, and laid a theoretical foundation for further exploring the functions of StPIFs genes in responses to biotic stress and abiotic stress during potato growth period including high temperature at tuber stage.

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    An growing-period indicator of maize cultivars for mechanical kernel harvest
    LI Lu-Lu, MING Bo, CHU Zhen-Dong, ZHANG Wan-Xu, GAO Shang, WANG Yi-Zhou, HOU Liang-Yu, ZHOU Xian-Lin, XIE Rui-Zhi, WANG Ke-Ru, HOU Peng, LI Shao-Kun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (11): 2199-2207.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03049
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    The high kernel moisture of maize (Zea mays L.) at harvest stage limits the field-application of mechanical kernel harvesting. The breeding and selection of fast dry-down cultivars is the key to solve this problem. However, there is still a lack of such indicators for evaluating the kernel dry-down rate in China. To explore the indicators, the crop growth and the kernel dry-down of two cultivars, Xianyu 335 and Zhengdan 958, were investigated across various maize belts in China from 2014 to 2018. Between the two cultivars, there were significant varietal differences in thermal times (TT) at the stages of planting-maturity (P-M), planting-25% moisture (P-25%), and maturity-25% moisture (M-25%), respectively. The TTP-M on average were 3039°C d (2752-3249°C d) for Xianyu 335 and 3090°C d (2750-3546°C d) for Zhengdan 958, with a difference value of 51°C d, and the corresponding coefficient of variations (CV) of TTP-M were 4% and 6%, respectively. The TTP-25% on average was 3097°C d (2920-3392°C d) for Xianyu 335 and 3309°C d (2980-3613°C d) for Zhengdan 958, with a larger difference value of 212°C d, while their CV were 4% and 5%. In several, the TTM-25% for Xianyu 335 and Zhengdan 958 were 66°C d (0-287°C d) and 166°C d (36-338°C d) with the CV of 131% and 54%. On account of its better reflection of kernel dry-down rate among cultivars, the TTP-25% could be considered as the growing period indicator for the breeding and selection of cultivars fitting to present mechanical kernel harvesting. In addition, this indicator might vary with region, year, or planting date, the same field and year were recommended to ensure a consistent environmental condition for measuring it. Conclusively, a new indicator (TTP-25%) for breeding and selection of fast dry-down hybrids was proposed, which potentially prompting maize kernel harvesting in China.

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    Mapping and candidate gene analysis of silique number mutant in Brassica napus L.
    ZHAO Gai-Hui, LI Shu-Yu, ZHAN Jie-Peng, LI Yan-Bin, SHI Jia-Qin, WANG Xin-Fa, WANG Han-Zhong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 27-39.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04281
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    The silique number is one of the important components of yield per plant in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the exploitation and utilization of its excellent alleles are essential to increase yield. More than hundreds of silique number QTLs have been mapped in oilseed rape, but they are difficult to be fine-mapped or cloned because of their moderate and unstable effects. A oilseed rape mutant (No.7931) was detected in previous study and it had few siliques at mature stage due to the stop growth after differentiation about 10 flowers on the top of inflorescence. A F2 segregating population consisting of 3400 individuals was constructed using this mutant and another more-silique lines No.73290. Among them, we performed BSA-seq on 30 individuals with extreme more- or less-siliques and detected three associated intervals of 0-1.1 Mb, 4.7-6.2 Mb, and 11.5-12.4 Mb on the C02 chromosome. These genomic intervals contained a total of 522 annotated genes in the reference genome DarmorV8.1, among which 235 genes had functional annotation and SNP/InDel variation. At the early stage of flower bud differentiation, the shoot apical meristems of two parents were subjected to RNA-seq, and a total of 8958 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. These DEGs were significantly enriched into 20 pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and amino acid metabolism (highly associated with flower bud differentiation) and so on, among which 99 were located in the associated intervals. By the integration of gene functional annotation as well as sequence and expression variation analysis, a total of nine candidate genes (BnaC02g00490.1D2, BnaC02g01030.1D2, BnaC02g01120.1D2, BnaC02g00270.1D2, BnaC02g02670.1D2, BnaC02g08680.1D2, BnaC02g08890.1D2, BnaC02g09480.1D2, and BnaC02g10490.1D2) were identified, which were mainly involved in the maintenance of inflorescence meristems and the regulation of flower development. The above results lay the foundation for the following fine-mapping and cloning of the silique number mutant gene in oilseed rape.

