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    New Gene Discovery of Crops in China: Status, Challenging, and Perspective
    QIU Li-Juan, GUO Yong, LI Yu, WANG Xiao-Bei, ZHOU Guo-An, LIU Zhang-Xiong, ZHOU Shi-Rong, LI Xin-Hai, MA Wei-Zhi, WANG Jian-Kang, WAN Jian-Min
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (01): 1-17.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00001
    Abstract3982)      PDF(pc) (376KB)(7032)       Save
    Gene discovery is the basis of molecular breeding in crops. The progress of gene discovery study of major crops such as rice, wheat, maize, soybean, cotton and oilseed rape in China during the past ten years was analyzed and reviewed in this paper. Gene discovery of crops in China has also made a series of breakthroughs: (1) A number of distinctive gene discovery materials were created, such as core germplasm based on crop genetic diversity, genetic population based on excellent genetic resources, mutants derived from artificial mutation, and so on. (2) Technology and methods of gene discovery were developed, especially the integration of various gene discovery technologies and improvement of biometric algorithm of gene/QTLs, and therefore the efficiency of gene discovery was improved. (3) Mapping markers and genes related to agronomic traits of crops has become a common method for genetic studies. A number of genes/QTLs associated with disease resistance, stress tolerance, quality, nutrient efficiency and yield have been mapped, of which more than 500 genes have been fine mapping. (4) Gene cloning and functional study in crops especially in rice become more and more important in the world. More than 300 genes have been cloned in the main crops, among which more than 70 genes have been functional validated in crops. With the development of genome sequence technology, gene discovery of crops become more and more efficient, large-scale and practical. However, the quality and quantity of crop gene discovery is still far from meeting the needs of molecular breeding of crops and the overall level of gene discovery has still fallen behind developed countries in the world. The development of gene discovery in different crops is uneven, the number of genes discovered is relatively limited and discovered genes with great value is still scare. Focused on the problems of gene discovery in China and the challenges of biotechnology companies in the worldwide, the strategy of crops gene discovery in China was proposed in this paper, including improvement of the efficiency of gene discovery, enhancement of gene cloning and the value of important genes, and the orientation of the development needs of biotechnology industry.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Crop Molecular Breeding in China:Current Status and Perspectives
    LI Yu, WANG Jian-Kang, QIU Li-Juan, MA You-Zhi, LI Xin-Hai, WAN Jian-Min
    Acta Agron Sin    2010, 36 (09): 1425-1430.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.01425
    Abstract5498)      PDF(pc) (160KB)(6852)       Save
    With some technological breakthroughs such as sequencing and microarray in the recent years, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metalomics and phenomics have made a great progress in the world. Theories and technologies of crop breeding have also been revolutionarized considerably. Traditional crop breeding is based on phenotypic selection, which is often called “empirical breeding” with poor predictability, long breeding cycle and low breeding efficiency. Modern crop molecular breeding including marker-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular design breeding has become an important direction in the field of plant breeding. It is based on the combination of genotypic selection and phenotypic selection and thus target genes/alleles can be directly selected and pyramided. Therefore, the efficiency of molecular breeding can be improved and the breeding duration can be shortened. The paper defines the concept of mole
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    Cited: Baidu(44)
    Research Advances on Crop Growth Models
    Lin zhonghui;Mo Xingguo;Xiang Yueqing
    Acta Agron Sin    2003, 29 (05): 750-758.  
    Abstract2852)      PDF(pc) (237KB)(6609)       Save
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    Cited: Baidu(83)
    Molecular Design Breeding in Crops in China
    WANG Jian-Kang, LI Hui-Hui, ZHANG Hua-Cai, YIN Chang-Bin, LI Yu, MA Wei-Zhi, LI Xin-Hai, QIU Li-Juan, MO Jian-Min
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (02): 191-201.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00191
    Abstract5432)      PDF(pc) (261KB)(6482)       Save
    Molecular design breeding is a highly integrated system built on multiple scientific disciplines and technological areas. It allows the simulation and optimization of the breeding procedure before breeders’ field experiments. Thus the best target genotypes to meet various breeding objectives in various ecological regions, and the most efficient and effective crossing and selection strategies approaching the best target genotypes can be identified. The design breeding greatly increases the predictability in conventional breeding, leading to the evolution from “phenotypic breeding by experience” to “genotypic breeding by prediction” and an increased breeding efficiency and effectiveness. Three major steps are involved in design breeding. The first step is to identify genes affecting breeding traits and to study gene and gene interactions, i.e., to seek for the original materials for producing the crop cultivars, which includes establishment of genetic populations, screening of polymorphism markers, construction of linkage maps, phenotypic evaluation and genetic analysis etc. The second step is to determine the target genotypes for various breeding objectives in various ecological regions, i.e., prototype of the final cultivar product, which includes the genotype-to-phenotype prediction based on identified and known gene information, i.e., locations of genes on chromosomes, biochemical pathways and expression networks from genes to traits, their genetic effects on breeding traits, and the interactions between genes. The third step is to identify the most efficient breeding strategies leading to the target genotypes determined in the second step, i.e., a detailed blue chart to produce the designed crop cultivars. Significant progresses have been made in crop molecular design breeding in China in recent years. This paper first summarized major progresses made in the development of novel genetic materials, genetic study of important breeding traits, development and application of breeding simulation tools, application of design breeding, and the platform research and development in molecular design breeding in crops in China. A perspective view of molecular design breeding was given for the near future after reviewing the current research both in China and worldwide. Finally, major research areas relevant to molecular design breeding in China were proposed, among which are prediction methods and tools of genetics and breeding, genetic mating designs and analysis, gene and environment interactions, functional genomics of crops, methods and tools of bioinformatics, technical systems and decision-supported tools. Professional development and education, and team building are essential as well to China’s leading role in crop molecular design breeding in the world.
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    Cited: Baidu(36)
    Progress of Wheat Breeding in China and the Future Perspective
    HE Zhong-Hu, JIA Xian-Chun, CHEN Xin-Min, ZHUANG Qiao-Sheng
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (02): 202-215.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00202
    Abstract5203)      PDF(pc) (229KB)(6208)       Save
    During the last ten years, Chinese wheat breeding has mainly made progresses in three aspects, i.e., (1) two sets of cultivars with high yielding potential, improved quality, and multi-resistance to various diseases were developed and extended, (2) three elite parents, viz. Zhou 8425B, Lumai 14, and 6VS/6AL translocation line played a leading role in cultivar development; and (3) a significant progress has been achieved in breeding methodology and applied research. Main constrains on wheat breeding were also summarized. The development and utilization of molecular markers such as SSR marker and functional maker, was reviewed from breeding point of view, and the priority areas for the next five to ten years were proposed. It summarized the progress of wheat quality study which is closely associated with cultivar development, including laboratory evaluation methods and selection criteria for pan bread, cookie, Chinese noodles and steamed bread. China’s strategies for wheat breeding were analyzed in four areas: (1) a draft points on improving Chinese wheat yield potential; (2) utilization of durable resistance for cultivar development; (3) more efforts on water use efficiency, tolerance to high temperature and traits associated with broad adaptation due to the serious impact of climate change; and (4) increased investment in breeding and seed marketing from private sector.
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    Cited: Baidu(83)
    Recent Findings in Plant Innate Immunity and Possible Impacts on Crop Disease-resistance Breeding
    ZHAO Kai-Jun, LI Yan-Qiang, WANG Chun-Lian, GAO Ying
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (06): 935-942.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00935
    Abstract3181)      PDF(pc) (571KB)(5454)       Save
    Plants have been successfully living in such an environment in which there are myriads of potential microbial pathogens, indicating that plants possess an efficient immunity system. Recent studies have revealed that the plant immunity system consists of two layers of defense. The first layer, based on the sensitive perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the plant cell surface, is named as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The second is called effector-triggered immunity (ETI), in which plants use additional receptors (such as R-gene products) to perceive pathogen virulence effectors that have evolved to suppress PTI. The conventional gene-for-gene resistance in plants belongs actually to ETI. For millions of years, natural selection has been driving pathogens to avoid ETI either by diversifying the recognized effectors or by acquiring additional effectors that suppress ETI. On the other hand, natural selection favors plant new R-genes that can recognize the newly acquired effectors in pathogen, resulting in new ETI to be triggered again. The latest studies have revealed the simple cipher that governs DNA recognition by TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas. TAL effectors can specifically bind the target DNA of host plant with a novel protein-DNA binding pattern in which two amino acids recognize one nucleotide. Using this recognition code, TAL effectors can bind the promoter of target genes and induce the host diseases or resistance responses. Recent findings about plant innate immunity are reviewed in this paper and their possible applications in plant breeding for disease resistance are discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Genome-wide Association Analysis of Kernel Row Number in Maize
    ZHANG Huan-Xin,WENG Jian-Feng,ZHANG Xiao-Cong,LIU Chang-Lin,YONG Hong-Jun,HAO Zhuan-Fang,LI Xin-Hai
    Acta Agron Sin    2014, 40 (01): 1-6.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00001
    Abstract1632)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (846KB)(5196)       Save
    Kernel row number (KRN) is one of grain yield components in maize (Zea mays L.). Investigation of its genetic architecture will help develop high-yield varieties in maize. In this study, the KRN in a panel of 203 maize inbred lines was detected in Urumqi of Xinjiang, Gongzhuling of Jilin, and Sanya of Hainan in 2007, and used to perform the genome-wide analysis for KRN using MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. A total of nine SNPs were found to be significantly associated with KRN at a threshold of P < 0.0001, which were on chromosome Bins 1.02, 1.10, 7.03, 8.02, 9.06, and 10.03, respectively. Eight of these SNPs were located in the QTL intervals reported previously.Meanwhile, four candidate genes were scanned, encoding auxin signaling F-box containing protein, kn1 protein, AP2 domain containing protein and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase respectively. In summary, these identified genes and SNPs will offer essential information for cloning yield-related genes in maize.
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    Cited: Baidu(16)
    Application Technique of Marker Grouping and Ordering in Genetic Linkage Map Construction Using Mapmaker/Exp

