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    Physiological response of crop to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: a review
    Yan-Sheng LI, Jian JIN, Xiao-Bing LIU
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (12): 1819-1830.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.02027
    Abstract604)   HTML65)    PDF(pc) (1292KB)(841)       Save

    The increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) has substantially had a huge impact on agricultural production. As the sole substrate for photosynthesis, the increase of atmospheric [CO2] stimulates the net photosynthetic rate, thus promoting the biomass accumulation and yield level in many crops. However, the ‘fertilization’ effect of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] on crop production is less than theoretical expectation, and elevated [CO2] increases the health risk due to the decline in grain quality. The relevant mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of elevated [CO2] on crop photosynthesis system, reviewed various responses of key photosynthesis indicators, such as the leaf net photosynthetic rate, the intercellular [CO2] of leaves, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vc, max), and the capacity of Rubp-regeneration (Jmax) in different crops, in response to the elevated atmospheric [CO2]. Based on the C-N metabolism of the whole plant, we summarized two prevailing hypotheses about the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity under elevated atmospheric [CO2], namely the source-sink regulation mechanism and N limitation mechanism, respectively. We summarized the influence of elevated [CO2] on the nutritional quality of the grain, such as the change in the protein, oil, mineral elements, and vitamin concentrations. Furthermore, we also reviewed the potential interactive effect of the elevated atmospheric temperature and [CO2] on crop growth. Finally, the main research directions of this field in the future are proposed. In summary, this review can provide theoretical reference for accurately assessing the changes in crop yield and quality under climate change conditions, maximizing the ‘fertilization’ effect of elevated [CO2], and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change on crop production.

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    Breeding of a novel clubroot disease-resistant Brassica napus variety Huayouza 62R
    LI Qian, Nadil Shah, ZHOU Yuan-Wei, HOU Zhao-Ke, GONG Jian-Fang, LIU Jue, SHANG Zheng-Wei, ZHANG Lei, ZHAN Zong-Xiang, CHANG Hai-Bin, FU Ting-Dong, PIAO Zhong-Yun, ZHANG Chun-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 210-223.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04086
    Abstract532)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (6984KB)(823)       Save

    The rapeseed clubroot disease incidence in China is about 0.67 million hectare, accounting for 10% of the canola production area, which become a serious threat for the safety of Brassica napus industry. Based on this, we used CR Shinki, a Chinese cabbage material containing CRb clubroot disease resistance locus, as the donor parent, and Pol.CMS restorer line Bing409, the parent of Brassica napus national approved varieties Huayouza 62, as the recipient parent, and the CRb resistance locus was introduced into Bing409 by breeding programs such as crossing, backcrossing, self-cross with the foreground and genetic background selection. In the BC3F2 generation, a new restorer line Bing409R with a genetic background close to Bing409 containing CRb resistance locus was obtained, and Huayouza 62R, the first rapeseed hybrid resistant to clubroot disease in China was successfully developed. The results were as follows: CRb disease resistance locus appeared as a dominant single-gene inheritance in B. napus background, and the genetic improvement of resistance to clubroot disease did not at the expense of yield and quality losses for new restorer line Bing409R and its hybrid Huayouza 62R. Bing409R and Huayouza 62R were showed immune-resistance to physiological races of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Sichuan, Hubei, and Anhui provinces in China. This study will provide valuable resources for the breeding of rapeseed in China, and supplemented important support to overcome the threat of rapeseed clubroot disease.

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    Identification of upstream regulators for mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 gene ( BnMAPK7) in rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)
    WANG Zhen, ZHANG Xiao-Li, MENG Xiao-Jing, YAO Meng-Nan, MIU Wen-Jie, YUAN Da-Shuang, ZHU Dong-Ming, QU Cun-Min, LU Kun, LI Jia-Na, LIANG Ying
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (12): 2379-2393.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04280
    Abstract353)   HTML173)    PDF(pc) (12120KB)(658)       Save