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    Comparison of tolerances to nitrogen fertilizer between compact and loose hybrid indica rice varieties
    YANG Zhi-Yuan, SHU Chuan-Hai, ZHANG Rong-Ping, YANG Guo-Tao, WANG Ming-Tian, QIN Jian, SUN Yong-Jian, MA Jun, LI Na
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1593-1602.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02036
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    To explore the tolerances of compact hybrid rice (CHR) and loose hybrid rice (LHR) varieties to nitrogen fertilizer, three split-plot designed experiments were applied with main plot of four rice varieties (Longliangyou 1206, CHR; Y Liangyou 1, CHR; Yixiangyou 2115, LHR; and Fyou 498, LHR), and the sub-plot contained four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, N0; 90 kg hm-2, N90; 150 kg hm-2, N150; and 210 kg hm-2, N210). The results revealed that CHR was more tolerant to high nitrogen than LHR, and when the applied nitrogen was not higher than 150 kg hm-2, the yields of LHR were higher than those of CHR. When the applied nitrogen reached 210 kg hm-2, the single panicle weight advantage of CHR increased to 14.46%, while the effective panicle disadvantage decreased to 12.46%, then the yield of CHR was 1.43% higher than that of LHR. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that peak seedlings, growth rate from elongation to heading stage, leaf area index (LAI) and extinction coefficient (K-value) which characterized the degree of leaf stretching were positive contributions to CHR and LHR. The effective panicle rate at elongation and heading stages contributed negatively to the yield, but had the opposite effect on the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Except K-value, the other indicators contributed similarly to yield, as did the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Under N0 and N90, LAI and K-values of CHR were smaller than LHR, and the radiation interception rate was also lower than LHR. When nitrogen applied increased from 150 kg hm-2 to 210 kg hm-2, the K-value of CHR increased significantly, while LHR almost unchanged, resulting in the higher radiation interception rate at heading stage of CHR than LHR, indicating that the leaf stretching of CHR was sensitive to high nitrogen.

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    Characterization of the promoter and 5'-UTR intron in AhFAD2-1 genes from peanut and their responses to cold stress
    SHI Lei, MIAO Li-Juan, HUANG Bing-Yan, GAO Wei, ZHANG Zong-Xin, QI Fei-Yan, LIU Juan, DONG Wen-Zhao, ZHANG Xin-You
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (9): 1703-1711.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04247
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    Delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) catalyzes the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid and is the determination of the level of oleic to linoleic acid ratio (O/L) in peanut oil. Peanuts with high oleic acid content are more susceptible to cold stress than those with normal oleic acid content, suggesting that FAD2 plays important roles in response to cold stress. To explore the role ofFAD2s during the process of cold stress acclimation in peanut, the genomic structures of AhFAD2-1A/Bwere determined; the function of promoters, intron of AhFAD2-1A/Band their response to cold stress were characterized by using β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter system in transgenic Arabidopsis. The results were as follows: AhFAD2-1A/B genes consisted of two exons and one intron within their 5'-UTR; promoter ofAhFAD2-1A was too weak to be detected and the promoter of AhFAD2-1B poorly activated the expression level of GUS in cotyledon tip of seedlings; the promoter of AhFAD2-1pseudogene activated GUS expression limited to cotyledon, hypocotyl, and seed. The intron of AhFAD2-1B demonstrated promoter-like activity which was restricted in cotyledon and hypocotyl, and not only enhanced the gene expression efficiency but also expanded gene expression range. Intron-mediated enhancement was an essential aspect of AhFAD2-1expression. Activities of 5'-flanking region of AhFAD2-1A/B were repressed by the cold stress.

