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    Research progress of seed dormancy and germination regulation
    SONG Song-Quan, TANG Cui-Fang, LEI Hua-Ping, JIANG Xiao-Cheng, WANG Wei-Qing, CHENG Hong-Yan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34012
    Abstract775)   HTML120)    PDF(pc) (3074KB)(866)       Save

    Dormancy enables plant seeds to time germination until environmental conditions become favorable for seedling survival and growth. The dormancy characteristics of seeds are of important ecological adaptive significance and notable agricultural value. Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) are the key factors for seed dormancy and germination. Mature seeds in dormancy state contain high levels of ABA and low levels of GA. ABA induces and maintains seed dormancy, while GA antagonizes ABA and promotes seed germination. DELAY OF GERMINATION-1 (DOG1) is a major regulator of seed dormancy and had a synergistic effect with ABA to delay germination. DOG1 enhances ABA signal transduction by combining with PP2C ABA hypersensitive germination (AHG1/AHG3), and inhibits the action of AHG1 to increase ABA sensitivity and impose seed dormancy. Imprinted genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms before and after fertilization, and are closely related to the establishment and release of seed dormancy. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the regulation of seed dormancy. In the present paper, we reviewed the effects of phytohormones ABA and GA on seed dormancy and germination, the action mechanism regulating seed dormancy by DOG1, and the epigenetic regulation of seed dormancy and germination. In addition, we also propose some scientific issues that need to be further investigated in this field to provide some information for understanding the molecular mechanism of seed dormancy and germination, breeding in anti-preharvest sprouting in crop plants, and promoting the germination of dormant seeds.

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    Research progress on physiological ecology and genetic basis of rice plant architecture
    XU Na, XU Quan, XU Zheng-Jin, CHEN Wen-Fu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (7): 1735-1746.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.22050
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    Rice is one of the most important crops in China and even the world. Plant type is an important agronomic trait of rice, which is closely related to yield, quality, and stress resistance. Plant type improvement has played an important role in rice breeding in the past, and will have a profound impact on rice breeding in the future. On the base of related achievements of Rice Research Institute of Shenyang Agricultural University, this paper comprehensively reviewed the research progress of rice plant type from the aspects of the concept of plant type, physiological ecology, and genetic basis of plant type breeding, and also discussed the existing problems and development direction of rice plant type. With the application of the latest research results of modern molecular biology, analyze the relationship between various organs and their optimal combination among population and individual, define the physiological ecology basis and the molecular regulatory network, and apply to plant type breeding practice, which is expected to achieve a higher level of “ideal plant type breeding” of rice.

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    Types and ratios of starch granules in grains and their roles in the formation and improvement of wheat quality properties
    GAO Xin, GUO Lei, SHAN Bao-Xue, XIAO Yan-Jun, LIU Xiu-Kun, LI Hao-Sheng, LIU Jian-Jun, ZHAO Zhen-Dong, CAO Xin-You
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1447-1454.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21065
    Abstract536)   HTML74)    PDF(pc) (257KB)(623)       Save

    Wheat flour is mainly composed of protein and starch. Gluten, especially the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit, is the key factor determining the dough quality which has been widely accepted by breeders. However, the contribution of starch composition and physicochemical properties to dough quality has not been paid enough attention. Wheat starch has a bimodal size distribution and it is composed of A-type starch granules (diameter more than 10 μm) and B-type starch granules (diameter no more than 10 μm) according to the particle size. There are differences in the physicochemical properties of different types of starch granules. Therefore, the particle size distribution of starch affects the physicochemical properties of the total wheat starch, the gluten network structure, and the gluten-starch interaction of gluten, and finally affects the dough rheological properties, and processing characteristics. In summary, from a view of starch particle distribution, this article reviewed the development and regulation mechanism, physicochemical properties of A- and B-type starch granules, and their contribution to quality and yield. Strategies for future wheat breeding were proposed, that is, the starch properties should be selected and improved. The germplasm with high B-type starch granules proportion and strong gluten-starch interaction should be screened for further utilization. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for breeding the new high-quality and strong-gluten wheat varieties.

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    Comprehensive evaluation of maize hybrids tested in Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize regional trial based on GYT biplot analysis
    YUE Hai-Wang, HAN Xuan, WEI Jian-Wei, ZHENG Shu-Hong, XIE Jun-Liang, CHEN Shu-Ping, PENG Hai-Cheng, BU Jun-Zhou
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1231-1248.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23035
    Abstract515)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (2278KB)(461)       Save

    The objective of this study is to scientifically and accurately conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the tested hybrids participating in the Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize regional trials, and provide theoretical and practical basis for the rational distribution of hybrids and regional planning. GYT biplot analysis was applied to the data of 22 hybrids during 2020?2021 in the Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize regional trials to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the tested hybrids based on grain yield, growth period, grain moisture content at harvest, plant height, ear height, lodging rate, ear length, ear diameter, barren tip length, grain weight per ear, and hundred grain weight. The analysis of variance results showed that the genotype and environment main effects of the evaluated agronomic traits reached significant level at P < 0.05. Genotype and environment interaction effect of other traits had significant level, except for ear diameter, bald tip length, and grain weight per ear, which had no significant difference. The square sum of environmental effect on grain yield, growth period, grain moisture content, ear diameter, bare tip length, 100-seed weight, and the square sum of genotype and environment interaction effect on lodging rate were worth the largest in the square sum of total variance. The results of the correlation analysis showed that grain yield was significantly at P < 0.001 and positively correlated with 100-seed weight, plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, and growth period, but negatively correlated with bald tip length. According to the GYT superiority index, Hengyu 868, Handyu 1806, and Sudan 908 had the best yield-trait combinations. The comprehensive performances of hybrids Shandan 686, Dunyu 291, Hanyu 17-6601, and Hanyu 573 were poor, and the performance of the control hybrid Zhengdan 958 was intermediate. Compared with other tested hybrids, Hengyu 868 had the widest adaptability in the Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize area, indicating outstanding regional yield advantages, and great potential for maize production in the region. Compared with the GT biplot, the GYT biplot showed that the first two principal components explained a higher proportion of variance, a better fit, and a higher reliability of the analysis results. Through GYT biplot analysis, maize hybrids with superior yield-trait combinations were identified, the GYT biplot analysis was a useful analytic tool for graphical evaluation based on multiple traits, and also set up a reference base for comprehensive evaluation of other crops.

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    Identification of rice blast resistance in xian and geng germplasms by genome- wide association study
    ZHOU Hai-Ping, ZHANG Fan, CHEN Kai, SHEN Cong-Cong, ZHU Shuang-Bing, QIU Xian-Jin, XU Jian-Long
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1170-1183.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.22024
    Abstract514)   HTML38)    PDF(pc) (1155KB)(608)       Save

    Rice blast is one of the major fungal diseases that threaten rice production worldwide. To improve rice blast resistance, identifying blast resistant genes and introgressing them into elite rice varieties is an effective way. In this study, a panel of 212 xian accessions and 235 geng accessions collected worldwide were evaluated for resistance against five blast isolates at seedling stage. All of them showed large variations in resistance against five isolates, and 8 xian and 12 geng accessions were detected to present resistance to all five blast isolates. Using genome-wide association strategy, a total of 43 QTLs were identified for resistance to five isolates in mix population (xian subpopulation and geng subpopulation), including 9, 4, 14, 14, and 2 QTLs for GD00-193, GD08-T19, GD17-CQ16, HB1708, and HLJ13-856, respectively. Among them, 12 resistant QTLs were detected only in xian rice sub-population, 7 only detected in geng rice sub-population, and 1 simultaneously detected in both sub-populations, indicating that blast resistance was generally better in xian than in geng rice, and there was obvious differentiation in blast resistance between xian and geng rice. A total of 11 QTLs affected resistance to two or more trains or were simultaneously identified in two or more populations, and 23 candidate genes were identified by candidate interval association analysis and haplotype analysis. Different resistance candidate genes had different frequencies in xian and geng populations. The results provide germplasm resources and favorable genes information for molecular improvement of blast resistance in rice varieties and the breeding and utilization strategies of different resistance genes.

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    A retrospective analysis of the historical evolution and developing trend of maize mega varieties in China from 1982 to 2020
    BAI Yan, GAO Ting-Ting, LU Shi, ZHENG Shu-Bo, LU Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2064-2076.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23067
    Abstract479)   HTML39)    PDF(pc) (489KB)(622)       Save

    Seed is the chip of agriculture and the upgrading of excellent varieties has played an important role in improving the yield of corn in China. It is of great practical significance to study the historical contribution and developing trend of mega maize varieties in China in recent 40 years. Based on the dataset of planting area of individual maize varieties released by the National Extension and Service Center of Agricultural Technology from 1982 to 2020, 27 mega maize varieties such as Zhengdan 958 in recent 40 years with the total promotion of 321 million hectares accounting for 29.09% of the total corn planting area in China were screened..There were four utmost mega varieties (Zhengdan 958, Zhongdan 2, Danyu 13, and Xianyu 335) and six massive mega varieties (Jundan 20, Yedan 2, Nongda 108, Yedan 13, Sidan 19, and Yandan 14). The promotion period was 8-30 years, with an average of 17.63 years, the maximum promotion area in a single year was 699,700-4,569,500 hm2, with an average of 1,507,900 hm2. It was mainly distributed in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, and other production regions and the provinces (regions) with 13 varieties exceeding 666,700 hm2 per year were Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Sichuan. The proportion of planting area of mega varieties to the total area increased rapidly from 1982 to 1989, remained stable from 1990 to 1997, decreased after 1998, and decreased to about 12% by 2020. Some varieties such as Yufeng 303 and Zhongkeyu 505 had the potential to develop into mega varieties. In the future, intelligent design breeding will efficiently cultivate a new generation of breakthrough varieties and accelerate the improvement of maize yield. According to the current maize production problems and future development trends, it is recommended to further improve the regional test of maize varieties in terms of distribution layout, test accuracy and variety approval standards of regional tests.