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascade plays a key role in plant growth and development, division, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress resistance. In this study, a 1612 bp promoter of C group BnMAPK7 gene, designated ProBnMAPK7, was cloned from Brassica napus. Promoter structure prediction by PlantCARE revealed that ProBnMAPK7 contained a lot of ACE, MRE, ABRE, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats cis-acting elements, which involved in light, hormones, defense, and wounding responsiveness. At the same time, we analyzed the expression patterns of MAPK7 genes in Arabidopsis and B. napus, and found that MAPK7 played an important regulatory role in growth and development process and responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Different lengths of ProBnMAPK7 were gradually ligated to the pCambia1305.1-GUS expression vector to identify the core fragment. GUS histochemical staining analysis showed that the core fragment of ProBnMAPK7 was located in the -467 to -239 bp (ProBnMAPK7-rPE) region. Three copies of the promoter core fragment were integrated into the genome of Y1H gold to test the AbA background. The data demonstrated that the expression background of ProBnMAPK7-rPE in yeast cells was completely inhibited by 500 ng mL-1 AbA. Using yeast one-hybrid, we screened the library of the upstream regulatory factors of BnMAPK7, and obtained three candidates, including BnNAD1B (NADH dehydrogenase 1B), BnERD6 (early response to dehydration 6), and BnPIG3 (quinone oxidoreductase PIG3-like). Taken together, these results suggested that BnNAD1B, BnERD6, and BnPIG3 might bind to ProBnMAPK7-rPE to regulate the transcription of BnMAPK7, to further involve in photosynthesis and responding to stresses. This study lays a foundation for further elucidating the function of BnMAPK7 in rapeseed, and provides a new perspective for research into MAPKs cascade.

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    Cloning and functional analysis of a drought tolerance-related gene IbNAC72 in sweet potato
    ZHANG Huan, YANG Nai-Ke, SHANG Li-Li, GAO Xiao-Ru, LIU Qing-Chang, ZHAI Hong, GAO Shao-Pei, HE Shao-Zhen
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (11): 1649-1658.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04051
    Abstract932)   HTML117)    PDF(pc) (4569KB)(649)       Save

    NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) is a plant-specific transcription factor family, which plays an important role in plant growth, development and stress responses. In this study, we cloned IbNAC72, a drought tolerance-related gene from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] variety Lizixiang by RACE method. The IbNAC72 cDNA of 1319 bp in length, had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1008 bp, and encoded a 335 amino acids polypeptide, with a molecular weight of 37.4 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.76. The genomic DNA of IbNAC72 gene was 1199 bp and was deduced to contain 3 exons and 2 introns. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that IbNAC72 had a close relationship with the predicted protein products of Ipomoea nil. RT-qPCR analysis showed that IbNAC72 was expressed at the highest level in the leaves of sweet potato, and it was strongly induced by PEG-6000 and NaCl, respectively. IbNAC72 was transformed into tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Its overexpression significantly enhanced drought tolerance in the transgenic tobacco plants. Under drought stress, transgenic plants developed stronger root system; the SOD activity was significantly increased whereas the MDA content was significantly decreased in transgenic plants compared to those of wild type plants. This study showed that IbNAC72 gene was closely related to drought tolerance, providing a basis for in-depth study on the drought tolerance molecular mechanism of IbNAC72 in sweet potato.

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    Genome dominance and the breeding significance in Triticeae
    LIU Deng-Cai, ZHANG Lian-Quan, HAO Ming, HUANG Lin, NING Shun-Zong, YUAN Zhong-Wei, JIANG Bo, YAN Ze-Hong, WU Bi-Hua, ZHENG You-Liang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (10): 1465-1473.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.01022
    Abstract690)   HTML46)    PDF(pc) (4156KB)(627)       Save

    Triticeae tribe houses a number of allopolyploid species that harbor combinations of various genomes. The different genomes of an allopolyploid may have asymmetric contributions to morphological traits. For instance, the taxon traits of allopolyploids within genus Triticum is highly like those from the donor species of A-genome, termed this phenomenon as A-genome dominance. Because of genome dominance, the allopolyploids of Triticeae are grouped into different species clusters with A, D, U, or St as the pivotal (dominant) genome. Genome dominance may confer the advantages in evolution and adaptation. In breeding, it is an important factor to influence the development of novel allopolyploid crops and the design of wheat-alien chromosome translocations.

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    Research progress on traits and assessment methods of stalk lodging resistance in maize
    ZHAO Xue, ZHOU Shun-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 15-26.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03055
    Abstract422)   HTML46)    PDF(pc) (959KB)(604)       Save

    Maize stalk lodging causes yield loss, decreases grain quality, increases harvest costs, and makes it impossible for grain dehydration after physiological maturity which limits mechanical grain harvest. Previous researches have been conducted to study the traits related to stalk lodging, including morphological and anatomical traits, chemical constituents of the plant and internode. However, there exist some disagreements, and lack quantitative studies on stalk lodging resistance. In this study, we review the evaluation methods and indicators of stalk lodging resistance, the determination methods of mechanical properties as well as analysis methods of stalk lodging related traits and some factors that may have effects on the results. Furthermore, we put forward the existing problems in previous researches on traits and evaluation indicators related to stalk lodging resistance and the contents need to be given further attention. These results provide a reference for further study of maize stalk lodging resistance traits and evaluation methods, lodging resistance breeding and optimization of cultivation measures.