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    Effects of phosphorus fertilizer on kernel phytic acid and zinc bioavailability in sweet corn
    SU Da, YAN Xiao-Jun, CAI Yuan-Yang, LIANG Tian, WU Liang-Quan, MUHAMMAD Atif Muneer, YE De-Lian
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 203-214.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13032
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    To clarify the effects of phosphorus fertilizer on nutritional characteristics of sweet corn kernels, the temporal (different filling stages) and spatial (upper, middle, and lower cob; kernel skin dregs, endosperm and embryo) variations of phytic acid (PA), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) contents and Zn bioavailability of sweet corn kernels and their responses to exogenous phosphorus fertilizer were investigated using filed phosphorus fertilizer experiment (P fertilizer location experiment for sweet corn genotypes and P fertilizer level experiment). The results were as follows: P fertilizer mainly inhibited Zn bioavailability by suppressing Zn concentration in sweet corn kernels, and increased PA concentrations concurrently. P fertilizer input showed significant effects on the accumulation of PA, P, and Zn (mg plant-1) after 16-24 days of silking, while inhibitory effects were detected on Zn bioavailability at different kernel filling stages. There was no significant difference in the kernel of PA (g kg-1) and zinc bioavailability among different cob positions under medium P treatment. However, the high P level significantly improved the accumulation of PA in the middle and lower cob, while the inhibitory effect was found on the kernel of Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability at all cob positions. Among different parts of the kernel (skin dregs, endosperm, and embryo), the concentrations of PA, P, and Zn were the highest values in the embryo and their accumulation were the highest value in the endosperm, while Zn bioavailability was also the highest in the embryo. High P treatment significantly increased PA and P concentrations and decreased Zn concentration and its bioavailability at different kernel positions. Hence, optimized phosphorus fertilizer application could promote kernel Zn accumulation, while excessive P fertilizer input significantly increased PA accumulation at different filling stages, as well as in the endosperm and embryo, and eventually had a significant inhibitory effect on kernel Zn bioavailability in sweet corn at different cob and kernel positions. This study provides a theoretical reference for the biofortification of Zn in sweet corn seeds.

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    Effects of plastic film mulching on leaf metabolic profiles of maize in the Loess Plateau with two planting densities
    NIU Li, BAI Wen-Bo, LI Xia, DUAN Feng-Ying, HOU Peng, ZHAO Ru-Lang, WANG Yong-Hong, ZHAO Ming, LI Shao-Kun, SONG Ji-Qing, ZHOU Wen-Bin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1551-1562.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03053
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    In the Loess Plateau, the study of leaf metabolomics under plastic mulching is an important step to explore the mechanism of plastic film mulching to increase grain yield in maize. Metabolomics analysis was performed on the leaves of two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335) under two planting densities (7.5×104 and 10.5×104 plant hm-2) and two mulching modes (plastic film mulching and no mulching ) at silking stage using gas chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF) technology. In term of the number of differential metabolites, the response of Xianyu 335 to plastic film mulching was greater than that of Zhengdan 958. The higher planting density reduced the difference in leaf metabolism between plastic film mulching and no mulching. The principal component analysis revealed that both the mulching treatment and the cultivar had significant impacts on the composition of the metabolites. The separation of metabolic spectrum along plastic film mulching was mainly driven by organic acids such as citric acid and amino acids; the separation along cultivar was mainly driven by alkanoic acids and phenols. Correlation analysis indicated that resveratrol, phytol and glucose-6-phosphate had significant positive correlations with maize grain yield, whereas glycerol had a significant negative correlation with it. Under plastic film mulching condition, the levels of valine, isoleucine and methionine related to respiration and elimination of photorespiration products; isocitrate related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, methionine, N-acetylaspartic acid and other metabolites that could reduce photoinhibition showed an overall increasing trend. These results indicated that, under plastic film mulching condition, the antioxidant and energy metabolism-related metabolites played important roles in increasing grain yield. The elimination of photorespiration products and the accumulation of metabolites to alleviate photoinhibition were the metabolic bases for the increase of net photosynthetic rate in maize leaves.