    XING Guang-Nan;ZHAO Tuan-Jie;GAI Jun-Yi

    Acta Agron Sin    2008, 34 (02): 217-223.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2008.00217
    Abstract3364)      PDF(pc) (579KB)(4877)       Save

    Mapmaker/Exp (3.0) is one of the most often used computer software packages for constructing genetic linkage map worldwide. It was found that the distances of the map constructed with the software were often exaggerated when large number of markers was involved. The present paper is to introduce our technical experiences in using Method 2 (marker number more than 500) of the software for a more reasonable linkage map. In Method 2 of Mapmaker/Exp (3.0), markers were usually grouped into linkage groups under an identical LOD value for all linkage groups; and then an “order” command followed by multiple “ripple” command was used to test the order with a window size of 5. The causes for the exaggerated map distances were found probably in two aspects in Method 2, i.e. the way of assignment of LOD value and utilization of “order” and “ripple” commands in marker grouping and marker ordering. Therefore, two innovations were taken in the application of Method 2 as: (1) different LOD values used for some specific linkage groups in addition to a common LOD value for the others; and (2) multiple “order” commands each followed with multiple “ripple” commands used for ordering markers in linkage groups, combined with some artificial adjustments when needed, for relatively higher likelihoods of the linkage groups. The innovations were used to construct a soybean genetic linkage map which showed more reasonable than that constructed with the old procedure with a better consistency to the soybean consensus map.

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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Functional Genomics and It′s Methodology
    Zhang Zuxin;Zhang Fangdong;Zheng Yonglian
    Acta Agron Sin    2003, 29 (02): 194-201.  
    Abstract3043)      PDF(pc) (167KB)(4813)       Save
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci for Plant Height Using an Immortalized F 2 Population in Wheat
    WANG Yan,LI Zhuo-Kun,TIAN Ji-Chun
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (6): 1038-1043.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01038
    Abstract2717)      PDF(pc) (143KB)(4800)       Save

    To study the genetic mechanism of wheat plant height, a set of doubled haploid (DH) lines were used to construct an immortalized F2 (IF2) population comprising 168 different crosses. The IF2 population was evaluated for plant height in 2007 cropping seasons in Tai’an and Liaocheng, Shandong province. Linkage map was constructed with 324 SSR markers covering the whole wheat genome, including 284 SSR, 37 ESTs loci, 1 ISSR loci and 2 HMW-GS loci, was constructed. This linkage map covered a total length of 2 485.7 cM with an average distance of 7.67 cM between adjacent markers. QTL analyses were performed using the software QTLNetwork version 2.0 based on the mixed linear model at P < 0.05. Four additive QTLs, 1 dominance QTL and pair of epistatic QTLs were detected, the total QTL effects detected for the plant height explained 20% of the phenotypic variation. One QTL qPh4D for plant height was identified on chromosome 4D, was identified on chromosome 2D, explaining 7.5% of the phenotypic variances. Dominance effect loci qPh2D was identified on chromosome 2D, explaining 1.6% of the phenotypic variances;Epistatic effects of loci was identified on chromosome 5B–6D, explaining 1.7% of the phenotypic variances . The results indicate additive effects, dominance effects and epistatic effects are important in genetics of wheat for plant height, which are also subjected to environmental modifications. These results further demonstrate that the use of IF2 groups QTL positioning research methods contribute to the molecular marker-assisted breeding.

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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Effect of Ridge & Terraced Cultivation on Rice Yield and Root Trait
    ZHENG Hua-Bin,YAO Lin,LIU Jian-Xia,HE Hui,CHEN Yang,HUANG Huang
    Acta Agron Sin    2014, 40 (04): 667-677.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00667
    Abstract1047)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (15075KB)(4562)       Save