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    Advances in heat-stress responses at sexual reproduction stage in plants
    CHEN Sai-Hua, ZHONG Wei-Jie, XUE Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (12): 3143-3153.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.32020
    Abstract477)   HTML93)    PDF(pc) (4257KB)(469)       Save

    The occurrence of extreme hot weather poses a threat to crop production. Heat stress suffered at reproductive stage in crops is always correlated with crop yield losses, and thus the underlying molecular mechanisms are of great significance in crop thermotolerance improvement. However, relevant studies are mainly focused on Arabidopsis and less is known in crops. From the perspective of plants, here, we reviewed the heat-stress responses at reproductive stage, including meiosis process, tapetum degradation, microspore development, pollen-tube germination, and fertilization, as well as seed development. Based on these advances, we proposed feasible strategies for thermotolerance improvement, which will pave a way for the breeding of heat-tolerant crop varieties.

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    Construction of evaluation method for tolerance to high-temperature and screening of heat-tolerant germplasm resources of bud stage in soybean
    LI Jia-Jia, LONG Qun, ZHU Shang-Shang, SHAN Ya-Jing, WU Mei-Yan, LU Yun, ZHI Xian-Guan, LIAO Wei, CHEN Hao-Ran, ZHAO Zhen-Bang, MIAO Long, GAO Hui-Hui, LI Ying-Hui, WANG Xiao-Bo, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (11): 2863-2875.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34025
    Abstract466)   HTML54)    PDF(pc) (530KB)(867)       Save

    The frequent occurrence of extreme high temperature (HT) events causes continuous heat damage to soybean production, which seriously damages the yield components and quality traits. The seeds are sensitive to the changes of the external environment at germination stage. The rising temperature and the accompanying drought will affect the emergence of soybean seeds. The establishment of a set of scientific evaluation methods for HT tolerance at bud stage can provide a theoretical basis for the early identification of soybean, the breeding of HT tolerance germplasm, and the study of tolerance mechanism. In this study, 385 germplasm resources varieties were selected as the experimental materials, which creating a HT environment by artificial climate incubator and subjected to HT-stress for 3 d (40℃, 16 h light /8 h darkness) at bud stage of soybean. Compared with the control (25℃, 16 h light /8 h darkness), the hypocotyl length of soybean bud stage was significantly decreased 10.9% under HT stress (P < 0.05). The indices of fresh root weight, dry root weight, and root-shoot ratio increased by 13.10%, 22.20%, and 16.90%, respectively (P<0.01). The results showed that HT-stress significantly affected the surface and underground biomass distribution of bud stage in soybean. Meanwhile, the principal component analysis for the coefficient of HT-tolerance for each trait converted 11 indexes into two principal component factors. The comprehensive evaluation value (H-value) of soybean response to HT-stress was obtained by the standardized analysis of membership function, and cluster analysis was conducted for the tested varieties based on H-value. Ultimately, 385 germplasm resources were divided into 5 grades for the HT-tolerance at bud stage in soybean [namely: Grade I (tolerance), Grade II (strong tolerance), Grade III (medium), Grade IV (strong sensitive), and Grade V (sensitive type)] and four HT-resistant varieties based on the specific performance (H245, H070, H268, and H216) were initially selected combined with the actual heat resistance performance. After the stepwise regression analysis of each index, a predictive model for the comprehensive evaluation of HT tolerance (H-value) at bud stage of soybean was established: H = 0.191 + 0.017X1 - 0.007X2 + 0.013X7 + 0.027X8 - 0.009X10 (R2=0.9752). Five indexes main including hypocotyl length (X1), main root length (X2), hypocotyl dry weight (X7), root fresh weight (X8), and simplified vigor index (X10) were screened out as the evaluation indexes for HT tolerance at bud stage in soybean.

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    Identification and evaluation of salt-alkali tolerance and screening of salt-alkali tolerant germplasm of oat ( Avena sativa L.)
    ZHANG Jing, GAO Wen-Bo, YAN Lin, ZHANG Zong-Wen, ZHOU Hai-Tao, WU Bin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1551-1561.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21032
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    Affected by climate change and human production activities, the world’s salt-alkali land is expanding, and soil salinization has become an important factor limiting the development of agricultural production. Oat is a crop with the strong saline-alkali tolerance. To evaluate the salinity tolerance of oat germplasm resources in China, 485 accessions were stress treated with 125 mmol L-1 NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3 (1:1:1 molar concentration) solution at germination stage. Eight growth indexes, including germination potential, germination rate, root length, bud length, root fresh weight, bud fresh weight, root dry weight, and bud dry weight, were identified at the germination stage of oats. A comprehensive evaluation and screening of oat germplasm resources for salt-alkali tolerance was performed by the correlation analysis, principal component analysis, membership function analysis, and cluster analysis. The results showed that salt-alkali inhibited all eight indexes identified, and a significant positive correlation was observed between the affiliation function values of the indexes under salt-alkali tolerance and with the comprehensive evaluation value. Eight evaluation indexes were converted into two comprehensive indexes by principal component analysis, with a cumulative variance contribution of 76.926%. The membership function analysis combined with cluster analysis screened a total of two oat accessions with high salt-alkaline tolerance (Oat 1606 and Heikowski 596) and classified 485 accessions into five classes, including two highly saline-alkaline tolerance, 49 salt-alkaline-tolerant accessions, 147 medium saline-alkaline tolerance accessions, 129 sensitive saline-alkaline accessions, and 158 high saline-alkaline sensitive accessions. The results of correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and stepwise multiple regression analysis, and the bud length was screened as the preferred indicator for the screening of salt-alkali tolerance in germinating oats, followed by root fresh weight, bud fresh weight, germination potential, and germination rate, which were also important indexes for the comprehensive evaluation and screening of salt-alkali tolerance in germinating oats.

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    Function and application of calcium in plant growth and development
    WANG Yu, GAO Geng-Dong, GE Meng-Meng, CHANG Ying, TAN Jing, GE Xian-Hong, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, FU Ting-Dong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (4): 793-807.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34145
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    Calcium is one of the essential elements in crops. It is widely present in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, and is of great significance for the growth and development of crops. Calcium is a difficult element to redistribute, and its absorption and transport are subject to transpiration. Therefore, crops often experience physiological calcium deficiency, which weakens their stress resistance and reduces both yield and quality. Calcium in crops has dual functions. It not only participates in the formation of cell walls and membranes but also plays a role in responding to various environmental stimuli and internal growth and development signals as an intracellular second messenger. The absorption and transportation of calcium in cells are essential for maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis and ensuring calcium signal transduction. In recent years, the function and application of calcium in crops have been extensively studied. In this study, we describe the distribution, absorption, transportation, and demand of calcium in crops, introduce the symptoms and causes of calcium deficiency in crops, review the nutritional structure functions of calcium, the second messenger function and the mechanism of calcium signal generation, transmission, and decoding, and summarize the role of calcium in crop growth and development, including its effects on yield, quality, and stress resistance. Meanwhile, the future research direction is proposed.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of G2-like transcription factors family genes in wheat
    JIA Yu-Ku, GAO Hong-Huan, FENG Jian-Chao, HAO Zi-Rui, WANG Chen-Yang, XIE Ying-Xin, GUO Tian-Cai, MA Dong-Yun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1410-1425.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21036
    Abstract409)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (7556KB)(531)       Save

    Golden2-like (G2-like) transcription factor, a member of the GARP superfamily of MYB transcription factors, plays an important role in regulating chloroplast development. In this study, genome-wide identification of G2-like genes in wheat was carried out by bioinformatics methods, and their physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, cis-acting elements of promoters, and response patterns to abiotic stresses and hormones were analyzed. A total of 87 G2-like genes were identified from wheat, which distributed in evenly on 21 chromosomes in wheat. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes were divided into 14 subfamilies, and fragment replication was the main reason for the expansion of this gene family. The prediction of protein secondary structure revealed that α helix and random curl were the main amino acid sequences of G2-like gene in wheat. Promoter cis-acting elements showed that there were seven cis-acting elements (P-box, SpI, LTR, ABRE, MBS, TGA-Element, and AE-box) in 2-kb region upstream of the promoter. Among them, Ta3AG2-Like19 contained the most cis-regulatory element binding sites with a total of 18 binding sites. The qRT-PCR revealed. that the relative expression levels of Ta3AG2-like19, Ta3AG2-Like20, Ta4AG2-Like29, and Ta6AG2-Like52 were significantly up-regulated under PEG and salt stresses, and induced by GA, IAA, and ABA hormones. These genes may mediate the response of wheat plant to various abiotic stresses.