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    Response of rhizosphere bacterial community diversity to salt stress in peanut
    DAI Liang-Xiang, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, SHI Xiao-Long, QIN Fei-Fei, DING Hong, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1581-1592.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04160
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    To characterize the peanut rhizosphere bacteria community in response to salt stress, a pot experiment was performed with different salt concentrations. The peanut rhizosphere soils at flowering and mature stages were sampled to extract DNA for constructing bacterial 16S rRNA gene library, and then high-throughput sequencing was performed for sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla, and the orders Saccharimonadales, Betaproteobacteria, Sphingomonadales, Gemmatimonadales, and Rhizobiales were dominated in the peanut rhizosphere soils. Comparisons of the bacterial community structure of peanuts revealed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria dramatically increased, while that of Actinobacteria decreased in salt-treated soils, and the fluctuation increased with the increase of the salt concentration. Moreover, applying calcium fertilizer under salt stress increased the abundance of Betaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Sphingomonadales, which were affected by salt stress, growth stages, and exogenous calcium application. Cluster analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria of soil groups with high salt concentration were similar and clustered together, while the soil samples of the same growth period were similar and clustered together according to the bacterial structure at the genus level under non-salt stress conditions. Bacterial community structure differed in the growth stages and soil salt concentrations, whereas the differences of soil groups with or without calcium application were relatively small. Function prediction analysis indicated that the sequences related to secondary metabolites, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and amino acid and lipid metabolism were enriched in high salt-treated soils. The functional groups increased significantly during the fast-growth period, low salt stress, and basal calcium fertilizer treatments, which may play an important role on the growth and stress response in peanut. This study of microbial communities could lay the foundation for future improvement of stress tolerance of peanuts via modification of the soil microbes.

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    Genome wide association analysis of petiole angle based on 783 soybean resources ( Glycine max L.)
    CHEN Ling-Ling, LI Zhan, LIU Ting-Xuan, GU Yong-Zhe, SONG Jian, WANG Jun, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1333-1345.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14102
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    Petiole angle is one of the important factors that affects the high-efficiency light posture of plants. It is very important to improve soybean plant architecture by adjusting the leaf angle petioles. Soybean petiole angle is a quantitative trait, which is limited to QTLs mapping for most studies up to date. The reported gene GmILPA1controlling leaf petiole angle gene was cloned from mutants. Identification of more regulatory genes and elite alleles is urgent both for the clarification of genetic mechanism for petiole angle and its breeding utilization. In this study, 783 and 690 soybean germplasms were phenotypic for petiole angle in Hainan and Beijing in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and genome-wide associated study (GWAS) were performed using genome-wide distributed SNPs. Results showed that the petiole angle at different nodes (top, middle, and bottom nodes) were in normal distribution, suggesting that the trait of typical quantitative was inheritance. A total of 325 SNPs associated with petiole angle were identified by two-point GWAS analysis in two years, including 51, 230, 10, and 34 SNPs for petiole angles of the top, middle, bottom, and mean value of different nodes, respectively. Three candidate genes (Glyma.05G059700: auxin regulatory protein, Glyma.06G076900: AFR, and Glyma.06G076000: COP9) were obtained by LD block analysis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that all these three candidate genes had high expression level in shoot apical meristem (SAM), however, high expression level were also identified in leaf for Glyma.06G076900, leaf and stem for Glyma.06G076000.