    A field experiment was conducted in Changsha city of Hunan Province in 2011 and 2012 to find out a cultivation technique of ridge & terraced cultivation (RTC) for improving rice yield and root trait. Super hybrid rice Yliangyou 1, hybrid rice Shanyou 63 and conventional rice Huanghuazhan were used in the mid-rice season. The cultivation patterns were designed as ridge & terranced cultivation (T1, ridge width 60 cm; T2, ridge width 120 cm), bed cultivation (T3, bed width 70 cm; T4, bed width 140 cm; T5, bed width 230 cm), and traditional cultivation (T0). The characteristics of grain yield formation and root character under different cultivation patterns were analyzed. Results showed that ridge & terraced cultivation (T1) and bed cultivation (T3) could increase grain yield compared with traditional cultivation (T0), T1 had the highest yield, which was 22.2% (17.1%–27.2%) higher than that of T0, the next was T3, with the yield 10.4% (5.8%–15.0%) higher than that of T0. However, increasing range of yield declined gradually with the increase of ridge width or bed width. The important reason for increasing yield by using the two cultivation techniques was higher effective panicles and spikelets per panicles, better root trait (root oxidation ability, root surface absorption area and soil porosity) and higher dry matter accumulation after full heading stage. Meanwhile, root anatomical structureshowed that the thickness of root cortex was decreased and the size of root vascular cylinder and vessel areas was increased in RTC, so that the capacity of water absorption was enhanced.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Bioinformatic Prediction of MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes in Maize
    ZHANG Zhi-Ming, SONG Rui, PENG Hua, LUO Mao, SHEN Ya-Ou, LIU Li, ZHAO Mao-Jun, PAN Guang-Tang
    Acta Agron Sin    2010, 36 (08): 1324-1335.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.01324
    Abstract3499)      PDF(pc) (1472KB)(4516)       Save
    microRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of endogenous, non-coding, short (19–24 nt) RNA molecules directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and played an important role in gene expression regulation. Previous reports have noted that plant miRNAs are highly conserved, which provides the foundation for identification of miRNAs in plant species through homology alignment. With the method of bioinformatic computation, all previously known miRNAs in Arabidopsis, rice, and other plant species were blasted against maize EST (expressed sequence tags) and GSS (genomic survey sequence) sequences to select novel miRNAs in maize by a series of filtering criteria. A total of 23 conserved miRNAs were identified and predicted the target genes by a web-based integrated computing system, WMD 3. Total of 89 miRNA targets were predicted and verified to be involved in maize growth and development, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, metabolism, and stress responses.
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    Association Analysis of Agronomic and Quality Traits with SSR Markers in Glycine max and Glycine soja in China: I. Population Structure and Associated Markers
    WEN Zi-Xiang;ZHAO Tuan-Jie;ZHENG Yong-Zhan;LIU Shun-Hu;WANG Chun-E;WANG Fang;GAI Jun-Yi
    Acta Agron Sin    2008, 34 (07): 1169-1178.  
    Abstract3687)      PDF(pc) (1333KB)(4490)       Save
    Association mapping is a procedure for detecting QTLs as well as their alleles based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). The genotyping data of 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers on representative samples of 393 landraces of Glycine max (L.) Merr. and 196 wild accessions of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were used in the present study. Linkage disequilibrium of pairwise loci and population structure were firstly analyzed for the two populations, then the association analysis between SSR loci and 16 agronomic and quality traits was performed by using TASSEL GLM (general linear model) program. The different degrees of LD were detected not only among syntenic markers but also among nonsyntenic ones, suggesting that there had been historical re-combination among linkage groups. The cultivated soybean population had more LD loci pairs than wild soybean population, while the later had higher degree and slower attenuation of LD than the former. Genetic structure analysis showed that both of the cultivated and wild populations were composed of nine and four subpopulations, respectively, which associated with their geo-graphic eco-types, indicating the classification of geographic eco-types was of sound genetic bases. Twenty seven and thirty four SSR loci associated with the traits were screened out from cultivated and wild populations, respectively. Some loci were found to associate with a same trait in both populations, and there existed both consistent and inconsistent association between the culti-vated and wild populations. There were a few loci associated with two or more traits simultaneously, which might be the genetic reason of correlation among traits or pleiotropic phenomena. In addition, twenty-four associated markers were in agreement with mapped QTLs from family-based linkage mapping procedure.
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    Cited: Baidu(71)
    Some Physiological Response of Zea mays under Salt-stress
    WANG Li-Yan;ZHAO Ke-Fu
    Acta Agron Sin    2005, 31 (02): 264-268.  
    Abstract2219)      PDF(pc) (180KB)(4432)       Save
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    Cited: Baidu(72)
    Identification, Cloning, and Potential Application of Genes Related to Somatic Embryogenesis in Plant Tissue Culture
    YE Xing-Guo, SHE Mao-Yun, WANG Ke, DU Li-Pu, XU Hui-Jun
    Acta Agron Sin    2012, 38 (02): 191-201.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00191
    Abstract3375)      PDF(pc) (2584KB)(4422)       Save
    Plant embryogenesis or organogenesis in vitro is a complicated asexual reproductive process consisting of many aspects such as phytohormone perception, dedifferentiation of differentiated cells to acquire organogenic competence, re-entry of quiescent cells into cell cycle, and organization of cell division to form specific organ primordia and meristems. In fact, plant regeneration is the result of multigenic interactions and regulatory controls, which are not only affected by plant hormones and other nutrients in the medium, but also showed a close relationship with the physiological state of explants. The effects of exogenous and endogenous hormones on plant regeneration and the regulation of exogenous hormones on endogenous hormones were reviewed in this paper. Research progresses on five classes of genes related to somatic embryogenesis were collectively described. They are somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase, arabinogalactan-proteins, nitrite reductase, auxin binding protein, and antioxidant enzyme. Regeneration associated genes are prospected to be potentially used in plant genetic breeding, whose applications will be involved in the improvement of plant regeneration efficiency and transformation efficiency, also in obtaining transgenic plants with bio-safety. However, main candidate genes related to regeneration might vary in different plants or tissues, or function through different pathways. Therefore, cloning and characterization of some important genes related to somatic embryogenesis or organogenesis should be strengthened in future.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of cMDH Gene Related to Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Wheat  with Aegilops kotschyi Aytoplasm
    ZHANG Long-Yu,LI Hong-Xia,ZHANG Gai-Sheng,WANG Jun-Sheng,HAN Yan-Fen,
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1620-1627.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01620
    Abstract3493)      PDF(pc) (654KB)(4387)       Save
    Male sterility with Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasmhas a great application potential in hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding for its stable sterility and broad-spectrum of restoring gene resources. To furtherreveal the genetic mechanism of male sterile with Ae. kotschyi cytoplasm, we employed a male sterile line ms (Kots)-90-110(A) and its near isogenic line BC4F1 (fertility restored by rk5451) to construct sterile and fertile cDNA libraries by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in binucleate stage of anther development. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed EST sequences revealed that one EST highly similar to cytosolic malate dehydrogenases gene was identified from the fertile SSH-cDNA library. Then, The EST sequence was used as a querying probe to blast the Genbank databases. Based on the assembled homologous cDNA sequence, both cDNA and DNA sequences encoding a cytosolic malate dehydrogenases were isolated and characterized by PCR and sequence analysis. Furthermore, expression characteristics of the gene between male sterile and fertile anthers were analyzed via real-time PCR. In this study, the cDNA sequence was 1213 bp in length and the open reading frame encoded a peptide of 333 amino acids. The DNA sequence was 2908 bp in length , which contained seven extrons and six introns. According to expression analysis, the expression of this gene in fertile anthers was much higher than that in sterile anthers at binucleate and trinucleate stage during anther development. The trend of MDH activity was consistent with the quantitative results between fertility and sterility. Therefore, the gene is conjectured to be an early expression gene and its down-regulated expression may affect energy supply during stamen growth in sterile line anthers resulting in male sterility in wheat.
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    Advances on Methodologies for Genome-wide Association Studies in Plants
    FENG Jian-Ying,WEN Yang-Jun,ZHANG Jin,ZHANG Yuan-Ming
    Acta Agron Sin    2016, 42 (07): 945-956.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2016.00945
    Abstract1371)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (950KB)(4197)       Save

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used in human, animal and plant genetics, and many new approaches and their softwares have been developed in recent years. To make a better use of the GWAS methods in applied research, in this study we summarized the advances on methodologies and softwares for GWAS. First, LD score regression was introduced to investigate the effect of population structure on GWAS. Then, the main approaches and their softwares for GWAS in plants were reviewed, including a single-locus model, a multi-locus model, epistasis, and multiple correlated traits. Finally, we prospected the future developments in GWAS. It should be noted that, in real data analysis at present, the methodologies for genome-wide single-marker scan under polygenic background and population structure controls are widely used, and the corresponding results are complementary to those derived from non-parameter approaches with high false discovery rate. However, the future approaches for GWAS should be based on the multi-locus genetic model, QTN-by-environment interaction, epistatic detection and multivariate analysis. Our purpose was to provide beneficial information in theoretical and applied researches.