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    Review of biochar structure and physicochemical properties
    ZHANG Wei-Ming, XIU Li-Qun, WU Di, SUN Yuan-Yuan, GU Wen-Qi, ZHANG Hong-Gui, MENG Jun, CHEN Wen-Fu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02021
    Abstract774)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (2839KB)(602)       Save

    As a new emerging technology, biochar and its applications have been rapidly developed in recent years. However, due to large differences in carbonization materials and processes, it is difficult to compare or even contrast the results of biochar application studies, thus hindering the development of biochar applications to some extent. For this reason, our paper focuses on the key factors restricted the function of biochar, namely, the structure as well as physical and chemical properties of biochar, and then systematically presents the main research advances in recent years from the following perspectives of biochar such as definition, formation, structure, elemental composition, and other main physical-chemical properties, and property controlling-technologies. The paper analyses and summarizes the common and differential characteristics of biochar structure and physical and chemical properties and clarifies the relevant basic perspectives, statuses, trends, and consensus on the structure and properties of biochar. The structure and fundamental physical and chemical properties of biochar are believed to be the most important factors affecting the roles, function, and effects of biochar. They also determine the application field, scope, amount, objective, and direction of biochar. Therefore, the modification technology or optimal regulation technique is the key to develop the efficacy advantage, potential and values of biochar. By further combining the research and application of biochar, the basic principles and development directions of biochar physicochemical property research in the future focusing on the physical and chemical properties of biochar are evaluated from cycle and sustainable development of resources and material perspectives. This paper aims to provide the basis and reference for the development of basic scientific science and application technology studies on biochar.

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    Dissecting the genetic architecture of maize kernel size based on genome-wide association study
    QU Jian-Zhou, FENG Wen-Hao, ZHANG Xing-Hua, XU Shu-Tu, XUE Ji-Quan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (2): 304-319.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13002
    Abstract306)   HTML34)    PDF(pc) (4960KB)(598)       Save

    Kernel size related traits are one of the important compounds of yield, and they are also complex quantitative traits regulated by multiple genes. Mining the key regulatory genes of maize kernel size related traits will help to improve the yield. In this study, 212 excellent maize inbred lines were selected as materials. The kernel length, kernel width, and kernel thickness were measured in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 73,006 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers uniformly distributed in maize genome. Based on the FarmCPU algorithm, 47 SNP markers associated with kernel size related traits were detected on 10 chromosomes in maize. Combined with the public dynamic spatio-temporal transcriptional data of kernel development of B73 maize inbred line, 58 candidate genes related to kernel size were detected in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) region marked by significant SNP. The proteins encoded by candidate genes interacted with multiple proteins and participated in and regulated many biological processes closely related to kernel development. These results provide a new reference for understanding the molecular regulation mechanism of maize kernel development, improving kernel size and increasing crop yield.

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    Response of rhizosphere bacterial community diversity to salt stress in peanut
    DAI Liang-Xiang, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, SHI Xiao-Long, QIN Fei-Fei, DING Hong, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1581-1592.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04160
    Abstract321)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1106KB)(567)       Save

    To characterize the peanut rhizosphere bacteria community in response to salt stress, a pot experiment was performed with different salt concentrations. The peanut rhizosphere soils at flowering and mature stages were sampled to extract DNA for constructing bacterial 16S rRNA gene library, and then high-throughput sequencing was performed for sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla, and the orders Saccharimonadales, Betaproteobacteria, Sphingomonadales, Gemmatimonadales, and Rhizobiales were dominated in the peanut rhizosphere soils. Comparisons of the bacterial community structure of peanuts revealed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria dramatically increased, while that of Actinobacteria decreased in salt-treated soils, and the fluctuation increased with the increase of the salt concentration. Moreover, applying calcium fertilizer under salt stress increased the abundance of Betaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Sphingomonadales, which were affected by salt stress, growth stages, and exogenous calcium application. Cluster analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria of soil groups with high salt concentration were similar and clustered together, while the soil samples of the same growth period were similar and clustered together according to the bacterial structure at the genus level under non-salt stress conditions. Bacterial community structure differed in the growth stages and soil salt concentrations, whereas the differences of soil groups with or without calcium application were relatively small. Function prediction analysis indicated that the sequences related to secondary metabolites, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and amino acid and lipid metabolism were enriched in high salt-treated soils. The functional groups increased significantly during the fast-growth period, low salt stress, and basal calcium fertilizer treatments, which may play an important role on the growth and stress response in peanut. This study of microbial communities could lay the foundation for future improvement of stress tolerance of peanuts via modification of the soil microbes.

