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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (2): 414-424.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32015

• TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Changes of root characteristics of super hybrid rice variety contributing to high nitrogen accumulation under low nitrogen application at seedling stage

WU Yu**(), LIU Lei**(), CUI Ke-Hui*(), QI Xiao-Li, HUANG Jian-Liang, PENG Shao-Bing   

  1. National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement / Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs / College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
  • Received:2023-04-24 Accepted:2023-09-13 Online:2024-02-12 Published:2023-10-07
  • Contact: *E-mail: cuikehui@mail.hzau.edu.cn, Tel: 027-87288380
  • About author:**Contributed equally to this work
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31671598)

Abstract:

Crop root system plays an important role in nitrogen uptake. In this study, two rice varieties, conventional rice variety Huanghuazhan (HHZ) and super hybrid rice variety Yangliangyou 6 (YLY6), were grew hydroponically under high nitrogen (HN) and low nitrogen (LN) treatments to investigate the changes of root characteristics and their relationships with nitrogen accumulation at seedling stage. Compared to HN, LN significantly decreased the total N accumulation in HHZ by 19.7% and had no substantial effect in YLY6. Under LN, root dry weight, the total root length, root surface area, and root tips in YLY6 significantly increased by 41.3%, 57.1%, 74.9%, and 20.6%, respectively. However, these four morphological parameters had no significant change in HHZ. Under LN, root diameter and root cortical area in YLY6 significantly increased by 12.4% and 24.2%, respectively. However, the two parameters and root stele diameter in HHZ significantly reduced by 12.0%, 21.9%, and 11.4%, respectively. In YLY6, LN significantly up-regulated the relative expression level of root ammonium transporter genes (AMT2;1, AMT2;3, AMT3;1, and AMT3;2) by 195.6%, 29.3%, 314.9%, and 388.9%, respectively, and increased the relative expression level of glutamine synthetase gene GS1;1 by 158.2%. However, LN had no effect on the relative expression level of the five genes in HHZ. Total nitrogen accumulation was significantly and positively correlated with the root characteristics (but thickness of root cortical sclerenchyma) and expression of above-mentioned genes under LN. These results indicated that the enhanced positive responses of above-mentioned root characteristics contributed to high nitrogen accumulation in YLY6 seedlings under LN. Developing varieties with root positive responses to nitrogen reduction should be a considerable target for green rice production.

Key words: rice (Oryza sativa L.), low nitrogen application, changes of root characteristics, nitrogen accumulation, ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase

Table 1

The qRT-PCR primers for AMT, GS, GOGAT, and Actin genes"

基因
Gene name
上游引物
Forward sequences (5'-3')
下游引物
Reverse sequences (5'-3')
OsAMT1.1 TTTTGCTGGGCTTCTCTTGT ACCATTCCACCACACCCTTA
OsAMT1.2 CTTCATCGGGAAGCAGTTCT TGAGGAAGGCGGAGTAGATG
OsAMT1.3 CGGCTTCGACTACAGCTTCT GACCAGATCCAGTGGGACAC
OsAMT2.1 CTGGCTCCTCCTCTCCTACA CAGGATGTTGTTCGGTGAGA
OsAMT2.2 GCCTCGACGTCATCTTCTTC TTGTGGAGGATCATCATGGA
OsAMT2.3 GCCTCGACGTCATCTTCTTC GGAAGGTGGATTTCTTGTGC
OsAMT3.1 ACCAAGGACAGGGAGAGGTT AAGATGACGTCGAGGCAA
OsAMT3.2 GCACAGAAGGACAGGGAGAG GCAGATGTTGGTGTTGAGGA
OsAMT3.3 CGAGCATCACCATCATCATC ATGACACCCCACTGGAAGAG
OsAMT4 CTGGCCTCAAGAAGATGGACA AGCTGCTTCACGTACTTGATCG
NADH-GOGAT1 GTGCAGCCTGTTGCAGCATAAA CGGCATTTCACCATGCAAATC
NADH-GOGAT2 CCTGTCGAAGGATGATGAAGGTGAAACC TGCATGGCCCTACTATCTTCGCATCA
Fd-GOGAT AAACAGGCAGCGAGAAAGGTG AAACTCGGCACAAGCTTCAGG
GS1.1 GAGTCGTCGTCTCATTTGACCC GTAGCCACCATCGTTCCTCATC
GS1.2 TTTTCAAGGACCCGTTCAGGA CGGCACTGTGCCTCTTGTTAGT
GS1.3 TCAAGCCATCTTCAGAGACCCA TACCGGTTGTTCGTCGGAATC
GS2 TCACTTCGCCATGACTTGCA CCCCATGAGAAATTGTCAATGC
Actin ATGAAGATCAAGGTGGTCGC GATCTCAGCCTTGGCAATCC

Table 2

Effects of low nitrogen application on biomass and nitrogen accumulation in rice"