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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Biological Effects of Biochar and Fertilizer Interaction in Soybean Plant
    ZHANG Wei-Ming,GUAN Xue-Chao,HUANG Yu-Wei,SUN Da-Quan,MENG Jun,CHEN-Wen-Fu*
    Acta Agron Sin    2015, 41 (01): 109-122.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00109
    Abstract927)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (11059KB)(4185)       Save

    The effect of biochar, as a soil amendment, in combination with different concentrations of a chemical fertilizer on the agronomic traits and physiological characteristics was investigated using the soybean cultivation Tiefeng 40 during 2010 and 2011. The results revealed that the application of biochar mixed with fertilizer increased the plant height, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration rate, and also improved the leaf and stem dry matter accumulation. Although the effect of biochar mixed with fertilizer on N (nitrogen) and P (phosphorus) uptake in soybean was not obvious during the early growth stage, both leaf and stem N and P uptake gradually increased in the late stage, and the accumulation per plant for both N and P was also significantly improved. Moreover, biochar mixed with fertilizer increased the pod number, seed number, and seed size per plant, resulting in an average yield increase of 13.2%, compared with the treatment of applying chemical fertilize alone. As the fertilizer application was reduced by 15%, 30%, and 60%, the yield increased by 11.20%, 11.00%, and 8.17% respectively, with a yield increase of 10.6% on an average of two years. Meanwhile, the increase in total protein and fat contents was also dependent on the concentration of biochar mixed with fertilizer, the greater the biochar concentration, the greater the increase. Taken together, our results support the theory of “less fertilizer, but positive effects” for both yield and quality in Tiefeng 40. This approach can be applied in soybean production.

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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Isolation, Chromosome Assignment, and Expression Assay of Nitrite Reductase Gene and Regulatory Sequence in Wheat
    SHE Mao-Yun, CHEN Duo-Duo, FENG Chen, DU Li-Pu, YE Xing-Guo
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (01): 28-39.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00028
    Abstract3303)      PDF(pc) (960KB)(4136)       Save
    Nitrite reductase is wildly involved in N metabolism in plants and has shown excellent relevance to regeneration potential in the tissue culture of rice ( Oryza sativa L.). In this study, in silico and inverse PCR techniques were employed to isolate nitrite reductase encoded gene and its regulatory sequences from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). This gene was predicted to contain four exons and three introns. The gDNA and cDNA sequences were 2 881 bp and 1 830 bp in length, respectively, and they were both submitted to GenBank under the accession numbers FJ555239 and FJ527909. Its deduced encoding protein product was approximately 65.7 kD, sharing high (more than 60%) identity with other nitrite reductase genes deposited in the NCBI database, especially with those from other monocot cereal crops (more than 80%). The 5′ flanking region was isolated and extended to -2 924 bp (counting from the start code: ATG) through inverse PCR. After induced by 1 mmol L - 1 IPTG, a protein of ca. 70 kD was obtained in prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a, including a histidine tag of ca. 3.8 kD. The highest expression of gene in wheat seedlings was induced by 30 mmol L - 1 KNO 3 for 1 h. Measurement on nitrite reductase activity showed the enzyme activity increased following the treatment time extension at 5-d intervals under the above same condition. According to the result of AS-PCR analysis, at least one copy of the gene existed on chromosome 6A and 6B each in common wheat. The study provides a basis for functional determination of wheat nitrite reductase gene in subsequent research.
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Construction of SSH Library with Different Stages of Seeds Development in Brassica napus L.
    PENG Qi,HU Yan,DU Pei-Fen,XIE Qing-Xuan,RUAN Ying,LIU Chun-Lin
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1576-1583.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01576
    Abstract3534)      PDF(pc) (462KB)(4118)       Save
    Mechanism of fatty acid metabolic is a significant research topic in rapeseed molecular breeding. There are six hundreds genes and ESTs associated with fatty acid metabolism, 14% of which are conformed to participate in acrylic-fatty acid metabolism, 86% of which are speculated on sequences similarity and conservative domain with other species. But compared to the situation in Arabidopsis thaliana, molecular regulation mechanism of fatty acid metabolism in rapeseed has been less reported. In harvested rapeseed seeds, there is difference in seed fatty acid components among different varieties or the same variety grown under different ecological conditions. To further explore the molecular mechanism of fatty acid metabolic regulation of Brassica napus L., we investigated the assimilation product transition during the seed development. The starch reached a peak content at 20 days after pollination (20DAP) and was used up quickly after 20DAP, immediately the fatty acids content rapidly increased from 30DAP to 35DAP. According to the results, 20DAP developing seeds and 35DAP developing seeds were chosen for suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), which is an effective tool for picking out specific expression genes among different samples. Two libraries, 20DAP SSH library derived from 20DAP seed cDNA as tester and 35DAP seed cDNA as driver and 35DAP library from 20DAP seed cDNA as driver and 35DAP seed cDNA as tester were constructed. The two SSH libraries had a high quality with high suppression subtractive efficiency after tested by PCR and RT-PCR. A total of 489 clones were randomly selected from the two libraries for sequencing and 452 high quality sequences tags were obtained. Blast analysis and functional annotation showed that most of the genes in 20DAP SSH library were relative to carbohydrate metabolism, while those in 35DAP library relative to fatty acid metabolic regulation. Significantly, 5 function-unknown genes in 20DAP library and 7 in 35DAP library were found out. In summary, this work adds an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of starch-to-oil transition and at the same time the different genes, especially the function-unknown genes shed light on studies of molecular mechanism of fatty acid metabolic regulation in seeds of Brassica napus L.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Investigation Based on cdna-aflp Approach for Differential Expressed Genesis Responding to Deficient-Pi in Wheat
    GU Jun-Tao,BAO Jin-Xiang,WANG Xiao-Ying,GUO Cheng-Jin,LI Xiao-Juan,LU Wen-Jing
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1597-1605.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01597
    Abstract3718)      PDF(pc) (331KB)(4100)       Save
    To date, differential expression genes in response to deficient-Pi stress have been identified and well studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, and totally 612 up-regulated and 254 down-regulated genes with various functions were reported. However, there is no similar report in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, seedlings of wheat cultivar Shixin 828 with high phosphorus use efficiency were treated with 20 µmol L - 1 Pi for 1 to 144 h, and the differential expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with up-regulated and down-regulated patterns were investigated based on cDNA-AFLP approach after deficient-Pi treatment for short term ( 1–6 h ), medium term ( 12–48 h ), and long term ( 72–144 h ). A total of 142 nonredundant ESTs with up-regulated pattern were identified, in which 23, 53, and 66 ESTs expressed in treatments of short, medium, and long term, respectively. Simultaneously, 94 nonredundant ESTs with down-regulated pattern were detected in treatments of short (17), medium (39), and long term (38). These ESTs were classified into several functional groups with BLAST in GenBank. Except for 44 function-unknown ESTs with the up-regulated pattern, the remained up-regulated ESTs conferred functions of signal transduction, transcription regulation, metabolism, stress response, development, transport, and lipid metabolism. Besides the above functions, protein synthesis and protein degradation were also observed in the down-regulated ESTs. Some genes of transcription factors (such as the transcription factor genes with high homologous to rice OsPTF1 and Arabidospsis ZAT10), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK1a), calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK1A), and protein kinase (such as serine/threonine kinase), high-affinity phosphate transporter (PHT3 and PT2), peroxidase (such as peroxidase 73) and glutathione (glutathione S-transferase) were specifically up-regulated under deficient-Pi condition. This suggested that they might play important roles in promoting adaptation to deficient-Pi environment.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Global Genome Expression Analysis of Transcription Factors under PEG Osmotic Stress in Rice Root System
    MA Ting-Chen,CHEN Rong-Jun,YU Rong-Rong,ZENG Han-Lai,ZHANG Duan-Pin
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (6): 1030-1037.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01030
    Abstract2872)      PDF(pc) (209KB)(4075)       Save