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    Molecular identification and breeding application of allelic variation of grain weight gene in wheat from the Yellow-Huai-River Valley
    ZHANG Fu-Yan, CHENG Zhong-Jie, CHEN Xiao-Jie, WANG Jia-Huan, CHEN Feng, FAN Jia-Lin, ZHANG Jian-Wei, YANG Bao-An
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (11): 2091-2098.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01083
    Abstract292)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (595KB)(230)       Save

    Grain weight is one of the most important yield traits in wheat. To accelerate the application process of dominant allelic variation of grain weight gene in wheat breeding, the allelic variation of grain weight gene was identified by using functional markers and the combinations of dominant grain weight genotypes were investigated the allelic variations of grain weight genes TaCwi-A1, TaGw8-B1, and TaGS-D1 in 183 wheat varieties (lines) from the Yellow-Huai-River Valley were identified by PCR amplification with specific primers. To identify the dominant genotype combinations, the effects of different allelic variation genotypes on wheat grain weight were studied by combining the phenotypic data of the 1000-grain weight (TGW) from 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. The results showed that the difference of TGW between different years was highly significant at P < 0.01. Two alleles, TaCwi-A1a and TaCwi-A1b, were detected at TaCwi-A1 locus, with the frequencies of 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. The frequency of TaGw8-B1a allele on TaGw8-B1 locus was up to 94.5%, while the frequency of TaGw8-B1b allele was only 5.5%. In addition, two alleles, TaGS-D1a and TaGS-D1b, were found in TaGS-D1 locus, and their frequencies were 79.8% and 20.2%, respectively. Further results indicated that there were significant differences in TGW among different allelic variation combinations at P < 0.05. Among them, the average TGW of varieties with TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a genotype was the highest. There was not significant difference in TGW between TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a and TaCwi-A1b/ TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a genotype, but it was significantly higher than other genotypes at P < 0.05. The average TGW of TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1b genotype was the lowest. The allelic variations at the loci of TaCwi-A1, TaGw8-B1, and TaGS-D1 all led to significant changes in TGW, and the allelic variations of TaGw8-B1 and TaGS-D1 loci were more important to TGW in wheat. There were no varieties with three low TGW allelic variation combinations TaCwi-A1b/TaGS-D1b/TaGw8-B1b in the tested materials. Among the seven different allele combinations, the average TGW of three high TGW allelic variation combinations TaCwi-A1a/TaGS-D1a/TaGw8-B1a was the highest, which was the dominant genotype combination.

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    Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of maize defective kernel mutant dek54
    ZHOU Lian, LIU Chao-Xian, CHEN Qiu-Lan, WANG Wen-Qin, YAO Shun, ZHAO Zi-Kun, ZHU Si-Ying, HONG Xiang-De, XIONG Yu-Han, CAI Yi-Lin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (10): 1903-1912.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03060
    Abstract291)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (3857KB)(215)       Save

    Maize kernel is closely related to yield and nutritive quality. Study on the function of maize kernel development relative genes provides important basis for the molecular mechanism analysis, yield increasing and nutritive quality improving. B73 pollen was treated with ethyl methylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and a defective maize kernel defective kernel 54 (dek54) was screened. dek54 had small mature kernel, wrinkled and whitened seed coat phenotype. Genetic analysis indicated that dek54 is a recessive mutant controlled by a single gene. Paraffin sections showed starchy endosperm cells of dek54 had irregular shape and dense arrangement at developmental stage. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated that protein bodies around starch granules in the central region of the dek54 mature kernel endosperm were fewer and arranged more loosely compare to wild type. Total protein, zein, amino acids components contents and total nitrogen content of dek54 mature kernel were significantly lowered compared with the wild type. dek54 was located on chromosome 7 within the interval of the physical distance of about 290 kb between markers SSR6 and SSR7. Sequencing revealed that the 351th base G on the 2nd exon of Zm00001d019294 gene changed into A, which led to the premature termination of the protein translation. Zm00001d019294 gene was specifically expressed in immature maize kernel, and has the highest expression in 12 DAP (days after pollination) immature kernel. Targeted mutation was performed using CRISPR/Cas9 system to identify that mutant phenotype was caused by candidate gene Zm00001d019294. Dek54 encoded an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) protein and had high homology with ZmNRT1.5 (nitrate transporter). Besides, Dek54 protein was localized in the plasma membrane of maize protoplasts. The study of dek54 laid the foundation for the molecular mechanism analysis of maize kernel development.