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    Heat-inducible transcription factor ZmNF-YC13 regulates heat stress response genes to improve heat tolerance in maize
    MEI Xiu-Peng, ZHAO Zi-Kun, JIA Xin-Yao, BAI Yang, LI Mei, GAN Yu-Ling, YANG Qiu-Yue, CAI Yi-Lin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (7): 1747-1757.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23054
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    Heat stress is an essential factor affecting maize growth and yield formation. The exploration and mechanism analysis of related tolerance genes is an important field for breeding maize heat stress tolerant varieties. However, there is few study in this aspect. In this study, we identified a nuclear factor ZmNF-YC13 associated with heat stress response, and its encoding gene expression was rapidly induced by high temperature and osmotic stress. The promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana heat stress-inducible expression gene AtHSP70 was used to drive ZmNF-YC13 and the heat-inducible expression maize material of ZmNF-YC13 (HSP21Pro:ZmNF-YC13-myc) was successfully screened. Phenotypic analysis after high temperature treatment demonstrated that leaf length, leaf width, shoot thickness, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root were significantly higher than wild type. The relative expression level showed that ZmNF-YC13 could enhance the inducible level of downstream heat stress response genes in response to heat stress. Luciferase reporter assay and ChIP-qPCR assay also revealed that ZmNF-YC13 could regulate the expression of heat stress transcription factor ZmHsfA2c. These results confirmed preliminarily that ZmNF-YC13 could improve the heat tolerance of maize by regulating downstream heat stress response genes, which could provide a theoretical basis for marker-assisted selection and germplasm identification using the polymorphism of this locus.

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    Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of SGR gene family in Brassica napus L.
    TANG Yu-Feng, YAO Min, HE Xin, GUAN Mei, LIU Zhong-Song, GUAN Chun-Yun, QIAN Lun-Wen
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (7): 1829-1842.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24188
    Abstract388)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (5878KB)(170)       Save

    Chlorophyll is a kind of green pigment for plant photosynthesis, which has a direct effect on plant growth. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to identify the members of SGR gene family in Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Most of the 28 SGR genes contained four exons, encoding basic proteins. Chromosome mapping and syntenic analysis showed that there was no tandem duplication in the SGR gene family members of Brassica napus. SGR gene family members had a linear relationship, highly homologous in evolution, and very conserved in the evolutionary process. Moreover, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of chlorophyll content was performed using a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array in 203 Brassica napus accessions. Two haplotype regions (Chr.A01: 6,193,165-6,317,757 bp and Chr.C01: 9,059,861-9,906,618 bp) carrying two SGR genes (BnaSGR1a-A01 and BnaSGR1-C01) were detected, which were significantly associated with chlorophyll content. Meanwhile, the regional association analysis of 50 resequenced rapeseed inbred lines revealed that a SNP located in exon 2 of BnaSGR1a-A01 significantly associated with chlorophyll content. Co-expression network analysis revealed that BnaSGR1a-A01 were directly linked with BnaSGR2-A03, and indirectly linked with BnaSGR1-C01, BnaSGR1-A08, BnaSGR2-C03, BnaSGR1-C07, BnaSGRL-C06, and BnaSGRL-A10, thus forming a molecular network involved in the potential regulation of chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the total chlorophyll content of T2 Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing BnasSGR1a-A01 were significantly lower than wild type, indicating that BnaSGR1a-A01 regulated chlorophyll degradation. This study laid a foundation for the functional research and utilization of SGR gene in Brassica napus L.

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    Mapping soybean protein QTLs based on high-density genetic map
    LIU Ting-Xuan, GU Yong-Zhe, ZHANG Zhi-Hao, WANG Jun, SUN Jun-Ming, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1532-1541.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24121
    Abstract386)   HTML29)    PDF(pc) (2804KB)(363)       Save

    Soybean is an important food crop and economic crop, and its grain protein is about 40%, which is one of the main sources of high-quality vegetable protein. Mining the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control soybean high protein and molecular marker breeding are of great significance for the breeding of high protein soybean. In this study, a recombinant inbred line population consisting of 192 lines constructed by crossing Zhonghuang 35 (ZH35) and Zhonghuang 13 (ZH13) with significant differences in protein content was used as the experimental materials. A high-density genetic map containing 4879 bin markers was constructed with the total genetic distance of 3760.71 cM and the genetic distance between adjacent markers of 0.77 cM by resequencing the two parents and the RIL population. The RIL population and its parents were grown in Shunyi, Beijing and Puyang, Henan, respectively. A total of 15 protein content-related QTL loci were detected in the two environments, which were distributed on chromosomes 5, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, and 20, respectively. The contribution rate was 4.36%-11.39%, among which, qPro-20-1 and qPro-20-3 were detected in Shunyi, Beijing and Puyang, Henan, respectively. The contribution rates of the two QTLs were 7.65% and 7.58%, respectively, and the overlapping regions included 33 genes. This study is helpful for fine mapping and map-based cloning of soybean protein content-related genes, and provides genetic resources for further breeding of high-protein soybean varieties.

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    Genome-wide identification and characterization of MAPK genes and their response to biotic stresses in foxtail millet
    LIU Jia, ZOU Xiao-Yue, MA Ji-Fang, WANG Yong-Fang, DONG Zhi-Ping, LI Zhi-Yong, BAI Hui
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1480-1495.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24113
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    MAPK plays an important role in plant growth and development regulation, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signal transduction. In order to elucidate the biological function of the SiMPK genes in foxtail millet, we identified the SiMPK family members in the genome and analyzed the distribution, structure, evolution, and its expression characteristics in response to different stresses. In this study, the SiMPK gene family members were identified in the genome-wide level using the amino acid sequences of conserved domains and specific TXY motifs of MAPK proteins between foxtail millet and rice. The protein physicochemical property, phylogenetic evolution, chromosome distribution, gene structure, protein conserved motif, promoter cis-acting regulatory elements, and collinearity were analyzed. The relative expression patterns of SiMPK genes in the different tissue, under the biotic stresses of Uromyces setariae-italicae Yoshino and Ostrinia furnacalis and with different hormone treatments were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The results showed that a total of 15 SiMPK genes were identified, and the encoded proteins contained 220-611 amino acids, the relative molecular weight ranged from 25.77 kD to 69.63 kD, and the isoelectric point ranged from 5.46 to 9.34. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SiMPK genes were divided into four groups. Group A, B, and C contained TEY motifs, and group D contained TDY motifs. SiMPK genes were distributed on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9, and contained 3-11 exons. All SiMPK proteins contained motif 1 and motif 2. A number of cis-acting elements related to stress, hormones and plant growth and development were predicted in the promoter regions of the SiMPK genes. Most genes had obvious tissue expression specificity. Except for SiMPK21-2 and SiMPK6, the other members had obvious responses to 1 to 3 kinds of stresses, such as Uromyces setariae-italicae Yoshino infection, Ostrinia furnacalis feeding, and SA and MeJA treatments. The results laid a theoretical foundation for further research on the function of SiMPK genes in the biotic stresses of disease and pest in foxtail millet.

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    Identification of OsGMS2 and construction of seed production system for genic male sterile line in rice
    TANG Jie, LONG Tuan, WU Chun-Yu, LI Xin-Peng, ZENG Xiang, WU Yong-Zhong, HUANG Pei-Jin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2025-2038.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.22051
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    Male sterility is the basis for application of crop heterosis. The common nuclear male sterile mutant osgms2 was isolated from a mutant library created by 60Co-γ-treated indica cultivar 93-11. The male of the mutant was completely aborted, the female was nomal, and other agronomic characters were consistent with those of the wild type. Genetic analyses indicated that the male sterility phenotype was stably controlled by a single recessive gene. The OsGMS2 gene was fine-mapped within the 86 kb physical interval between two molecular markers S3b and 4826 on the long arm of chromosome 4 with a mapping population of osgms2 and Minghui 63. Further sequencing found the gene LOC_Os04g48490, encoding a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein, had a 9-bp deletion at position 118 to 126 from start codon of translation, resulting in three codons mutation. The osgms2 gene was a novel allele of OsFLA1. Subsequent gene knockout and genetic complementation experiments in Zhonghua 11 background confirmed the function of the gene. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that the gene was expressed in all tissues, with the highest level at the flowering and immature seed stages. Alignment analyses revealed that the protein sequence was conserved in different species. By creating the OsGMS2-T maintainer, seed production of the common sterile line was achieved. The identification of the allelic mutant osgms2 provides the new materials for the study on rice nuclear male sterility and application of heterosis.

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    Development, genetic deciphering, and breeding utilization of dwarf lines in foxtail millet
    DIAO Xian-Min, WANG Li-Wei, ZHI Hui, ZHANG Jun, LI Shun-Guo, CHENG Ru-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (2): 265-279.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34131
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    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important cereal crop in northern China’s arid and semiarid dry land agriculture, which has recently been proposed as a novel model for functional genomics. Breeding dwarf varieties is the development trend of foxtail millet industry. To date, more than 70 foxtail millet dwarf lines have been developed and reported worldwide. According to morphological characteristics, foxtail millet dwarf lines can be divided into two types: compact type with erect leaves and conventional type with droopy leaves. Gibberellins (GA) sensitivity assay indicated that four materials were not sensitive to GA and the others were sensitive. Genetic analyses detected that most of the dwarf phenotype lines were controlled by recessive genes, but the height phenotype of Ai 88 was controlled by multi-dwarf-gene. So far, 79 QTL related with plant height regulation were detected by natural population GWAS or linkage analysis. Among seven genes or QTL fine mapped in foxtail millet, the semi-dominant dwarfism gene SiD1 in 84113 was the only one cloned and functionally characterized. In the history of breeding dwarf foxtail millet variety, Ai 88 was a backbone line, which had been utilized to develop 139 cultivars with reducing plant height to meet the requirement of logging resistance and mechanized harvest. In this study, we reviewed systematically the research progress of dwarfing gene in foxtail millet, sorted out the dwarfing genes that had been located and cloned, discussed the problems in the research of dwarfing genetics and breeding, and prospected the future development in foxtail.