    Transcription factors play an important role in plant stress tolerance. The Affymetrix rice genome arrays were used to research the expression change of transcription factors and their families in two rice cultivars with different levels of drought tolerance under PEG osmotic stress. Results showed that a total of 95 transcripts encoding transcription factors (24 transcripts were down-regulated and 71 transcripts were up-regulated at the transcription level) in Xingfengzao 119 and 129 transcripts (69 transcripts were down-regulated and 60 transcripts were up-regulated at the transcription level) in Aihua 5 were affected by PEG osmotic stress. Transcription factors transcripts in response to PEG osmotic stresses were belonged to 30 transcription factors families for each of two cultivars, but there was a difference between the two 30 families. The transcription factors transcripts for expressed cultivar specific-response to PEG osmotic stress, with 72 transcripts for Xingfengzao 119 and 106 for Aihua 5. There was an overlap of transcripts in response to PEG osmotic stress between Xingfengzao 119 and Aihua 5, with the 16 and 7 up-regulated and the down-regulated at the transcription level, respectively. Distribution of PEG osmotic stress regulating genes of two cultivars on rice chromosome was different and their transcripts overlapped were located in 0.432 to 26.139 Mb of chromosome 2 and 0.076 to 20.597 Mb of chromosome 5.

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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Functional Characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Encoding Gene OsBE1 during Chloroplast Development in Oryza sativa
    WANG Xing-Chun,WANG Min,JI Zhi-Juan,CHEN Zhao,LIU Wen-Zhen,HAN Yuan-Huai,YANG Chang-Deng
    Acta Agron Sin    2014, 40 (12): 2090-2097.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02090
    Abstract1052)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (13916KB)(4018)       Save

    Chloroplast plays an important role in plant carbohydrate metabolism; however the function of carbohydrate metabolism in the chloroplast development is poorly understood. The Oryza sativa Branching Enzyme 1 (OsBE1) gene, encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 13 protein, was cloned from rice. The identity between OsBE1 and Arabidopsis AtBE1 is 66%, but only 40% between OsBE1 and the classical starch branching enzymes in rice. A T-DNA insertion mutant of OsBE1 gene was identified. The seedlings of the osbe1 mutant were albino, and died at the three-leaf stage. This albino phenotype could not be rescued by exogenous carbohydrate. Starch staining showed no obvious difference in starch content between osbe1 and the wild type. Further studies showed that there were less chloroplasts in osbe1 mutant than in wild type, and there was no obvious stroma lamella in the osbe1 chloroplast. The overexpression vector pCAMBIA1300-35S-OsBE1 was constructed and transformed into rice variety Zhonghua 11. Finally, 108 transgenic lines were obtained and 77 lines of them showed etiolation in different degrees. The work not only sheds a novel insight into the regulation mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism on chloroplast development, but also lays a foundation for further understanding of the OsBE1’s function.

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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Effects of Panting Density on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Changes of Carbon and Nitrogen in Leaf of Different Corn Hybrids
    CHEN Chuan-Yong, HOU Hai-Peng, LI Qiang, ZHU Ping, ZHANG Zhen-Yong, DONG Zhi-Qiang,
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2010, 36 (05): 871-878.  
    Abstract3043)      PDF(pc) (713KB)(3946)       Save
    The main objective of this research was to analyse the effects of plant population on the dynamic changes of photosynthetic characteristics, soluble sugar content, carbon and nitrogen in corn leaf ( Zea mays L .). Field experiments were conducted in Gongzhuling, Jilin province. Three corn hybrids were cultivated at 60 000, 75 000, 90 000, and 105 000 plants ha -1. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three replicates. Plant density was the main-plot and hybrids were the subplot. The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, contents of carbon and nitrogen in corn leaf were measured at different stages, especially after silking. The results indicated thatthe chlorophyll content, the photosynthetic rate in grain filling stage, soluble sugar content, leaf total nitrogen decreased in all hybrids with the increase of plant density. It showed that transmission rate reduced, the leaf senescence accelerated, physical activity declined as plant density intensified. During the growth period, chlorophyll content was changed in a single peak curve, with the peak at grain filling. The peaks of carbon-nitrogen ratio appeared at silking and ripening respectively. The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, soluble sugar content, ratio of carbon to nitrogen in corn leaf indicated a quadratic relationship with increasing days after silking. Total nitrogen in corn leaf decreased linearly in all hybrids as days after silking increased. High plant density had great effect on carbon metabolism. The chlorophyll content had no or little effect on the photosynthetic rate after silking. The results showed the dynamic changes of photosynthetic characteristics, contents of carbon and nitrogen were different as plant density intensified. The tolerance to planting density is Xianyu 335>Zhengdan 958>Jidan 209.
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    Cited: Baidu(46)
    Physico-Chemical Properties of A-and B-Type Starch Granules in Wheat
    TIAN Yi-Hua,ZHANG Chuan-Hui,CAI Jian,ZHOU Qin,JIANG Dong*,DAI Ting-Bo,JING Qi
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1755-1758.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01755
    Abstract3651)      PDF(pc) (403KB)(3900)       Save

    A- and B-type starch granules were isolated and purified from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour to study their physico-chemical properties. Starch granule image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that there was obvious morphological difference between A- and B-type starch granules, and they could be completely isolated without mixture due to the unique type of starch granule in each group. The diameter of A-type starch granule was 4.45–44.46 μm and there were 1.23×1010 granules per gram starch, whereas the two values of B-type granule were 0.47–11.16 μm and 6.70×1010, respectively. Amylose content in A- and B-type granules was 27.70% and 22.62%, respectively. Compared with the A-type granules, the B-type granules had higher pasting temperature and lower viscosities of peak, breakdown, and setback. The B-type granules contributed greatly to the pasting properties of the reconstituted starches when the fraction of B-type granules was less than 30%. Effects of starch granule size distribution on pasting property of reconstituted starch decreased when the fraction of B-type granules was higher than 30%.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Bayesian Statistics-Based Multiple Interval Mapping of QTL Controlling Endosperm Traits in Cereals
    WANG Ya-Min,TANG Zai-Xiang,LU Xin,XU Chen-Wu
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1569-1575.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01569
    Abstract3215)      PDF(pc) (413KB)(3898)       Save

    The endosperm of plants is a major source of food, feed and industrial raw materials. The genetic analysis of endosperm traits poses numerous challenges due to its complex genetic composition and unique physical and developmental properties. Modern molecular techniques and statistical methods have greatly improved the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits. In recent years, Bayesian statistics-based analyzing methods have been developed for mapping QTL underlying diploid quantitative traits, but these methods have not been effective to the mapping of triploid endosperm characters. On the basis f Bayesian statistics and quantitative genetic model of triploid endosperm traits, a Bayesian multiple interval method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits was proposed. This method used the DNA molecular marker genotypes of each plant in F2 segregation population and the single endosperm observation of a few endosperms of each plant as data set to analyze endosperm QTL. After constructing the multiple-QTL model, the Bayesian estimates of multiple QTL position and effects were obtained through MCMC algorithm implementing via Gibbs and Metropolis-Hastings sampling. The validation of the statistical procedure was verified through chromosome level simulation studies. The results showed that the proposed Bayesian method can estimate the multiple QTL positions and effects as well as distinguish the two dominance effects.