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    Research advances of cover crops and their important roles
    JIAN Shu-Lian, LI Shu-Xin, LIU Sheng-Qun, LI Xiang-Nan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03058
    Abstract537)   HTML80)    PDF(pc) (1301KB)(558)       Save

    In crop planting system, the influences of field weeds and soil properties on crop growth and development, yield, and quality have always been paid close attention to agriculture field. Overdose applications of chemical fertilizers and herbicides are beneficial for crop yield and well control of weeds, however, their negative impacts on soil and environment seriously restrict the sustainable development of agricultural production. Planting cover crops have been considered as a novel strategy to achieve sustainable agricultural development, which can help to control weeds, reduce nitrogen application, and improve soil quality. We summarize the current research advance progress of cover crops and their application in crop cultivation, including the origin and development process, main types, functions, and cropping systems of cover crops, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the research and application of cover crops in agriculture production in China.

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    Research advance on calcium content in wheat grains
    LIU Yu-Xiu, HUANG Shu-Hua, WANG Jing-Lin, ZHANG Zheng-Mao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 187-196.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01045
    Abstract577)   HTML67)    PDF(pc) (418KB)(489)       Save

    Increasing the mineral content is becoming the important research direction and major target for crops breeding in the world. Calcium is an essential mineral element for human health and plays a pivotal role in skeletogenesis and metabolism. It is estimated that about 3.5 billion people was suffered from calcium deficiencies. Calcium deficiency has become a major international problem harming human health. The staple food is an optimal and safe way to mineral supplement. Wheat, one of the main food crops in China and even in the world, is the main source of food for 35%-40% of global population, a main source for human’s calcium intake as well as an important crop of mineral element biofortification. Improving the calcium content in wheat grains through genetic improvement is considered to be the most economical, effective and sustainable measure to solve the calcium deficiency, which has aroused great concern from international scholars. This paper summarized the recent advances in the study of calcium content in wheat grains, mainly including the genetic variation, affecting factors, the relationship with related traits and regulation mechanism of calcium content in grain. Furthermore, we also put forward the direction of future research on calcium-fortified wheat, which provides solutions for accelerating the effective calcium supplementation through staple food, promoting the healthy and nutritious dietary pattern, ensuring the food security to meet the transition from “quantitative” to “qualitative” demands, improving people’s health, and reducing economic losses caused by calcium deficiency.

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    Effects of drought treatments at different growth stages on growth and the activity of osmotic adjustment in sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]
    ZHANG Hai-Yan, WANG Bao-Qing, FENG Xiang-Yang, LI Guang-Liang, XIE Bei-Tao, DONG Shun-Xu, DUAN Wen-Xue, ZHANG Li-Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (11): 1760-1770.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04079
    Abstract581)   HTML29)    PDF(pc) (545KB)(468)       Save