品种
Variety
氮处理
Nitrogen
treatment
根干重
Root dry weight
(g plant-1)
地上部分干重
Shoot dry weight
(g plant-1)
根氮含量
Root N content
(mg g-1)
地上部分氮含量
Shoot N content
(mg g-1)
总氮积累量
Total N accumulation
(mg plant-1)
HHZ HN 0.192±0.019 a 0.683±0.070 a 29.47±1.42 a 43.63±1.93 a 35.36±2.71 a
LN 0.230±0.026 a 0.672±0.052 a 21.63±2.25 b 34.92±1.06 b 28.40±1.59 b
YLY6 HN 0.208±0.017 b 1.017±0.030 b* 30.98±0.83 a 47.42±1.89 a 54.70±3.73 a*
LN 0.415±0.027 a* 1.388±0.158 a* 19.38±0.48 b 32.24±1.33 b 52.64±3.82 a*
ANOVA 氮Nitrogen (N) +++ ++ ++ +++ +
品种Variety (V) +++ +++ ns ns +++
氮×品种N×V ++ ++ + + ns

Table 3

Effects of low nitrogen application on root morphological characteristics in rice"

品种
Variety
氮处理
Nitrogen
treatment
总根长
Total root length
(cm plant-1)
根表面积
Root surface area
(cm2 plant-1)
根体积
Root volume
(cm3 plant-1)
根尖数
Root tips
(No. plant-1)
HHZ HN 1822±269 a 181±20 a 1.42±0.11 b 26,678±5793 a
LN 1809±159 a 216±16 a 2.09±0.21 a 22,397±2879 a
YLY6 HN 2321±221 b 228±19 b 1.79±0.16 b 34,354±4079 b
LN 3280±256 a* 358±29 a* 3.12±0.28 a* 41,429±3964 a*
ANOVA 氮Nitrogen (N) + ++ ++ ns
品种Variety (V) +++ +++ +++ ++
氮×品种N×V ++ ++ ++ +

Table 4

Effects of low nitrogen application on root anatomical characteristics in rice"

品种
Variety
氮处理
Nitrogen
treatment
根直径
Root diameter
(mm)
通气组织面积比例
Proportion of root cortical aerenchyma area (%)
根皮层面积
Root cortical area
(mm2)
根皮层厚壁组织厚度
Thickness of root
cortical sclerenchyma (mm)
根中柱直径
Root stele diameter (mm)
HHZ HN 989±33 a 0.62±0.53 b 0.64±0.04 a 6.50±0.26 a 228±8 a
LN 870±41 b 5.86±3.13 a 0.50±0.05 b 6.01±0.42 b 202±4 b
YLY6 HN 883±78 b 6.08±5.11 b* 0.52±0.09 b 8.26±0.38 a* 215±6 a
LN 993±25 a* 27.69±2.49 a* 0.64±0.04 a* 6.18±0.28 b 221±4 a*
ANOVA 氮Nitrogen (N) ns ++ ns ++ +
品种Variety (V) ns +++ ns ++ ns
氮×品种N×V ++ ++ + ++ ++

Fig. 1

Effects of low nitrogen application on the relative expression of root ammonium transporter genes in rice HHZ and YLY6 represent rice variety Huanghuazhan and Yangliangyou 6, respectively. HN and LN represent high and low nitrogen application rates, respectively. The values are averages ± standard deviations (STDEV); different letters placed on top of histograms denote significant difference between two nitrogen levels at P < 0.05 (LSD test) for the same variety; * indicates significant difference between HHZ and YLY6 at the 0.05 probability level (LSD test) in the same nitrogen level."

Fig. 2

Effects of low nitrogen application on the relative expression of root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in rice HHZ and YLY6 represent rice variety Huanghuazhan and Yangliangyou 6, respectively. HN and LN represent high and low nitrogen application rates, respectively. The values are averages ± standard deviations (STDEV); different letters placed on top of histograms denote significant difference between two nitrogen levels at P < 0.05 (LSD test) for the same variety; * indicates significant difference between HHZ and YLY6 at the probability 0.05 level (LSD test) in the same nitrogen level."

Table 5

Correlation of total nitrogen accumulation with root characteristics"

氮处理
Nitrogen
treatment
根干重
RDW
总根长
TRL
根表面积
RS
根体积
RV
根尖数
RT
根直径
RD
通气组织
比例
RCA
根皮层面积
CCA
根皮层厚壁
组织厚度
SCT
根中柱
直径
RSD
高氮处理HN 0.61 0.68 0.70 0.71* 0.57 -0.70 0.65 -0.70 0.94*** -0.70
低氮处理LN 0.99*** 0.96*** 0.95*** 0.92** 0.94*** 0.92** 0.96*** 0.91** 0.37 0.97***

Table 6

Correlation of total nitrogen accumulation with the relative expression level of root ammonium transporter genes"

氮处理Nitrogen treatment AMT1;1 AMT1;2 AMT1;3 AMT2;1 AMT2;2 AMT2;3 AMT3;1 AMT3;2 AMT3;3 AMT4
高氮处理HN 0.75* 0.11 -0.48 -0.31 -0.82* 0.31 0.26 0.05 0.63 0.44
低氮处理LN 0.89** 0.27 0.71 0.68 -0.79* 0.79* 0.86** 0.85** 0.39 0.48

Table 7

Correlation of the total nitrogen accumulation with the relative expression level of root nitrogen assimilation related genes"

氮处理
Nitrogen treatment
GS1;1 GS1;2 GS1;3 GS2 NADH-GOGAT1 NADH-GOGAT2 Fd-GOGAT
高氮处理HN -0.17 0.08 -0.42 -0.93*** -0.05 -0.84** 0.54
低氮处理LN 0.77* 0.50 0.73* -0.76* 0.61 -0.55 0.92**
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