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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Quantitative Relationship between Hyper-spectral Red Edge Position and Canopy Leaf NitrogenConcentration in Rice
    TIAN Yong-Chao,YANG Jie,YAO Xia,ZHU Yan,CAO Wei-Xing
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1681-1690.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01681
    Abstract3317)      PDF(pc) (513KB)(3880)       Save

    Real-time and non-destructive monitoring of crop nitrogen status is needed for precision management and dynamic regulation in rice fertilization. This research made a systematic analysis on the characteristics of the first-derivative reflectance spectra in red edge area, and the quantitative relationships between red edge position (REP) with different algorithms and canopy leaf nitrogen concentrations in the conditions of different nitrogen rates and rice varieties in different seasons of field-grown rice. The results showed that spectrum in red edge area was significantly affected by nitrogen levels and varietal types, and “three-peak” feature could be observed with the first derivative spectrum in this area. Traditional REP (the maximum value of the fist derivative spectra in 670–780 nm range) was not sensitive to canopy leaf nitrogen concentration because of the three-peak feature, but the REPs based on inverted Gaussian fitting, linear four-point interpolation, linear extrapolation and adjusted linear extrapolation generated continuous REP data, and could be used to estimate canopy leaf nitrogen concentration. Besides, REP from a three-point Lagrangian interpolation with three first-derivatives bands (695, 700 and 705 nm) also had a good relationship with canopy leaf nitrogen concentration. Comparison of these REPs based on different approaches indicated that the adjusted linear extrapolation method (755FD730+675FD700) / (FD730+FD700) gave the best prediction of canopy leaf nitrogen concentration, with relative simple algorithm, and thus is a good REP parameter for monitoring canopy leaf nitrogen concentration in rice.

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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Effect of Plant Growth Substances on Morphological and Anatomical Structure of Leaf and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Soybean
    FENG Nai-Jie,ZHENG Dian-Feng,ZHAO Jiu-Xiang,ZU Wei,DU Ji-Dao,ZHANG Yu-Xian
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1691-1697.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01691
    Abstract3301)      PDF(pc) (877KB)(3797)       Save
    Many soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] morphological and physiological regulations responding to plant growth substances have been reported. Related researches showed that plant growth substances could effectively control lodging, increase leaf area index, promote photosynthesis, reduce productive abscission and improve yield and quality in soybean production. Plant growth substances thorough adjusting inner hormone control soybean’s whole process of growth and development, at the same time possibly affect the structure of soybean organs, including root, stem, leaf, and productive organs, on which there are a little report. Microtechnique and ultramicrotechnique have triumphantly applied in the researches on the changes of fibre texture and ultrastructure in plant caused by nutrient elements and environment factors, which provides availibity to research the effects of plant growth substances on the structure of soybean organs. The present study was carried out in an attempt to compare anatomical structure and photosynthetic characteristics of cultivar Kennong 4, Treated with three plant growth substances In the f ield of experiments on trail farm of Heilongjiang August-First Land Reclamation University in 2006. The selected secure plant growth substances Diethyl anlinoethyl (DTA), Ckolirte chloride (Cc), and SOD simulation material (SODM), were applied by leaf-spraying at the beginning of blossom stage (R1). 30 days later, at the beginning seed stage (R5), the functional leaves were sampled to compare fibre texture and ultrastructure by microtechnique and ultramicrotechnique. Photosynthetic characteristics, such as leaf index, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic potential and photosynthetic rate, were measured every 10 days after the treatments. The results indicated that the plant growth substances caused the changes of both anatomical structure of leaf and photosynthetic characteristics. Under li ght microscope, we found that, compared with control, DTA, CC, and SODM increased palisade tissue thickness and ratio of palisade/spongy of leaf. The tight degree of palisade tissue arrangement,was different in treatment showing the order of SODM> DTA> CC> CK. DTA , CC, and SODM increased the number of chloroplast single cell, granule lamella and starch grains in chloroplast, while reduced the number of osmophilic globuli in the chloroplast. SODM, DTA increased granule number in chloroplast significantly. In the investigation of photosynthetic characteristics, we found that, compared with control, DTA, SODM, and CC increased the contents of Chl a, Chl b, Chl(a+b) in leaf and the ratio of Chl b/a. DTA, SODM, and CC advanced the time to maximum leaf area index and leaf area duration (LAD), increased total LAD and photosynthetic rate during grain filling period under water stress. From above, we drew a conclusion that plant growth substances could at least partially regulate the structure of soybean organs, fibre texture and ultrastructure of soybean leaf, which is helpful to promote photosynthesis, showing the consistency between anatomical structure and physiological function.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Fartilizer-Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Its Physiological Mechanism under Site-Specific Nitrogen Management in Rice
    LIU Li-Jun,YANG Li-Nian,SUN Xiao-Lin,WANG Zhi-Qin,YANG Jian-Chang
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1672-1680.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01672
    Abstract3727)      PDF(pc) (406KB)(3791)       Save

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is one of the most important factors affecting grain yield in rice. High N inputs and low use efficiency is a main problem in rice production in China. Site-specific N management (SSNM) has been considered as a new technique which could increase N use efficiency in rice. However, its underlying mechanism is not understood. In this study, one indica hybrid Shanyou 63 and two japonica cultivars Wuyujing 3 and Yangjing 9538 were field-grown, and two treatments, SSNM and farmers’ fertilizer practice (FFP), were conducted. The results showed that SSNM reduced N rate by 48.1–63.0% and increased grain yield by 0.1–9.3% when compared with FFP. Recovery efficiency and agronomic efficiency of fertilizer-N under SSNM were increased by 31.4–56.8% and 143.6–166.0%, respectively, as compared with those under FFP. The peak of N uptake appeared during the peirod from panicle initiation to heading. The N uptake during this period and its ratio to total N uptake during the whole growth stage were significantly higher under SSNM than under FFP. The amount of N uptake after heading under SSNM was also much higher than that under FFP. From panicle initiation, root weight and activity (especially root activity per stem) under SSNM were higher than those under FFP. SSNM also significantly increased the activities of glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and Fd-glutamate synthase in leaves at the panicle initiation and heading stages. Photosynthetic rate of the flag leaves was also obviously greater under SSNM than under FFP. These results indicated that SSNM could promote root growth, increase matter production and nutrient uptake during the mid and late growth periods, leading to higher fertilizer-N use efficiency in rice.

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    Mechanism and Regulation in the Filling of Inferior Spikelets of Rice
    YANG Jian-Chang
    Acta Agron Sin    2010, 36 (12): 2011-2019.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.02011
    Abstract4002)      PDF(pc) (427KB)(3733)       Save
    Grain filling is the final growth stage in cereals when fertilized ovaries develop into caryopses. The degree and rate of grain filling in rice spikelets differ largely with their positions on a panicle. In general, earlier-flowering superior spikelets, usually located on apical primary branches, fill fast and produce larger and heavier grains. While later-flowering inferior spikelets, usually located on proximal secondary branches, are either sterile or fill slowly and produce smaller grains. The poor grain-filling of inferior spikelets is more aggravated in the new bred “super” rice cultivars that have numerous spikelets on a panicle. Poor filling of inferior spikelets not only limits the realization of great yield potential, but also degrades rice quality, especially milling and apparent qualities. There are many explanations to the poor filling of inferior spikelets, including carbon limitation, sink capacity limitation, unbalance in hormone levels, low activities and/or expressions of enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion, and “flow” impediment. Recent studies have shown that low physiological activities of sink (grains) at the initial grain filling and low conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch during the active grain filling period contribute to the poor filling of inferior spikelets. It is observed that the ratio of sugar to spikelets at the heading stage (amount of non-structural carbohydrate in the stems and sheaths over the number of spikelets at heading) significantly correlats with the physiological activities of sink, and the ratio of abscisic acid (ABA) to 1-aminocylopropane -1-carboxylic acid (ACC, a precursor of ethylene) significantly correlats with the grain filling rate, indicating that increases in the ratios of sugar to spikelets and of ABA to ethylene would be two important regulatory approaches to improve the filling of inferior spikelets. Further studies are essential by investigating how environmental factors (including cultivation techniques), factors of the whole plant, and factors within the spikelets regulate the filling of inferior spikelets. A deep understanding of the regulation mechanism that limits the filling of inferior spikelets would lead to efforts that could greatly enhance grain filling and, consequently, increase the yield performance of rice.
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    Cited: Baidu(53)
    Yield Performance and Resources Used Efficiency of Winter Wheat and Summer Maize in Double Late-Cropping System
    FU Xue-Li,ZHANG Hui,JIA Ji-Zeng,DU Li-Feng,FU Jin-Dong,ZHAO Ming
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1708-1714.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01708
    Abstract3408)      PDF(pc) (254KB)(3724)       Save