    Field experiments were conducted using two sweet potato cultivars (Jishu 21, a drought-tolerant cultivar, and Jizishu 1, a drought-sensitive cultivar) with four water treatments to investigate the effects of drought treatments at different growth stages on growth and the activity of osmotic adjustment in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], including well-watered treatment during the whole growth period (WW, control), drought stress during the establishment stage (DS1), drought stress during the storage root initial stage (DS2), and drought stress during the storage root bulking stage (DS3). Drought stress resulted in significant decrease of fresh weight of storage roots in sweet potato. Compared with drought stress in different periods, drought stress during the establishment stage (DS1) decreased the fresh weight most. Compared between cultivars, drought-sensitive cultivar decreased the fresh weight most. The average in three years, compared with the control, the fresh weight of drought-tolerant cultivar (Jishu 21) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Jizishu 1) decreased 28.59% and 38.77% in DS1 treatment, respectively, while 25.20% and 33.50% in DS2 treatment, respectively and 14.55% and 19.56% in DS3 treatment, respectively. Drought stress resulted in significant decrease of biomass of storage roots in sweet potato. One hundred days after planting, compared with the control, the biomass of aboveground part of Jishu 21 in DS1, DS2, and DS3 decreased 32.68%, 20.79%, and 11.72%, respectively, while Jizishu 1 decreased 46.45%, 31.89%, and 18.43%, respectively. The biomass of underground part of Jishu 21 in DS1, DS2, and DS3 decreased 37.69%, 25.86%, and 10.67%, respectively, while Jizishu 1 decreased 54.34%, 33.48%, and 14.20%, respectively. Under drought stress, the relative water content of functional leaves decreased, and the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, free amino acid and proline in functional leaves, fibrous roots and storage roots increased. The earlier the application of drought stress, the greater the decrease or increase. The effects of drought stress applied at early stages on osmotic adjustment could not be effectively recovered after re-watering, while the osmotic adjustment could be recovered to the control level after re-watering when drought stress was applied at later stage.

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    Characteristics of post-anthesis carbon and nitrogen accumulation and translocation in maize cultivars with different low nitrogen tolerance
    WU Ya-Wei, PU Wei, ZHAO Bo, WEI Gui, KONG Fan-Lei, YUAN Ji-Chao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 915-928.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03033
    Abstract442)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (1959KB)(462)       Save

    To understand the suitable amount of nitrogen (N) application and the potential of increasing yield and improve efficiency for the maize cultivars with different low N tolerance. The experiment was setting from 2017 to 2019, the low-N tolerant cultivar ‘Zhenghong 311 (ZH311)’ and the low-N sensitive cultivar ‘Xianyu 508 (XY508)’ were selected and four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, 150 kg hm-2, 300 kg hm-2, and 450 kg hm-2) were set to investigate the effects of N level on carbon (C) and N accumulation and translocation in the later growth stage of different maize cultivars. The results showed that in low N environment, maize increased the C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain to ensure the yield. Increasing the N fertilizer applications could improve the contribution rates of dry matter and carbohydrate to grain yield. Compared with XY508, ZH311 had higher accumulations of plant dry matter, N and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) of pre- and post-silking, and higher contribution rates of dry matter, N and accumulations to grain yield of post-silking, so it had higher grain yield. There was no significant difference between cultivars in the rate of dry matter, N and NSC translocation of pre-silking. In the face of low N stress, ZH 311 not only ensured the sufficient C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain, but also maintained a higher capacity of assimilate accumulation to affect the yield formation.

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    Genetic diversity analysis of Chinese fresh corn hybrids using SNP Chips
    XIAO Ying-Ni, YU Yong-Tao, XIE Li-Hua, QI Xi-Tao, LI Chun-Yan, WEN Tian-Xiang, LI Gao-Ke, HU Jian-Guang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (6): 1301-1311.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13031
    Abstract392)   HTML56)    PDF(pc) (5135KB)(456)       Save

    China is a major fresh corn production and consumption country in the world. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among fresh corn hybrids in China has great benefit for hybrid identification and breed cultivation. In this study, an Illumina Maize 6K chip was employed to perform genome-wide scanning for the population structure and genetic distance of 385 fresh corn hybrids nationwide. The results showed that the average genetic diversity of 5067 SNP markers in 385 fresh corn hybrids was 0.406, with a range of 0.097-0.500. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.319, with a range of 0.092-0.375. The results of PCA and population genetic structure analysis revealed that the hybrids were mainly divided into three groups, which were non-sweet corn group (185 varieties), temperate sweet corn group (123 varieties), and tropical sweet corn group (77 varieties). The genetic distance between any two hybrids ranged from 0.132 to 0.472, with an average of 0.37. A total of 160 genome regions indicated strong population differentiation among different groups following FST analysis. Four key genes (sh2, su1, su2, and wx1) of starch synthesis pathway in maize grains were detected. Two candidate genes (sh2 and DGAT1-2) demonstrated different selection patterns in fresh corn groups and were validated using molecular markers. These results provide important theoretical guidance for the breeding and improvement of fresh corn varieties in China.