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    QTL mapping and QTL × Environment interaction analysis of pod and seed related traits in cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)
    MENG Xin-Hao, ZHANG Jing-Nan, CUI Shun-Li, Charles Y. Chen, MU Guo-Jun, HOU Ming-Yu, YANG Xin-Lei, LIU Li-Feng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (10): 1874-1890.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04216
    Abstract290)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (4158KB)(155)       Save

    Pod and seed traits are important agronomy traits, which are closely related to yield in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In the present study, to identify molecular markers closely linked to pod and seed traits, a RIL8 population with 315 families was developed that derived from Jihua 5 with large pod and M130 with small pod of US germplasm. A genetic linkage map containing 363 polymorphic loci was constructed using SSR, AhTE, SRAP, and TRAP markers. All polymorphic loci were mapped on 21 linkage groups, which spanned 1360.38 cM with an average distance of 3.75 cM. Subsequently, a total of 97 QTLs for pod and seed traits were identified by ICIM method at five environments from 2017 to 2018, explaining the phenotypic variations of 2.36%-12.15%, and located on A02, A05, A08, A09, B02, B03, B04, B08, and B09 chromosomes. Among them, nine QTLs were detected for pod length, 13 QTLs for pod width, 14 QTLs for pod thickness, 11 QTLs for seed length, 13 QTLs for seed width, 13 QTLs for hundred-pod weight, 10 QTLs for hundred-seed weight. Four QTLs with major effect were detected, including qPWA08.1, qPTA08.3, qPTA08.4, and qSWB08.5, which explained the phenotypic variations of 10.02%-12.15%. Furthermore, 45 stable QTLs were repeatedly detected in more than three environments. QTL clusters were detected on A02, A08, B02, B04, and B08 chromosomes, respectively. In addition, 15 epistatic QTLs were identified that explaining phenotypic variation of 10.23%-51.84%. These results will provide an important theoretical basis for molecular marker-assisted breeding of pod and seed traits in peanut.

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    Effects of row spacings and nitrogen or mepiquat chloride application on canopy architecture, temperature and relative humity in cotton
    YAN Wei, LI Fang-Jun, XU Dong-Yong, DU Ming-Wei, TIAN Xiao-Li, LI Zhao-Hu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (9): 1654-1665.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04167
    Abstract289)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (806KB)(185)       Save

    Mechanical harvesting is an inevitable trend of cotton production in the Yellow River Valley of China. However, the current row spacings for manual harvest do not match those of spindle-type pickers. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the appropriate row spacings within the adjustable range of cotton spindle pickers (76-102 cm) and to identify supporting agronomic measures. Field study was conducted under stalk incorporation in Hejian city, Hebei province, during 2016-2018, and consisted of two independent experiments of row spacing and nitrogen (N) rate, and row spacing and mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride; DPC) rate. A split-plot design with four replicates was adopted; row spacings (76, 92, and 102 cm) were assigned as main plots at equal population of 90,000 plants hm -2, and N (0, 105, 210 kg hm-2) or DPC rates (0, 140, 281, and 394 g hm-2) as subplots. In normal years of 2016 and 2017, the wider row spacings (92 and 102 cm) showed a slight increase in leaf area index (LAI) and a slight decrease in diffuse non-interceptance (DIFN) relative to narrow row spacing (76 cm); however, in the hot and dry year of 2018, the LAI of wider rows was obviously lower and the DIFN was greater than that of 76 cm rows. The application of N fertilizer showed limited influences on the canopy structure, while the DPC application had strong effects characterized by a significant reduction in LAI and an increase in DIFN. Compared with 76 cm rows, the wider rows increased the average canopy temperature and decreased the relative humidity to different extents. The effect of N fertilizer on canopy microclimate was negligible, and DPC-treated canopy showed a mildly higher temperature and a mildly lower relative humidity. The row spacings did not interact with N or DPC rates to affect the cotton canopy architecture and microclimate.