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation is the main crop system in North China plain. In recent years, with continuous increase of air temperature, the double late-cropping system (late sowing for winter wheat and late harvested for summer maize) has of importance for whole-year high yield in this area. Proper scheme of light and heat in the double late-cropping system can provide high resource use efficiency (RUE) and high yields of both wheat and maize. To quantitatively analyze the yield performance and the effect of “double late” we need, two cultivars of winter wheat and two cultivars of summer maize in field experiments in Wen county and Jiaozuo of Henan province in 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 respectively. The dry matter production, grain yield, yield performance quantitative parameters, and energy (light and accumulated temperature) used efficiency were investigated in the double late-cropping system and compared with those in traditional cropping system (control). The results showed that the whole-year yield was 21 891–22 507 kg ha-1 in the double late-cropping system with 442–2 575 kg ha-1 more than that in control. In wheat cropping season, the yield of FS230 was slightly reduced with no significant difference form that of the control, but the yield of Yumai 49 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by 291–305 kg ha-1. In the maize cropping season, yield increased by 747–2 700 kg ha-1, which highly compensated the yield loss of winter wheat. In the yield performance quantitative parameters, although the mean leaf area index, spike number, and grain number per spike of winter wheat decreased in the double late-cropping system, the mean net assimilation rate, harvest index, and grain weight were significantly (P < 0.05) promoted. Similarly, the mean leaf area index, harvest index, growth duration, and grain weight of maize significantly increased in the double late-cropping system. The light and temperature use efficiency were 2.22%–10.86% and 0.47%–11.56% higher in the double late-cropping system than in control. The results imply that the double late-cropping system has good performances on grain yield and resource use efficiency. The high whole-year yield and high production efficiency in double late-cropping system are mainly subject to the cropping season of maize, a C4 plant with high photosynthetic efficiency. Thus, based on late sowing, early-maturing wheat cultivars are suggested to be used in the double cropping system in North China, resulting in longer grain-filling period of the following maize crop and ultimately higher yield.

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    Cited: Baidu(19)
    Real-time Quantitative PCR Detection of Genetically Modified Maximizerâ Maize and YieldGardâ Maize
    CHEN Ying;SU Ning;XU Bo-Liang;GE Yi-Qiang;WANG Shu-Guang
    Acta Agron Sin    2004, 30 (06): 602-607.  
    Abstract2614)      PDF(pc) (175KB)(3713)       Save
    A reliable and simple Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for detection of genetically modified maize with ABI Prism 7 700 was established in this paper. A set of PCR primers and probes was designed specific to transgenic commercial maize Mon 810 and Event 176. The detection limi
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    Cited: Baidu(27)
    Molecular Mechanism of Plant Defense against Virus Attack
    HOU Jing,LIU Qing-Qing,XU Ming-Liang
    Acta Agron Sin    2012, 38 (05): 761-772.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.00761
    Abstract2909)      PDF(pc) (430KB)(3619)       Save
    Viral diseases of plants seriously threaten the crop productivity. Many virus resistance genes are reported to play roles in restraining viral replication and preventing virus movement. The viral replication is a complex process which depends on virus-encoded proteins, host factors, and their interactions. Many host factors are actively engaged in viral replication, e.g. eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and 4G (eIF4G), and plant endomembrane systems. The loss-of-function or conformational changes of these host factors may inhibit viral replication. Furthermore, thioredoxin can regulate cellular redox state to restrain viral replication. Virus movement involves cell-to-cell movement and long distance movement. Hypersensitive cell death is trigged through the perception of a pathogen avirulence factor (Avr) by the cognate plant resistance protein (R protein) to limit the viral cell to cell movement. Dominant plant R genes, characterized by TIR-NBS-LRR or CC-NBS-LRR, are generally responsible for such kind of defense response. There are many factors associated with the long distance virus movement, but only polymerized RTM protein in phloem was identified to limit viral long distance movement. In addition, RNA silencing also actively functions as an antiviral defense response. This review is aimed to summarize various mechanisms of plant defense against virus attack, and to analyze possible implementations of MAS, TILLING, and transgenic technologies in the improvement of virus disease resistance in crops.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Variation and Distribution of Seed Storage Protein Content and Composition among Different Rice Varieties
    ZHOU Li-Hui, LIU Qiao-Quan, ZHANG Chang-Quan, XU Yong, TANG Su-Zhu, et al.
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (5): 884-891.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00884
    Abstract2934)      PDF(pc) (400KB)(3606)       Save

    The crude protein contents (PC) in 351 varieties were measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and their distribution and classification were analyzed. The results showed that the average value of crude protein content in indica and japonica types were 13.2% and 12.2%, respectively, with an average of 12.42%. The range of those above was 10.816.8%, 9.317.7%, and 9.317.7%, respectively. It elucidated that PC was higher in indica rice than in japonica rice. The huge difference in ratios of varieties (lines) based on their PC showed the genetic disequilibrium between subspecies indica and japonica, for exsample, the ratio of japonica rice with low PC was eight times that of indica rice with low PC. According to the criterion classifying varieties with different protein contents, most of rice genotypes fell into the group with intermediate PC, and there was very small number of varieties with either high or low PC, especially with very high PC in japonica rice. However, we could find some extreme individuals which PC were very high/low, such as those with high PC: forage rice, early maturity varieties and indica-japonica hybrid progenies close to indica in the subspecies of indica, or close to japonica in the subspecies of japonica; and those with low PC: some japonica rice (but the PC not low enough), some overseas germplasms in indica. Thus it was not impossible to find out extreme germplasms on PC from landrace, overseas germplasms or india-japonica hybrid progenies etc., which are fine basic materials in genetic and breeding researchs. From the results of SDS-PAGE analysis of the total seed storage proteins among some representative varieties, we could know that the seed storage protein composition was different among different types of rice genotypes.

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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Analysis of Concepts and Categories of Plant Phenome and Phenomics
    PAN Ying-Hong
    Acta Agron Sin    2015, 41 (02): 175-186.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00175
    Abstract1620)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (477KB)(3604)       Save

    Plant phenotyping is a key link in understanding gene function and environmental effects, and with development of plant function genomics and crop molecular breeding, the traditional phenotypic observation has become the main bottleneck. High-throughput plant phenome analysis technology and plant phenomics study is an effective way to solve this problem. Although plant phenome analysis is becoming a hot spot at home and abroad, relevant concepts are still relatively fuzzy, and this situation hinders the development of this emerging discipline. In this paper, the relevant concepts and categories of plant phenome and plant phenomics were analyzed, and the new concepts such as quasi-phenome, identifiable traits, mapped traits, and tolerance of plant phenotype to the changes of inheritance and environment, were introduced. And, plant phenome was defined as “all of physical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and traits which are decided or influenced by genome and environments, and can reflect the plant structures and compositions, or reflect the processes and results of plant growth and development”, and plant phenomics as “the comprehensive controls, complete collections and systematic analyses of plant phenome informations and related environmental parameters”. The scopes, directions, and top design principles of plant phenomics research, were also discussed.