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    Seedling root characteristics and drought resistance of wheat in Shanxi province
    ZHAO Jia-Jia, QIAO Ling, WU Bang-Bang, GE Chuan, QIAO Lin-Yi, ZHANG Shu-Wei, YAN Su-Xian, ZHENG Xing-Wei, ZHENG Jun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (4): 714-727.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01048
    Abstract474)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (1008KB)(453)       Save

    Wheat root morphology at the seedling stage is the basis of root distribution at the adult stage. It is closely related to stress resistance and yield. A comprehensive understanding of the root system characteristics at seedling stage and drought resistance is of great significance for the excellent germplasm utilization and early screening of drought resistance. Using 239 wheat varieties (lines) from Shanxi province, the root traits at seedling stage and their response to water stress were evaluated. The results showed that under normal growth, Shanxi wheat had a great variation in root traits at seedling stage, with the greatest variation in landraces. The maximum root length (MRL) tended to decrease slightly with the years, while other root traits were first increased and then decreased. There were differences among the root traits in response to water stress. The total root length (TRL) is the most sensitive to water, followed by root surface area (RSA), root volume (RV) and root biomass. The maximum root length (MRL) and the average number of roots (RN) were insensitive. The drought resistance of seedling roots showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing with the years. Landraces and varieties released from 1970 to 1979 had moderately resistance to water stress, varieties released from 1980 to 1999 had lower drought resistance, and varieties released after 2000 had the better resistance, of which the dryland varieties were the best resistance. Correlation analysis of the seedling root characteristics and yield related traits suggested that the maximum root length, total root length, root volume and root biomass were significantly positively correlated with 1000-kernel weight and yield under rain-fed conditions, and the maximum root length and root biomass were also significantly positively correlated with adult plant drought resistance. The present study suggests that the maximum root length and root biomass at the seedling stage can be used as early generation selection parameters for drought resistance and yield in dryland breeding in semi-arid areas.

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    Genome-wide association study of nitrogen use efficiency related traits in common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)
    JIN Yi-Rong, LIU Jin-Dong, LIU Cai-Yun, JIA De-Xin, LIU Peng, WANG Ya-Mei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 394-404.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01024
    Abstract438)   HTML30)    PDF(pc) (3110KB)(446)       Save

    Nitrogen application plays an important role in plant growth and development. Exploring genetic loci related to nitrogen use efficiency is of great significance for improving wheat yield and reducing environmental pollution. Root system architecture (RSA) determined the composition of plant root system, and significantly affected by nitrogen level. Under different nitrogen levels (deficiency and normal), 160 winter wheat accessions from the Huanghuai valley and Northern winter wheat region were counted for their root architecture-related traits (total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, average root diameter, and root tip number). Genotype was analyzed using 660K SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was employed to identify the relevant loci for nitrogen use efficiency. A total of 34 associated loci were detected, which explained 6.9%-15.4% of the phenotypic variation. These loci distributed on all chromosomes and mainly centered on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6A, 6B, and 7A, respectively. Among the loci detected in this study, 11 loci overlapped or were close to the reported ones, while the other 23 might be novel loci. In addition, we explored a candidate gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase. This study is of great significance for understanding the genetic mechanism of nitrogen utilization and breeding high-yield wheat varieties.

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    Genome-wide association study of ear cob diameter in maize
    MA Juan, CAO Yan-Yong, LI Hui-Yong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1228-1238.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03048
    Abstract394)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (8297KB)(441)       Save

    Maize ear cob diameter is an important trait impacting the yield of grain and cob, and the analysis of its genetic mechanism will provide a guidance for high-yield breeding. In this study, the genotypes of 309 inbred lines were identified by genotyping-by-sequencing technology. FarmCPU (fixed and random model circulating probability unification), MLMM (multiple loci mixed linear model), and CMLM (compressed mixed linear model) were used to identify significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for ear cob diameter of Yuanyang of Henan province, Dancheng of Henan province, Yucheng of Henan province, Sanya of Hainan province in 2017 and 2019, and best linear unbiased estimate environment. A total of 12 significant SNP for ear cob diameter were detected at P < 8.60E-07. S4_29277313 was detected from Yuanyang in 2017 using FarmCPU and MLMM. The phenotypic variance explained of S1_29006330, S2_170889116, S2_2046026464, and S4_83821463 ranged from 10.23% to 14.17%, and were considered major-effect SNP. In addition, S1_29006330 was mapped in the interval of known QTL for ear cob diameter. A total of 17 candidate genes were identified. Among them, WAKL14 (wall-associated receptor kinase-like 14), transcription factor ZIM35 (zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem 35), HMGA (HMG-Y-related protein A), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase ATX4 (Arabidopsis trithorax 4), and XTH32 (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 32) might be important genes for ear cob diameter. The identification of four major-effect SNP and five candidate genes can provide an information for molecular marker-assisted breeding, fine mapping, and gene cloning.