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    Genetic basis analysis of high-yielding in Yannong wheat varieties
    WANG Hao, SUN Ni-Na, WANG Chu, XIAO Lu-Ning, XIAO Bei, LI Dong, LIU Jie, QIN Ran, WU Yong-Zhen, SUN Han, ZHAO Chun-Hua, LI Lin-Zhi, CUI Fa, LIU Wei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1584-1600.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21033
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    The Yannong series wheat has the characteristics of high yield potential, disease resistance, and wide adaptability. Yannong 1212, a high-yield and multi-resistant variety approved in recent years, has repeatedly broken the national winter wheat yield record for many times. To date, the numerous varieties derived from Yannong series have been released. Lumai 14 has derived from at least 214 wheat authorized varieties and become an important backbone parent by 2020. This objective of the study is to characterize genetic basis of high yielding potential in Yannong series, identify the key chromosomal segments of high yield and wide adaptability, and provide theoretical reference for the genetic improvement of new wheat varieties. The genotype of 38 Yannong series wheat varieties, some of their derived varieties, and 244 authorized varieties (advanced lines) were scanned by wheat 55K SNP array, and the environmental phenotypes were identified. Phenotype evaluation of yield-related traits of the natural mapping population was conducted in multiple environments. The genetic effects of the common high-frequency co-selected genetic segment (HFCS) of Yannong series varieties were characterized in detail based on the genotypes of wheat 55K SNP array. In addition, the HFCS from Lumai 14 to its derived varieties were also specified. The genetic basis of high yield potential in Yannong 1212 and Lumai 14 were revealed at the whole genome-wide level. The genetic similarity coefficients among the 17 Yannong series authorized varieties ranged from 0.80 to 0.99. Based on genotyping data from the 55K SNP array in the 17 Yannong series authorized varieties, 975 HFCS were obtained, and their segments lengths ranged from 1.00 Mb to 75.18 Mb. Most HFCS were distributed on chromosomes 2D, 4D, 6D, and 7B, with the total length accounting for more than 40% of the corresponding chromosomes, respectively. The genetic contribution rate of Lumai 14 to its 23 derived varieties was approximately 71.45% on average at the genome level, with A, B, and D of 69.63%, 66.04%, and 79.82%, respectively. A total of 430 high-frequency transmission genetic segments (HFTGS) 14 were detected in Lumai derived progency and 265 blocks (61.6%) overlapped with the HFSC in the Yannong series. Lumai 14 was a backbone parents and Yannong 1212 was a novel authorized varieties with high yield potential and wide adaptability. To characterize their genetic basis of high yield and wide adaptability, single marker analysis based on the natural population was performed. The results showed that both Lumai 14 and Yannong 1212 had been enriched in excellent alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW) and yield per plant (YPP). Approximately 92.3% and 84.4% of the significant loci in the HFTGS of Lumai 14 were shown to increase TKW and YPP, mainly distributing on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 2D, 4A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. Yannong series authorized wheat varieties had enriched in excellent alleles of yield-related genes and QTLs especially for TKW and YPP, which played a key role to their high and stable yielding potential.

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    Research progress on genetic basis and QTL mapping of oil content in peanut seed
    ZHANG Yue, WANG Zhi-Hui, HUAI Dong-Xin, LIU Nian, JIANG Hui-Fang, LIAO Bo-Shou, LEI Yong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (3): 529-542.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34083
    Abstract369)   HTML114)    PDF(pc) (590KB)(370)       Save

    Peanut is an important oilseed crop in China, and oil content is an important quality trait and breeding target of peanut. One percentage point increase in peanut oil content is equivalent to an increase of two percentage points in yield, and oil processing profit can be increased by seven percentage points. This study outlined four predominant methods for phenotyping peanut oil content. The genetic characteristics of oil content in peanut were quantitative traits under polygenic control, that were affected by additive and dominant effects, and influenced by G×E interaction. There were 124 QTL reported for oil content, with 36 major effect loci by (phenotypic variation explained) more than 10%. Eight major effect QTL on A03, A05, and A08 can be consistently identified. A consistent genetic map of oil content in peanut was constructed, with a hotspot region on the 33.59-50.24 Mb of A08. In addition, the research progress of lipid synthesis and the regulatory mechanisms of associated genes was detailed. This review aspires to provide theoretical guidance for the genetic improvement of oil content and the breeding of high oil varieties of peanut.

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    Effect of phosphorus fertilizer rate on rapeseed yield and quality ( Brassica napus L .)
    YAN Jin-Yao, SONG Yi, LU Zhi-Feng, REN Tao, LU Jian-Wei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1668-1677.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24175
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    Rapeseed is an important oil crop and is sensitive to phosphorus deficiency. The soil phosphorus supply in the main rapeseed producing areas in China is poor, and phosphorus deficiency often leads to yield reduction of seed. To investigate the effects of phosphorus nutrient supply status on rapeseed yield and quality at the same time, a phosphorus fertilizer rate field experiment was conducted in two seasons of 2019-2021 in the middle reaches of Yangtze River with five treatments of 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg P2O5 hm-2. The results showed that phosphorus application significantly increased the number of pods per plant, seed number, and 1000-seed weight, and thus increasing rapeseed yield. The average yield without phosphorus treatment was only 190 kg hm-2, and phosphorus application increased the yield by 8.5-12.5 times, and the maximum yields obtained according to yield effects corresponded to phosphorus applications of 51.8-65.0 kg P2O5 hm-2. The response of rapeseed phosphorus content, water content, oil content, protein, glucosinolate, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and stearic acid to phosphorus fertilizer rate reached highly significant levels, while erucic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid showed less response. The oil content of rapeseed tended to increase and then decrease with increasing phosphorus application (highest at 90 kg P2O5 hm-2 and 135 kg P2O5 hm-2), protein content tended to increase slowly, and glucosinolate content decreased significantly. Excessive application of phosphorus fertilizer decreased the oleic acid content and increased the linolenic acid content of rapeseed. Path analysis showed that seed phosphorus content, oil content, and linolenic acid content had a greater direct positive effect on yield, water content, protein and linolenic acid had a greater indirect positive effect on yield through seed phosphorus content, and glucosinolate, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid had a greater indirect negative effect on yield through seed phosphorus content. The combined results showed that the recommended phosphorus fertilizer rate for targeting rapeseed yield and edible oil quality was 45-90 kg P2O5 hm-2, and for pursuing forage cake meal protein yield, the recommended phosphorus fertilizer rate was 90-135 kg P2O5 hm-2.

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    Construction of core collection of sweetpotato based on phenotypic traits and SSR markers
    CHEN Yi-Hang, TANG Chao-Chen, ZHANG Xiong-Jian, YAO Zhu-Fang, JIANG Bing-Zhi, WANG Zhang-Ying
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1249-1261.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24122
    Abstract365)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (6960KB)(192)       Save

    To better preserve, study, and utilize sweet potato collection resources, 1091 sweetpotato germplasms preserved in the National Sweetpotato Germplasm Nursery (Guangzhou) were used as the materials in this study. Euclidean distance and Nei’s distance were used for NJ cluster grouping, respectively, and random sampling was conducted within the group to construct the core collection. Mean, variance, Shannon’s diversity index, coefficient of variation, and other indicators were used to evaluate the representativeness of the core collection based on phenotypic traits data, and effective alleles, Nei’s genetic diversity index, Shannon’s diversity index, and other indicators were used to evaluate the representativeness of the core collection based on SSR markers data. The results showed that the constructed sweetpotato core collection contained 289 materials, accounting for 26.49% of the entire collection. At P < 0.05, there was no significant difference in the related indicators of phenotypic traits and SSR molecular markers between the core collection and the entire collection, and the phenotypic frequency distribution of the two germplasm was basically the same. The principal component analysis revealed that the core collection had similar genetic diversity and population structure to the entire collection. In conclusion, the established core collection of sweetpotato well represented the entire collection’s genetic variation and population structure, which could lay a good foundation for variety improvement, excellent genes mining, and germplasm innovation of sweetpotato.

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    Advances in germplasm innovation and genetic improvement of food legumes resistant to bruchid
    YANG Xiao-Ming, CHENG Xu-Zhen, ZHU Zhen-Dong, LIU Chang-Yan, CHEN Xin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1153-1169.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24169
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    Food legumes play a key role in maintaining soil sustainability, developing agroecosystem diversification, and improving human nutrition. However, bruchid (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is a notorious pest that can devastate the entire seed and cause severe loss in pulses storage. To explore the potential germplasm resources and breed legume varieties resistant to bruchids, a few elite germplasms and genes resistant to bruchids were identified and finely mapped. Lots of studies have been carried out and made some progress on resistance mechanisms, genetic analysis, genetic mapping, gene cloning, and molecular markers of bruchid resistance in pulses. In this paper, studies on pulses germplasm exploring and evaluating for resistance to bruchids, resistance inheritance, discovery and mapping of resistance genes, and the breeding of resistant cultivars were reviewed. Several important directions for future research have prospected. Here, the main objective is to supply useful information for exploring potential germplasm and promoting the genetic improvement of food legumes with resistance to bruchids in China.