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    Dissecting the genetic architecture of maize kernel size based on genome-wide association study
    QU Jian-Zhou, FENG Wen-Hao, ZHANG Xing-Hua, XU Shu-Tu, XUE Ji-Quan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (2): 304-319.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13002
    Abstract289)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (4960KB)(585)       Save

    Kernel size related traits are one of the important compounds of yield, and they are also complex quantitative traits regulated by multiple genes. Mining the key regulatory genes of maize kernel size related traits will help to improve the yield. In this study, 212 excellent maize inbred lines were selected as materials. The kernel length, kernel width, and kernel thickness were measured in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 73,006 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers uniformly distributed in maize genome. Based on the FarmCPU algorithm, 47 SNP markers associated with kernel size related traits were detected on 10 chromosomes in maize. Combined with the public dynamic spatio-temporal transcriptional data of kernel development of B73 maize inbred line, 58 candidate genes related to kernel size were detected in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) region marked by significant SNP. The proteins encoded by candidate genes interacted with multiple proteins and participated in and regulated many biological processes closely related to kernel development. These results provide a new reference for understanding the molecular regulation mechanism of maize kernel development, improving kernel size and increasing crop yield.

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    Dissecting the genetic architecture of lodging related traits by genome-wide association study and linkage analysis in maize
    YU Rui-Su, TIAN Xiao-Kang, LIU Bin-Bin, DUAN Ying-Xin, LI Ting, ZHANG Xiu-Ying, ZHANG Xing-Hua, HAO Yin-Chuan, LI Qin, XUE Ji-Quan, XU Shu-Tu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 138-150.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03072
    Abstract287)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (752KB)(281)       Save

    Lodging is one of the main factors affecting the grain yield and mechanized harvesting in maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of lodging related traits can provide a theoretical basis for high yield and mechanized harvest breeding of maize. In this study, genome-wide association study (GWAS) and linkage analysis were combined to identify the significant loci interrelated with lodging related traits using 153 inbred lines from China and abroad. We detected 5, 14, 16, and 21 SNPs significant SNPs related to stem strength, plant height, ear height, and ear height-to-plant height ratio, respectively. Among these significant SNPs, the maximum effect value of a single site was 13.24. Twenty-one QTLs related to lodging related traits were identified by linkage analysis, which explaining the phenotypic variations of 3.86%-16.58% in F5 population constructed by KA105 and KB020. Further, we noticed that two QTL intervals were coincided with the candidate intervals of association analysis. Finally, GRMZM2G105391, GRMZM2G014119, and GRMZM2G341410 candidate genes related to cell wall biosynthesis, cell division and elongation were predicted by functional annotation for these candidate regions. These results can provide a new reference for further analysis of the genetic basis of lodging resistance in maize.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of potato GAUT gene family
    NIU Na, LIU Zhen, HUANG Peng-Xiang, ZHU Jin-Yong, LI Zhi-Tao, MA Wen-Jing, ZHANG Jun-Lian, BAI Jiang-Ping, LIU Yu-Hui
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (12): 2348-2361.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04268
    Abstract284)   HTML30)    PDF(pc) (3346KB)(215)       Save

    Galacturonyltransferases (GAUTs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing glycosylation reactions and play an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, GAUT genes family members in potato (StGAUT) were identified, and their physical and chemical characteristics, distribution on chromosomes, gene structure, conserved motifs, gene duplication events, and expression patterns were analyzed. The results showed that a total of 41 StGAUTs were identified and distributed extensively and unevenly on 10 chromosomes. According to their structural and phylogenetic protein features, these 41 StGAUT genes were divided into four subclasses. Collinearity analysis indicated that 12 pairs of StGAUTs were segmental duplication genes, and these gene pairs evolved under purifying selection. RNA-seq data of different tissues and abiotic stresses were used to analyze tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responses of the StGAUT genes in doubled monoploid potato (DM). Results revealed that StGAUT genes might be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in three different-colored potato cultivars based on RNA-seq data. The results provide valuable information regarding further functional elucidation of StGAUT genes in potato.

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Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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