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    Development and identification of transgenic rapeseed with a novel gene for glyphosate resistance
    LI Jie-Hua, DUAN Qun, SHI Ming-Tao, WU Lu-Mei, LIU Han, LIN Yong-Jun, WU Gao-Bing, FAN Chu-Chuan, ZHOU Yong-Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 789-798.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04169
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    Glyphosate is the most widely used broad-spectrum herbicide in the world. However, at present there is no glyphosate-tolerant rapeseed variety with independent intellectual property rights in China. In the study, a novel glyphosate-resistant genes I. variabilis EPSPS was transferred to the Brassica napus pure line J9707 via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated hypocotyl method, and 126 T0-positive transgenic plants with 97.0% positive rate were generated. The T-DNA insertion with a single copy (44.8%) is dominant. The insertion locations of T-DNA in the lines of EPS-2, EPS-6, and EPS-7 were identified by inverse PCR method. The stability of the T-DNA insertion in these lines were further confirmed by insertion-specific PCR in their T0 to T3 plants. The gene expression analysis revealed that the I. variabilis EPSPS gene and its protein was stably expressed in different generations of transgenic lines in RNA and protein levels. Treatments with different doses of glyphosate indicated that the lines of EPS-1, EPS-2, EPS-5, EPS-6, and EPS-7 could tolerate four times of the recommended dose of glyphosate in production. Thus, the novel glyphosate-tolerant rapeseed lines generated in the present study will lay the foundation for the herbicide- tolerance rapeseed breeding in China.

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    Efficient screening system of effective sgRNA for cotton CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing
    ZHOU Guan-Tong, LEI Jian-Feng, DAI Pei-Hong, LIU Chao, LI Yue, LIU Xiao-Dong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 427-437.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04178
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    Single guide RNA (sgRNA) is one of the important elements of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology system. However, studies have shown that many sgRNAs cannot work effectively. It is worth screening to verify the effectiveness of multiple design candidate sgRNAs. Instantaneous transformation of protoplasts or leaves with complete editing vectors were used to verification of the effectiveness of sgRNA in the early stage. These methods are time-consuming and laborious, and the success rate is not high, especially for cotton with low efficiency of the protoplasmic system. In this study, target sequences were designed for GhMAPKKK2 and GhAE genes, and two vectors of GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-1300, GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-1300 which transcibed only sgRNA were constructed and injected YZ-1 Cas9 transgenic cotton plant leaves through Agrobacterium; meanwhile, two corresponding complete CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vectors of GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-Cas9 and GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-Cas9 were constructed and injected YZ-1 wild-type cotton leaves with Agrobacterium. In addition, target sequences were designed for GhPDS, GhCLA1, GhMAPKKK2, and GhAE genes, respectively, and GhU6-5P-2::PDS-sgRNA- CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::CLA1-sgRNA-CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-CLCrVA and GhU6-5P-2::AE-sgRNA-CLCrVA virus delivery vectors were constructed and injected YZ-1 Cas9 transgenic cotton plant leaves through Agrobacterium. In the above experiments, the plants transformed with the empty vector were used as controls. The genomic DNA of the transformed cotton leaves was subjected to PCR and enzyme digestion, and the PCR products which were not completely digested were cloned and sequenced. The results showed that no mutation in target gene was detected in the cotton plants transformed with the GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-1300, GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-Cas9 and GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-Cas9, and the target genes mutation in the Cas9 transgenic plants transformed with GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-1300, GhU6-5P-2::PDS-sgRNA-CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::CLA1-sgRNA-CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-CLCrVA and GhU6-5P-2::AE-sgRNA-CLCrVA vector was uncovered. The types of mutations included base substitution, base deletion and base insertion. The results indicated that the strategy of using Cas9 transgenic plants as transformation recipients can efficiently and truly verify the effectiveness of sgRNA, which eliminated false negative results due to low transformation efficiency, and the strategy of using virus as vectors to deliver sgRNA was more efficient and accurate. The establishment of this sgRNA high-efficiency verification system provides an important technical basis for cotton functional genomics research.