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    Transcriptome sequencing analysis of different sweet potato varieties under salt stress
    ZHANG Xiao-Hong, PENG Qiong, YAN Zheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1432-1444.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24143
    Abstract357)   HTML24)    PDF(pc) (3788KB)(350)       Save

    The objective of this study is to obtain the salt tolerant transcriptome sequence information of sweet potato, mine and identify the differentially expressed genes and their related metabolic pathways. Rongshu 819 (salt-tolerant variety) and Rongshu 910 (salt-sensitive variety) under salt treatment for 0, 3, and 6 days were conducted for the transcriptome by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that a total of 157,252 Unigenes with an average length of 576 bp were obtained from the two varieties. The 83,264 Unigenes, accounting for 52.95% of the total Unigenes, were annotated in the 7 functional databases. NR annotation revealed that sweet potato Unigenes had the most homologous sequences in Ipomoea nil with a total of 43,620 accounting for 57.05%. The annotation of Unigenes in the KOG database is mainly concentrated in general functional prediction only (8752), signal transformation mechanisms (5067), and post translation modification, protein transformation, molecular chaperones (4471). The qRT-PCR indicated that, in Rongshu 819, the number of differentially expressed genes in 3 days and 6 days of salt treatment was 3752 and 807, respectively, which classified into 33 GO functional categories and 302 KEGG metabolic pathways. In Rongshu 910, the number of differentially expressed genes in 3 days and 6 days of salt treatment was 5554 and 7395, respectively, which classified into 50 GO functional categories and 329 KEGG metabolic pathways. The heat map was drawn based on the transcriptome data of partial differentially expressed genes. The result showed that 7 differentially expressed β-Glucosidase genes annotated into starch and sucrose metabolic pathway were up-regulated in salt-tolerant variety while down-regulated in salt-sensitive variety. Seven calmodulin-like genes annotated into Ca2+ signaling pathway were specifically expressed in two varieties, among which 2 were specifically up-regulated in salt-tolerant variety and 5 were specifically down-regulated in salt-sensitive variety. The expression heat map of differentially expressed transcription factors indicated that IbERF1 was only specifically expressed in salt-tolerant varieties, IbNAC3, IbNAC11, IbERF3, and IbERF4 were only specifically expressed in salt-sensitive varieties, while IbNAC29 was down-regulated in salt-tolerant varieties and up-regulated in salt-sensitive varieties. In conclusion, the number of Unigenes obtained from transcriptome of sweet potato under salt stress was large and the sequence information was rich. The differentially expressed genes and high abundance transcription factors may play an important role in sweet potato response to salt stress.

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    Multi-locus genome-wide association study and prediction for general combining ability of maize ear length
    MA Juan, ZHU Wei-Hong, LIU Jing-Bao, YU Ting, HUANG Lu, GUO Guo-Jun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1562-1572.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23042
    Abstract357)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (1084KB)(421)       Save

    Ear length is an important agronomic trait, which is closely related with yield. General combining ability (GCA) is an important index to evaluate excellent inbred lines. Therefore, the dissection of genetic basis of ear length GCA and formulation of corresponding breeding strategies is of great significance to improve maize yield. In this study, 537 F1 hybrids as the experimental materials were obtained from 123 maize inbred lines and eight tester lines according to North Carolina II genetic mating design, and phenotyped under two environments. A total of 11,734 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified using the maize 5.5 K liquid breeding chip were used to conduct multi-locus genome-wide association study (MGWAS) and genomic prediction for ear length GCA in two environments and combined environment. A total of 11 SNPs significantly associated with ear length GCA were detected using seven MGWAS, and the variation of GCA effect explained by a single locus was 8.06%-28.23%. Five SNPs were co-located using different MGWAS. Locus 7_178103602 was repeatedly detected using mrMLM (multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model) in Zhoukou and combined environment, explaining 26.02%-28.23% of variation of ear length GCA, which was an environment-stable and major-effect SNP. 11 candidate genes were identified, among which auxin amido synthetase 9 and EID1-like F-box protein 2 may be key genes for GCA of ear length. The accuracy of five random effect models for predicting ear length GCA ranged from 0.53 to 0.69 in the three environments, and there were minor differences among these models. In Xinxiang and Zhoukou environments, GBLUP (genomic best linear unbiased prediction) and RKHS (reproducing kernel Hilbert space) incorporating different significant loci as fixed effects could improve the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding value for GCA of ear length, with a percentage increase of 2.34%-14.98%. In the combined environment, except that the accuracy was slightly reduced using one significant locus derived from FarmCPU (fixed and random model circulating probability unification) or BLINK (Bayesian-information and linkage-disequilibrium iteratively nested keyway) as fixed effects, the addition of significant loci derived from the other two MGWAS methods could improve the genomic prediction ability, with a percentage increase of 2.80%-6.84%. Therefore, the incorporation of significant loci from MGWAS into the prediction models as fixed effects is helpful to improve the accuracy of the genomic estimated breeding value for ear length GCA, which could be used to effectively predict and select GCA of maize parental ear length.

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    Identification of ZmC2s gene family and functional analysis of ZmC2-15 under heat tolerance in maize
    HUANG Yu-Jie, ZHANG Xiao-Tian, CHEN Hui-Li, WANG Hong-Wei, DING Shuang-Cheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2331-2343.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23069
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    The objective of this study is to identify the members of maize ZmC2s gene family, to analyze the association between their genetic variations and heat tolerance, and to lay a foundation for clarifying its function and molecular mechanism in maize heat tolerance. Using the C2 protein domain PF00168, hmmsearch was applied to search for the members of the ZmC2s gene family from maize B73 genome. The protein isoelectric point, molecular weight, phylogenetic evolution, and gene family replication were analyzed. Using the method of candidate gene association analysis, the association between the natural variations of ZmC2s and the heat tolerance of maize seedlings was conducted, and the important heat-tolerant candidate genes of maize ZmC2s gene family were found. The relative gene expression level of the heat-tolerant candidate gene under stress was identified by Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The subcellular expression sites of heat-tolerant candidate gene were identified by transforming maize protoplasts. A total of 95 maize ZmC2s genes were identified from the reference genome B73 in maize. According to the order of their physical coordinates, 95 maize ZmC2s genes were named from ZmC2-1 to ZmC2-95, respectively. The length of the 95 proteins was 130-2141, the isoelectric point was 4.1-10.8, and the molecular weight was 14.1-230.1. The evolution tree of C2 gene in maize, rice, and sorghum genomes was constructed. We found that C2 genes can be divided into three major cluster branches, and each cluster branch can be subdivided into two small cluster branches. Analyzing the whole genome collinearity data of maize, rice, and sorghum, 59 ZmC2s genes were detected to have corresponding replication genes in rice and sorghum genomes. A candidate-gene based on the association analysis of ZmC2s showed that ZmC2-15/60/91 were important candidate genes for heat tolerance in maize (P ≤ 0.001, MLM), among which ZmC2-15 was the most significantly associated to heat tolerance at seedling stage (P ≤ 0.000,01, MLM), and the relative expression level of ZmC2-15 was up-regulated under various stress treatments. Subcellular localization indicated that ZmC2-15 was localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear membrane, and endoplasmic reticulum. The overexpression of ZmC2-15 improved plant heat tolerance. ZmC2-15 can be used as an important candidate gene for regulating heat tolerance in maize.

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    Effects of drought stress before and after anthesis on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of summer maize after re-watering
    ZHANG Jun-Jie, CHEN Jin-Ping, TANG Yu-Lou, ZHANG Rui, CAO Hong-Zhang, WANG Li-Juan, MA Meng-Jin, WANG Hao, WANG Yong-Chao, GUO Jia-Meng, KRISHNA SV Jagadish, YANG Qing-Hua, SHAO Rui-Xin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1397-1409.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23003
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    Drought before and after anthesis is one of the important factors affecting the decrease of summer maize yield in Huang-Huai-Hai Rivers region. From 2020 to 2021, a pool planting control experiment was carried out. To study the effect of regulated deficit irrigation before and after anthesis on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter accumulation and distribution, and yield of summer maize after re-watering, four water gradients were set within 28 days before and after anthesis, including 100% Eapotranspiration (ETc) (CK), 70% ETC (Water deficit, WD1), 40% ETC (WD2), and 0 ETC (WD3) using Zhongkeyu 505 as the test materials. The result showed that the photosynthetic performance of summer maize leaves did not recover after re-watering under drought stress. The SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate, population leaf area index, photosynthetic potential and net assimilation rate were lower than the control, and the dry matter accumulation of the plants was blocked, photosynthetic potential and net assimilation rate were lower than the control, and the dry matter accumulation of the plants was blocked, resulting in the decrease of grain storage capacity. Drought stress prolonged the anthesis-silking interval for 1-3 day (s), increased the seed abortion rate, and decreased the grain number per row and 100-seed weight after re-watering, especially the seed abortion rate in WD3 was significantly increased by 220.71% and 100.73% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The yield of WD1, WD2, WD3 was decreased by 14.52%, 36.69%, 39.83% and 19.62%, 45.18%, 54.42% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. In conclusion, after re-watering under water deficit before and after anthesis, the photosynthetic performance of maize was still inhibited, which further affected the accumulation and distribution of photosynthetic assimilates, and ultimately leading to a significant decrease in storage capacity and yield.