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    Cited: Baidu(12)
    Leaf Stay-Green Traits in Chinese Maize Inbred Lines and Their Relationship with Grain Yield
    LIU Kai-Chang,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHAO Hai-Jun,WANG Qing-Cheng,LI Zong-Xin,LIU Xia
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1662-1671.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01662
    Abstract3481)      PDF(pc) (252KB)(3546)       Save

    Leaf stay-green trait is one of the major targets in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. Although sugar concentration in culm, green leaf number, leaf area, and chlorophyll content at maturity have been used to evaluate the stay-green trait of maize in earlier studies, there is no a common criterion. To further study the evaluation system for stay-green in maize and disclose the relationship of stay-green with grain yield, we sampled 75 inbred lines from common parents of Chinese maize cultivars. At silking stage and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 d after silking, the leaf area (LA), leaf area duration (LAD), relative leaf area, and relative green-leaf area (RGLA) were measured. The results showed that the changes of RGLA after silking accorded with the equation of y = aeb-cx/ (1+eb-cx). On the basis of correlation analysis, the green leaf number, chlorophyll content at physiological maturity, and mean decreasing rate of RGLA (Vm) were selected as the key indices to discriminate the stay-green and non-stay-green maize genotypes. According to relative green leaf area at physiological maturity (MRGLA), the maximum decrease rate of RGLA (Vmax), and the mean decreasing rate of RGLA (Vm), the 75 inbred lines were classified into stay-green and non-stay-green two types with Hiechical clustering analysis. The stay-green type was composed of 12 inbred lines with the following common characteristics: MRGLA of more than 60%, Vm of 0.687% d-1, no significant decrease of RGLA during the whole growing period (67.07% at maturity), and high green leaf number (8.8 leaves) and chlorophyll content (4.43 mg dm-2) at physiological maturity. The non-stay-green type, consisting of 63 inbred lines, was further categorized with quick-leaf-senescence (50 inbred lines) and slow-leaf-senescence (13 inbred lines) subgroups. In the quick- and slow-leaf senescence subgroups, the RGLA at maturity, Vm, green leaf number at maturity, and chlorophyll content at maturity were 17.75% and 33.55%, 1.89% d-1 and 1.44% d-1, 3.2 and 6.2, and 2.06 mg dm-2 and 3.17 mg dm-2, respectively. At physiological maturity, the RGLA was positively correlated with LAD (r= 0.8861, P < 0.01) and yield per plant (r = 0.8221, P < 0.01). The LAD and yield per plant were 20.02–23.87% and 50.44–59.38% higher in the stay-green type than in the non-stay-green type, respectively. Thus, the stay-green type had higher yield potential due to larger green leaf area, higher chlorophyll content and photosynthesis efficiency as well as longer photosynthesis duration.

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    Genetic Transformation of Brassica napus with in planta Method
    XU Guang-Shuo; RAO Yong-Qiang; CHEN Yan; Zhang Chun-Yu; MENG Jin-Ling
    Acta Agron Sin    2004, 30 (01): 1-5.  
    Abstract2675)      PDF(pc) (228KB)(3527)       Save
    Genetic transformation with the in planta method has greatly promoted researches of functional genomics in model plant, Arabidopsis. However few of crops was reported being transformed with the method. Via in planta method, genetic transformations of different Brassica napus cultivars, i.e. Zhongyou
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    Analysis and Answers to Frequently Asked Questions in Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping
    LI Hui-Hui, ZHANG Lu-Yan, WANG Jian-Kang
    Acta Agron Sin    2010, 36 (06): 918-931.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00918
    Abstract4233)      PDF(pc) (668KB)(3489)       Save
    QTL mapping is an important step in gene fine mapping, map-based cloning, and the efficient use of gene information in molecular breeding. Questions are frequently met and asked in the application of QTL mapping in practical genetic populations. Questions related to statistical method of QTL mapping are: what does LOD score mean? What is the relationship between the reliability of detected QTL and the LOD threshold? How to evaluate different QTL mapping methods? How to improve the QTL detection power? Questions related to genetic parameter estimation are: how to calculate the phenotypic variance explained by each detected QTL? How to determine the source of favorable alleles at detected QTL? How efficient is the selective genotyping? Can composite traits be used in QTL mapping? Questions related to linkage map and mapping populations are: does the phenotype of a trait in interest have to follow a normal distribution? Does the increase in marker density greatly improve QTL mapping power? What effects will missing markers have in QTL mapping? What effects will segregation distortion have in QTL mapping? Our objective in this paper was to give an analysis and answer to each of the 12 frequently asked questions, based on our studies in past several years.
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    Mapping of a Novel Semi-Sterile Pollen QTL in Rice
    ZENG Bo,LI Min,YANG Zu-Yong,TAN Chen-Ju,DONG Hua-Lin,YU Si-Bin
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (9): 1584-1589.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.01584
    Abstract3020)      PDF(pc) (272KB)(3475)       Save

    Hybrid sterility has been an obstacle in utilization of potential heterosis in inter-subspecific hybrids of indica and japonica.In order to understand the genetic basis of pollen sterility of indica-japonica hybrid, we identified a line (IL37) with semi-sterility from a set of chromosomal segment substitution lines, of which each contained a single or few substitution segments from a japonica variety Nipponbare in the genetic background of indica variety Zhenshan 97B. The graphical genotype analysis of the line (IL37) by using 160 polymorphic SSR revealed that there were three chromosomal segments from the japonica with the similar genetic background of Zhenshan 97B. Its derived F2 and F3 segregation populations were planted respectively in Wuhan and Hainan, and evaluated for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring pollen fertility and spikelet fertility via single-marker analysis and interval mapping. One new QTL of pollen sterility was detected at the interval RM262–RM475 on chromosome 2, explaining the phenotypic variation of 13.9%. The results suggest that japonica substitution segment carrying the QTL is a major cause of the semi-sterility in IL37. Further fine mapping and identification of candidate genes in the QTL region would facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of pollen sterility in rice.

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    Research Progress in Seed Germination and Its Control
    XU Heng-Heng,NI LI,LIU Shu-Jun,WANG Wei-Qing,WANG Wei-Ping,ZHANG Hong,CHENG Hong-Yan,SONG Song-Quan
    Acta Agron Sin    2014, 40 (07): 1141-1156.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.01141
    Abstract1129)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (2758KB)(3431)       Save


    Most flowering plants reproduce through sexual breeding and seed production. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determinate the propagation and survival of plant species. Seed germination is the most critical and flimsy phase in plant life cycle because of its high vulnerability to injury, disease and environmental stress, which are very important especially for annual and biannual plant species. Seed germination is a complex and multistep process during which the quiescent dry seeds quickly recover the metabolic activity, complete essential cellular events for the embryo to emerge from surrounding structures, and prepare for subsequent seedling growth. In the present paper, the recent research progress in seed germination and its control is reviewed, mainly including the important physiological events during germination, the protein synthesis, posttranslational modification and proteome associated with seed germination, and regulation of phytohormone on seed germination. Furthermore, we have also proposed an energy stimulating hypothesis for seed germination, which provides a new idea for answering two fundamental questions in botany, agronomy and horticulture: how does the embryo emerge from its surrounding structures to complete germination, and how is embryo emergence blocked so that seeds can be maintained in the dormant state? and for decreasing the pre-harvest sprouting occurred in seed and foodstuff production of cereal crops.
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    Cited: Baidu(19)

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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