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    Genetic diversity of wheat breeding parents revealed by 55K SNP-based microarray
    LU Mao-Ang, PENG Xiao-Ai, ZHANG Ling, WANG Jian-Lai, HE Xian-Fang, ZHU Yu-Lei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1708-1714.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21047
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    The objective of this study is to identify the genetic diversity among wheat parental materials from different provinces. To reveal the genetic diversity and population structure by using wheat 55K SNP chip, 150 wheat accessions from Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan, Sichuan, and Shandong provinces were analyzed. A total of 52,537 SNP loci were detected in the 150 wheat accessions. 39,422 high quality markers were obtained, of which 38,135 were polymorphic, accounting for 96.74%. The distribution of 38,135 polymorphic markers among the genomes showed the least in D subgenome (10,450), the most in B subgenome (15,290). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.315, with a variation of 0.068-0.375. The averaged genetic distance of accessions differed based on the origin: Henan > Sichuan > Shandong > Jiangsu > Anhui. The results of cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and population structure analysis were highly consistent, and the clustering results were consistent with the pedigree, regional origin, and breeding group. The study revealed that the average polymorphism information content in each province was at a moderate PIC level, but the average genetic distance of the materials was close. This indicated that the high-quality germplasm resources should still be introduced to alleviate the material homogeneity, so as to increase the ability of wheat to cope with stress and reduce the vulnerability and risk in actual wheat production.

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    Differences of physiological responses and transcriptional regulation of alfalfa with different drought tolerances under drought stresses
    CHEN Li, WANG Jing, QIU Xiao, SUN Hai-Lian, ZHANG Wen-Hao, WANG Tian-Zuo
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (8): 2122-2132.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24205
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    Alfalfa is the most important legume forage, which is often planted in aird or semi-arid regions. The objective of this study is to explore the responsive mechanism of alfalfa with different drought tolerance to drought stress, which provides the theoretical basis for tolerant breeding of alfalfa. In this study, the new variety Medicago sativa ‘Zhongke 1’ was used as the test material, and M. sativa ‘Sanditi’ was used as the control. The effects of drought stress on growth traits, photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration, leaf water content, osmotic adjustment substances, and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by natural drought strategy in pots. The deferentially expressed genes were compared by transcriptome analysis. Drought stress significantly reduced plant height, biomass, relative water content of leaves, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide and chlorophyll concentration of alfalfa. Compared with Sanditi, Zhongke 1 revealed the lower malondialdehyde concentration and electrical conductivity under drought stress, but stronger osmotic regulation ability and superoxide radical scavenging ability. Transcriptome sequencing identified 5308 and 8053 drought-responsive genes of Zhongke 1 and Sanditi, respectively. GO functional annotation demonstrated that 346 drought-responsive genes were significantly enriched in six GO item categories in Zhongke 1, while 1683 drought-responsive genes in Sanditi were significantly enriched in 29 GO item categories. The relative expression levels of 19 key drought-tolerant genes in Zhongke 1 were significantly higher than those in Sanditi. Alfalfa may maintain a relatively high photosynthetic rate by up-regulating the relative expression levels of drought tolerant genes SUS, P5CS, LEA, SOD, POD, PEPC, and NCED, thus improving osmotic regulation ability and antioxidant enzyme activity. The results provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of alfalfa’s candidate genes in response to drought stress and drought tolerant breeding.

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    Integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome reveals the metabolic response pathways of sweetpotato under shade stress
    WANG Yan-Nan, CHEN Jin-Jin, BIAN Qian-Qian, HU Lin-Lin, ZHANG Li, YIN Yu-Meng, QIAO Shou-Chen, CAO Guo-Zheng, KANG Zhi-He, ZHAO Guo-Rui, YANG Guo-Hong, YANG Yu-Feng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (7): 1785-1798.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24137
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    Sweetpotato is a heliophile crop. However, it is usually shaded in the lower position in the interplanting cultivation mode. During the middle and late field growing period, it often faces rainy weather with little illumination, which affects the dry matter accumulation in tuberous roots. Thus, analyzing the metabolic response pathways of sweetpotato under shade stress will provide the theoretical basis for the varieties’ genetic improvement of shade tolerance. In this study, the sweetpotato variety Zhenghong 23 was exposed to shade stress with 50% light transmittance for 15 days. Results showed that chlorophyll b and the total chlorophyll contents of Zhenghong 23 under shade stress were significantly increased compared with those under natural light. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the potential activity (Fv/Fo), and the comprehensive index of photosynthetic performance (PIABS) of the chlorophyll photosystem PSII decreased significantly under shade stress. The net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency decreased significantly, while SOD and POD enzyme activities increased significantly. In addition, shade stress increased significantly the vine length and specific leaf area of Zhenghong 23, but reduced significantly the fresh weight of roots. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of leaf tissues under shade stress and natural light conditions showed that the DEGs and DMs were mainly enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, sphinolipid metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis pathways. Most of the up-regulated DEGs enriched in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were POD enzyme family genes, indicating that the shade stress triggered the ROS scavenging system in sweetpotato. Meanwhile, shade stress reduced sugar metabolism level of sweetpotato, decreased the soluble sugar content of leaves, inhibited both the synthesis and degradation of starch, and blocked the expansion of tuberous roots. In addition, the sphinolipid and arginine metabolism pathways may better adapt sweetptoato plants to shade stress through improving the stability of biomembranes and increase the synthetic substrates of polyamine anti-stress factors. These results provide new theoretical basis for understanding the metabolic response pathways of sweetpotato under shade stress.

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    Establishment and optimization of a high-efficient hairy-root system in foxtail millet ( Setaria italica L.)
    WAN Yi-Man, XIAO Sheng-Hui, BAI Yi-Chao, FAN Jia-Yin, WANG Yan, WU Chang-Ai
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (7): 1758-1768.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24197
    Abstract330)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (5458KB)(260)       Save

    To establish a system for rapid identification of millet gene functions, in this study, we compared the effects of explants from different foxtail millet cultivars, the concentrations of acetyleugenone, bacterial solution, and co-culture time on the hairy root induction mediated by Agrobacteria rhizogenes strain K599. When the shoot tips were infected with bacterial solution 0.5 optical density (OD) and containing 100 μmol L-1 acetyleugenone, and co-cultured for three days, the induction efficiency of hairy roots reached to 80.24%. Using this system, we analyzed the transformation efficiency of the hairy roots, the subcellular localization of SiDVL1and SiDVL3, and gene functions of SiNHX2, SiCBL4, and SiCBL7. The PCR results of GFP gene and GFP fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that the transformation efficiency of the hairy roots was over 70%. The subcellular localization of SiDVL1 and SiDVL3 was similar in millet hairy-root and tobacco epidermal cells. Simultaneously, the survival rates of SiNHX2, SiCBL4, and SiCBL7 transgenic millet were significantly higher than that of empty vector transformed millet. Therefore, our study established an efficient and rapid method to analyze the subcellular location and to identify the function of genes from foxtail millet.

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    Event-specific PCR detection method of transgenic maize ND207 and its standardization
    CHANG Li-Juan, LIANG Jing-Gang, SONG Jun, LIU Wen-Juan, FU Cheng-Ping, DAI Xiao-Hang, WANG Dong, WEI Chao, XIONG Mei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (7): 1818-1828.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23048
    Abstract328)   HTML26)    PDF(pc) (5712KB)(172)       Save

    Transgenic maize ND207 is an insect-resistant maize with mCry1Ab and mCry2Ab genes developed by China Agricultural University. The objective of this study is to develop the event-specific PCR detection method for ND207. The PCR amplification was performed according to the primers provided by the ND207 developer. The sequence of insertion site of ND207 was sequenced and obtained 262 bp of the 5'-flanking sequence, including 109 bp vector sequence and 153 bp maize genome sequence, 316 bp of the 3'-flanking sequence, including 76 bp vector sequence and 240 bp maize genome sequence. Fourteen primers were designed at both ends to form 25 primer pairs. The best primer pair at the 3' end was selected to optimize the PCR reaction system and reaction condition. The event-specific qualitative PCR detection method of ND207 was established and the PCR product size was 166 bp. After testing, the results showed that the detection limit of this method was 0.1%, equivalent to 20 copies of ND207 specific molecule fragment. Eight GMO safety testing institutions in China tested specificity, detection limit, reproducibility of the method, and the circular verification report revealed that the method met the requirement of the national standard method, which could be promoted and applied in the testing industry. The established event-specific qualitative PCR detection method of ND207 provides the technical support for the safety supervision of ND207 and its derivatives in China.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of PHB gene family in sweet potato
    MEI Yu-Qin, LIU Yi, WANG Chong, LEI Jian, ZHU Guo-Peng, YANG Xin-Sun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1715-1725.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24142
    Abstract326)   HTML41)    PDF(pc) (2453KB)(402)       Save

    The prohibitins (PHB) are SPFH domain-containing proteins found in the prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Plant PHB gene family is involved in many important functions in a variety of different biological processes, including growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At present, PHB proteins have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, maize, soybean, tomato, upland cotton, and other plants. However, the systematic analysis of PHB family in sweet potato is still uncertain. In this study, 11 PHB genes in sweet potato were identified, and the analysis of these conserved protein motifs and gene structures showed that they were highly conserved in phylogenetic subgroups. In addition, the cis-acting elements related to various hormone regulation and stress were predicted in the promoter region and the relative expression patterns of IbPHB genes were different in different parts of plants and under different abiotic stresses. This study systematically analyzed the general characteristics of IbPHB gene in sweet potato, and provided a theoretical basis for the study of functional characteristics of PHB gene in sweet potato and other plants.

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    Genome-wide association study for agronomic traits in common wheat lines derived from wild emmer wheat
    LIU Jia, GONG Fang-Yi, LIU Ya-Xi, YAN Ze-Hong, ZHONG Xiao-Ying, CHEN Hou-Lin, HUANG Lin, and WU Bi-Hua
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1184-1196.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21006
    Abstract325)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (6155KB)(165)       Save

    Wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides ssp. dicoccoides) is the tetraploid progenitor of common wheat with wide genotypic variations, which is an important germplasm resource for common wheat improvement. In this study, the plant height, tiller number, spikelet number, heading date, anthesis date, and 1000-kernel weight of 161 introgression lines derived from wild emmer were phenotyped in four environments of different years and locations. We performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) of agronomic traits using 13,116 DArT markers to identify marker-trait associations (MTA) and candidate genes. A total of 147 stable markers associated with the tested 6 agronomic traits were identified. Among them, some MTAs were associated with both heading and anthesis date, and these MTAs were clustered on chromosome 2B. In addition, a total of 21 candidate genes related to the agronomic traits were deduced in introgression lines derived from wild emmer. Among them, the candidate gene associated with 1000-kernel weight on chromosome 7A maybe related to cyclin protein. These MTAs and candidate genes could provide the essential information for cloning genes related to excellent agronomic traits and further provide basis and guidance for comprehensive utilization of wild emmer for genetic improvement in common wheat background.

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    Effects of combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and leaf senescence physiological characteristics in summer maize
    ZHANG Zhen-Bo, JIA Chun-Lan, REN Bai-Zhao, LIU Peng, ZHAO Bin, ZHANG Ji-Wang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1616-1629.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23045
    Abstract322)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (769KB)(482)       Save

    Nitrogen and phosphorus, as the essential nutrients for maize growth and development, play an important effect on maize yield. In this experiment, to investigate the effect of combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus on leaf senescence physiological and yield formation in summer maize, 11 combined applications of nitrogen and phosphorus treatments in 2020 and 15 combined applications of nitrogen and phosphorus treatments in 2021 were applied using Denhai 111 (DH111) as the test materials. The results showed that the leaf area index (LAI), the relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and the antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)] of summer maize increased first and then decreased, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased first and then increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate under the same phosphorus application conditions. Under N0-N2 conditions, with the increasing phosphorus application, LAI, SPAD value, and antioxidant enzyme activity had an increasing trend, MDA content showed a decreasing trend and yield showed an increasing trend, while with the increasing phosphorus application, LAI, SPAD value, and antioxidant enzyme activity showed an increasing trend and then a decreasing trend, MDA content showed a decreasing trend and then an increasing trend, and yield showed an increasing trend and then a decreasing trend in N3 and N4. In 2020, the N3 P1 treatment increased yields by 2.55% compared to the N2 P3 treatment. In 2021, the N3 P1 treatment increased yields by 7.36% and 3.31% compared to the N3 P0 and N2 P2 treatments, respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the reasonable combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus (180 kg N hm-2, 60 kg P hm-2) treatment can increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes at the later stage of fertility, reduce MDA content, maintain a high leaf area index and SPAD values, increase the number of grains per ear and 1000-grain weight, ultimately leading to higher maize yield.

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    ALGWAS: two-stage Adaptive Lasso-based genome-wide association study
    YANG Wen-Yu, WU Cheng-Xiu, XIAO Ying-Jie, YAN Jian-Bing
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (9): 2321-2330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23072
    Abstract320)   HTML35)    PDF(pc) (874KB)(574)       Save

    As mainstream methods for genome-wide association analysis, mixed linear model methods have been widely used. However, the existing methods still have the problem of low detection power. In this study, a two-stage Adaptive Lasso-based genome-wide association analysis (ALGWAS) method was proposed. In the first stage, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with target traits were screened by Adaptive Lasso, a variable selection method. In the second stage, SNPs selected from the first stage were put into the linear model as the covariates for genome-wide scanning. Compared with fastGWA, GEMMA and EMMAX, the ALGWAS method had the highest detection power and lower false discovery rate (FDR) in the simulation experiments. The above four methods were applied to genome-wide association analysis of Complete-diallel plus Unbalanced Breeding-like Inter-Cross (CUBIC) population of 1341 individuals in maize. ALGWAS method can detect the genes (ZmMADS69, ZmMADS15/31, ZmZCN8, and ZmRAP2.7) related to days to tasseling, the genes (ZmBRD1 and ZmBR2) related to plant height, and the genes (ZmUB2, ZmKRN2, and ZmCLE7) related to yield, while the other three commonly used genome-wide association analysis methods had low detection efficiency. In this study, a non-mixed linear model class of genome-wide association analysis method was proposed, which had higher detection advantage for microeffect polygenes and provided a new way for genetic analysis of complex traits.

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    Effects of irrigation on tiller occurrence, photo-assimilates production and distribution in different stem and tillers and spike formation in wheat
    FENG Lian-Jie, YU Zhen-Wen, ZHANG Yong-Li, SHI Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1653-1667.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.21045
    Abstract319)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (937KB)(494)       Save

    Moderate irrigation based on soil moisture content could increase spike number of wheat, and realize water-saving and high-yielding cultivation, but the physiological mechanism of tiller occurrence and spike formation under this condition is still unclear. A field experiment was conducted in wheat growth seasons of 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, in which the medium-spike wheat Jimai 22 and large-spike wheat Shannong 23 were used as the experimental materials. Three treatments were designed in this field experiment, including no irrigation during the whole growth period, water-saving irrigation, and sufficient irrigation. The characteristics of tiller occurrence and spike formation of wheat were studied. The results showed that the tiller node area and trans zeatin content, the photosynthetic parameters of the uppermost unfloding leaves in main stem at wintering and turn-green stage of two wheat cultivars under water-saving irrigation treatment were higher than no irrigation treatment. Under water-saving irrigation, the stem number of tillers II, III, IP, IV, and others in two spike-type wheat cultivars were increased, the total stem number per plant of Jimai 22 and Shannong 23 under W70 were 1.01 and 0.75 higher at wintering stage and 0.71 and 0.56 higher at jointing stage. The photosynthetic parameter of the uppermost unfolding leaves at jointing stage, dry matter weight and distribution amount of 13C assimilates of main stem and tillers in different positions increased significantly, the total spike number per plant of Jimai 22 and Shannong 23 were 0.36 and 0.41 higher than no irrigation in two years. The grain yield of Jimai 22 and Shannong 23 under water-saving irrigation treatment increased by 35.00% and 44.27%, and water use efficiency increased by 9.23% and 8.55% than no irrigation, respectively. Further increasing the amount of irrigation to sufficient irrigation treatment could increase the total stem number per plant at wintering and jointing stage, but there was no significant difference with water-saving irrigation in the total formation spike number per plant, spike number, and grain yield per hectare, water use efficiency was decreased. Comparison among the cultivars the total stem and spike number per plant of Jimai 22 were higher than Shannong 23, the main reason was that Jimai 22 had higher tiller node area and trans zeatin content, photosynthetic capacity in main stem, and tillers in different positions. The correlation analysis showed that the total stem number and spike number per plant, spike number, and grain yield per hectare were positively correlated with the tiller node area and trans zeatin content, and net photosynthetic rate of the uppermost unfolding leaves in main stem in two wheat cultivars, and there was significantly negatively correlated with auxin and abscisic acid content. These results indicated that the water-saving irrigation could regulate tiller occurrence and spike formation by increasing tiller node area and hormone content, improving the capacity of photo-assimilates production and distribution in main stem and tillers in different positions, thus resulting in the higher yield and water use efficiency.

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    Effects of foliar spraying selenium on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and selenium accumulation of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum M.)
    LEI Xin-Hui, LENG Jia-Jun, TAO Jin-Cai, WAN Chen-Xi, WU Yi-Xin, WANG Jia-Le, WANG Peng-Ke, FENG Bai-Li, WANG Meng, GAO Jin-Feng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1678-1689.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21039
    Abstract319)   HTML24)    PDF(pc) (986KB)(431)       Save

    Dietary selenium supplementation is the main way for people to take in selenium. Selenium bioaugmentation technology can effectively improve the selenium content of crops. In this study, the material was common buckwheat variety Xinong 9976, and sodium selenite was used as the selenium source. The application rates of pure selenium in the field were 0 (Se0), 5 (Se5), and 20 g hm-2 (Se20), respectively. The changes of photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter accumulation and transport, agronomic traits, and yield of common buckwheat were explored during two consecutive crop growing seasons from 2020 to 2021, and the effects of selenium content in organs, selenium transport factors and selenium utilization rate in grains of common buckwheat under different exogenous selenium concentrations were analyzed. The results showed that foliar spraying sodium selenite could improve the photosynthetic substance production capacity of common buckwheat leaves, and the chlorophyll content (SPAD), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and water use efficiency (WUE) of leaves increased by 13.12%, 11.50%, 5.48%, 5.95%, and 5.77% on average compared with the control. Selenium spraying significantly increased the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII), and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) of buckwheat leaf photosystem II, decreased the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), enhanced the ability of capturing and transforming light energy, reduced the loss of ineffective light energy, and improved the utilization ability of high light. Under two different selenium application rates, the dry matter accumulation of stem and leaf of Fagopyrum esculentum was significantly higher than that of Se0 treatment, but the distribution ratio was significantly lower. The dry matter accumulation and dry matter distribution ratio of grain were improved. The dry matter transport capacity, migration rate, and contribution rate of stem and leaf to grain reached the maximum at Se5 and Se20 concentrations, respectively. Selenium spraying increased the number of 1000-grain weight, grain number per plant, and yield by 3.1%-11.3%, 13.5%-32.0%, and 4.9%-23.2% compared with the control, respectively. The selenium content and transport factors in different parts of common buckwheat reached the maximum under Se20, while the utilization rate of selenium in grain was higher under Se5. In conclusion, foliar spraying of sodium selenite can improve photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of common buckwheat, increase the accumulation of dry matter in various organs, and promote the transport of dry matter to grains, thus increasing the grain yield of common buckwheat. In addition, the selenium content in all parts of common buckwheat was significantly increased after foliar spraying with selenium, and the selenium utilization rate of grain was the highest under Se5 treatment, and the selenium content of grain met the national grain selenium-enriched standard, which was suitable for popularization and application in Loess Plateau area.

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    Identification and expression analysis of nitrate transporter NRT gene family in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L .)
    MA Chun-Min, LI Wei-Xi, LI Fang-Jun, TIAN Xiao-Li, LI Zhao-Hu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (6): 1496-1517.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24159
    Abstract315)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (8632KB)(220)       Save

    Nitrate transporters (NRTs) play an important role in plant nitrogen absorption, utilization, and storage. In this study, 106 GhNRT1/PTR (NPF) (Nitrate transporter 1 (NRT1)/Peptide Transporter (PTR) family (NPF)) and 14 GhNRT2 (Nitrate transporter 2 family) were identified from Gossypium hirsutum L. (TM-1) by HMM software and Blastp method. The conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships, physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, conserved motifs, gene structure, promoter cis-acting elements, and expression patterns of these GhNRTs were analyzed. The results showed that GhNPF had a typical PTR2 (Peptide Transporter 2 family) domain. Two PTR2 and/or other domains were found in individual proteins (GhNPF2.6bD, GhNPF4.1cA, and GhNPF2.14aD), indicating that GhNPF was less evolutionarily conserved. The GhNRT2 had a typical MFS_1 (Major Facilitator Superfamily) domain. Most proteins were located on the cytoplasmic membrane with hydrophobic properties. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these GhNRTs could be divided into 10 groups, and the same group had similar gene structure and motif distribution. The composition of cis-acting elements indicated that the relative expression levels of most GhNRTs could be related to plant hormones, abiotic stress, and light response. In addition, the relative expression patterns of GhNPF were different among the diverse subgroups, but the relative expression patterns of different members in the same subgroup were mostly conserved. GhNRT2 genes were mainly expressed in roots. Moreover, the transcriptome data with salt stress treatment revealed that the relative levels of nearly 1/5 GhNRTs were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated, indicating that they probably function in response to salt stress. Six GhNRTs were selected to detect the response of their expression in roots, young leaves, functional leaves, and old leaves to different NO3- supply levels. The results showed that GhNPF6.3dA and GhNPF7.3aA may have the ability to absorb NO3- with dual affinity, while GhNPF6.2bD may encode high-affinity NO3- transporter. The three may be involved in NO3- unloading in functional leaves and old leaves. These results were different from those reported in plants such as Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the results provide a reference for further functional characterization of nitrate transporters and provide a preliminary basis for the mechanism analysis of nitrogen absorption and utilization in cotton.

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    Genetic analysis of elite stripe rust resistance genes of founder parent Zhou 8425B in its derived varieties
    LI Yu-Jia, XU Hao, YU Shi-Nan, TANG Jian-Wei, LI Qiao-Yun, GAO Yan, ZHENG Ji-Zhou, DONG Chun-Hao, YUAN Yu-Hao, ZHENG Tian-Cun, YIN Gui-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2024, 50 (1): 16-31.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31013
    Abstract311)   HTML42)    PDF(pc) (4495KB)(216)       Save

    Zhou 8425B is a widely used dwarf large panicle and disease-resistant and stress-resistant Wheat Founder Parent in the wheat production areas of the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers regions. The analysis of stripe rust resistance of derived varieties and the genetic transmission information of stripe rust resistance gene carried by Zhou 8425B is of great value for wheat new variety breeding. In this study, we used a highly toxic race of stripe rust, Tiaozhong 34 (CYR34), to identify the resistance of 222 collected Zhou 8425B derived varieties to stripe rust at seedling stage. The hybrid strain mainly CYR34 was used to identify the resistance to stripe rust at adult stage of the derived varieties. Subsequently, molecular markers closely linked to the stripe rust resistance genes (YrZH84, YrZH84.2, Yr30, YrZH22, and Yr9 carried by Zhou 8425B) were used for genotype detection of the derived varieties. The results showed that Zhou 8425B was highly resistant to stripe rust stripe rust at seedling stage and adult stage to the current virulent dominant race CYR34. Among the 222 derivative varieties of Zhou 8425B, 14 of them, including Changmai 9, Jiyanmai 10, Bainong 4199, Saidemai 7, and Zhengmai 103, etc., showed stable disease resistance in two years, accounting for 6.3%; 52 derivative varieties, include Zhoumai 11, Zhoumai 22, Zhoumai 26, Zhoumai 36, Lantian 36, Cunmai 16 and Zhengpinmai 8, etc., had stable disease resistance during the whole growth period, accounting for 23.4%. Many derivative varieties of Zhou 8425B were mainly derived from six offspring, including Zhoumai 11, Zhoumai 12, Zhoumai 13, Zhoumai 15, Zhoumai 16, and Zhoumai 17. In the first generation, Zhoumai 16 and Zhoumai 13 directly derived more varieties because of their good agronomic characters, while Zhoumai 15 and Zhoumai 17 derived fewer varieties. Zhoumai 12 and Zhoumai 13 bred the second generation, Zhoumai 22, and then derived 45 sub-generations, and Zhoumai 11 bred Aikang 58, and then derived 54 sub-generations. The excellent stripe rust resistance gene of Zhou 8425B was continuously separated and polymerized in the process of genetic breeding. The frequencies of YrZH84, YrZH84.2, YrZH22, Yr30, and Yr9 in the derived offspring were 34.7%, 14.9%, 41.9%, 66.2%, and 67.1%, respectively. Among the derivative varieties carrying only one disease resistance gene, the average severity of YrZH84 was the lowest (14.4%). Among the derived varieties that aggregate two disease resistance genes, the average severity of carrying YrZH84+YrZH22 was the lowest (20.0%); among the derived varieties that aggregate three disease resistance genes, the average severity of carrying YrZH84+YrZH22+Yr9 was the lowest (17.2%). Among the derived varieties that aggregate four disease resistance genes, the average severity of carrying YrZH84+YrZH22+Yr30+Yr9 was 16.9%, and the average severity of carrying YrZH84.2+YrZH22+Yr30+Yr9 was 38.4%. At seedling stage, derived varieties that carried the YrZH84 resistance gene or a combination of genes containing YrZH84 during the entire growth period had better disease resistance. These results provide the information of stripe rust gene for the continuous improvement and utilization of the Founder Parent Zhou 8425B in China, identify the new derived germplasm with high resistance and high yield to the highly virulent physiological race CYR34, which providing a reference for the genetic breeding of wheat resistance to stripe rust in China.

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    Difference analysis of yield and resource use efficiency of modern summer maize varieties in Huang-Huai-Hai region
    LIU Xin-Meng, CHENG Yi, LIU Yu-Wen, PANG Shang-Shui, YE Xiu-Qin, BU Yan-Xia, ZHANG Ji-Wang, ZHAO Bin, REN Bai-Zhao, REN Hao, LIU Peng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2023, 49 (5): 1363-1371.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.23050
    Abstract308)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (840KB)(404)       Save

    Variety improvement plays an important role in improving the yield per unit area of summer maize, but the reasons for the yield difference between modern summer maize varieties are not clear at present. The experiment was conducted at the National Demonstration Center for Crop Varieties in Shanghe. 390 maize varieties approved or to be approved in Huang-Huai-Hai rivers region of China were selected. To explore the yield and resource use efficiency differences of different summer maize varieties and their causes, plant samples were taken at maize maturity stage to determine yield and its components, dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen accumulation, distribution and utilization, and radiation and thermal utilization efficiency of different varieties at maturity stage. There were significant differences in yield among different varieties of summer maize. The direct path coefficients of number of harvested ear, grain number per ear, and 1000-grain weight on yield were 0.57, 1.00, and 0.88, respectively, indicating that the yield difference among varieties were mainly affected by the change of grain number per ear. The accumulation and distribution of dry matter and nitrogen had significant effects on summer maize yield. Compared with that in the yield range of <7 t hm-2, the total dry matter of the plant population in the yield range of 7.0-8.0, 8.0-9.0, 9.0-10.0, 10.0-11.0, and >11.0 t hm-2 was increased by 12.25%, 20.52%, 29.61%, 40.11%, and 54.04%, respectively. Grain nitrogen accumulation was increased by 16.62%, 24.85%, 38.45%, 48.42%, and 68.41%, respectively. Grain dry matter allocation was increased by 5.11%, 9.93%, 13.32%, 15.51%, and 17.94%, and grain nitrogen allocation was increased by 4.09%, 7.24%, 7.37%, 7.31%, and 10.91%, respectively. The radiation use efficiency of grain was increased by 12.50%, 21.25%, 30.00%, 41.25%, and 55.00%, respectively. The thermal utilization efficiency of grain was increased by 11.36%, 20.45%, 29.55%, 39.77%, and 53.41%, respectively. To achieve high-yielding and high-efficient production of summer maize, high-yielding maize varieties were improved dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in maize population, increased the proportion of dry matter and nitrogen distribution in grain, improved the utilization efficiency of nitrogen, radiation and thermal in plant, and promoted the synergistic improvement of yield components, especially the increase of grain number per ear.

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Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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