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    Mapping of an incomplete dominant gene controlling multifoliolate leaf by BSA-Seq in soybean ( Glycine max L.)
    ZHANG Zhi-Hao, WANG Jun, LIU Zhang-Xiong, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (12): 1839-1849.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04075
    Abstract360)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (3196KB)(412)       Save

    The leaves of cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) are comprising of three leaflets in general, but there are also individual varieties or mutants which have a high frequency of compound leaves with 4-7 leaflets, named multifoliolate leaves. Compound leaf formation enhances the plant's ability to adapt to the external environment. Study of related genes to multifoliolate leaves might contribute to the improvement yield level of and soybean agronomic traits. In this study, a multifoliolate leaf mutant Zhonghuang 622 was identified from the mutant library of soybean cultivar Zhongpin 661, which had 4-9 leaflets in each compound leaf. The compound leaf phenotypes of F2 and F2:3 population from a cross between Zhongpin 661 and Zhonghuang 622 were investigated in Beijing and Hainan, respectively. Analysis of phenotypic data from F2 and F2:3 population revealed that the multifoliolate leaf trait was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. BSA-Seq method was used for gene mapping. The two bulks of normal trifoliate and multifoliolate individuals in F2 population were constructed and sequenced for an average depth of 32.75×, which covered 99.22% genome compared to the reference genome. Through correlation analysis of mixed pool sequencing results by ED method, two regions were located on chromosome 11, with a total length of 5.29 Mb and a total length of 1103 genes. Three regions were identified on chromosome 11 at confidence of 0.99, with a total length of 3.42 Mb and a total of 701 genes by the association analysis of SNP-index method. There were 690 genes located simultaneously and six SNP genes between parents by the two association analysis methods. These results lay the foundation for map-based cloning of the genes related to compound leaf development.

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    Grain filling characteristics of summer maize varieties under different sowing dates in the Huang-Huai-Hai region
    XU Tian-Jun, LYU Tian-Fang, ZHAO Jiu-Ran, WANG Rong-Huan, ZHANG Yong, CAI Wan-Tao, LIU Yue-E, LIU Xiu-Zhi, CHEN Chuan-Yong, XING Jin-Feng, WANG Yuan-Dong, LIU Chun-Ge
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 566-574.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03023
    Abstract309)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (1102KB)(401)       Save

    In order to provide helpful information for maize variety selection and realizing high yield, the grain filling characteristics of 18 summer maize varieties were investigated under 6/10 (S1), 6/20 (S2), and 6/30 (S3). The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in the final 100-grain dry weight among varieties and sowing date treatments, characterized by S1 (35.20 g) > S2 (33.45 g) > S3 (31.38 g), and the range of variation was 28.50 g (HM 1) to 36.37 g (JNK 728). (2) The average filling rate (Gave) under different sowing date treatments was S1 (0.74 g 100-grain -1d-1) > S2 (0.65 g 100-grain -1d-1) > S3 (0.57 g 100-grain -1d-1). The average grain filling rate of S1 was 0.09 g 100-grain-1d-1and 0.17 g 100-grain-1d-1 higher than that of S2 and S3, increased by 13.85% and 29.82%, respectively. The Gave of JNK 728 (0.75 g 100-grain -1 d-1) was the highest among varieties, which significantly higher than ZD 958 and XY 335 (0.58 g 100-grain-1 d-1 and 0.67 g 100-grain-1 d-1), increased by 29.31% and 11.94%. The active grain filling period (P) showed that S1 (47.85 d) < S2 (51.39 d) < S3 (55.04 d). (3) The yield under different sowing date treatments was S1 (10,628.67 kg hm-2) > S2 (10,207.65 kg hm -2) > S3 (9144.59 kg hm -2), with S1 4.12% and 16.23% higher than S2 and S3, respectively. Among them, NK 815, MC 121, JNK 729, MC 812, JNK 728 and XY 335 had relatively high yields, with an average of 10,730.56 kg hm-2, significantly higher than ZD 958 (10,080.85 kg hm-2), increased by 6.44%. (4) Correlation analysis showed that yield level was significantly and positively correlated with Gave (0.70 **) and grain weight (0.68**), and was significantly and negatively correlated with P (-0.36 **); Grain weight was significantly correlated with Gave (0.58 **). In conclusion, maize yield, grain weight and grain filling rate reduced with the sowing date delay, but P increased accordingly, early sowing properly was beneficial to achieve higher yield in Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize region, by selecting varieties such as JNK 728, JNK 729, MC 812, MC 121, NK 815, and XY 335 which characterized by suitable growing period, higher grain filling rate, suitable active grain filling period and higher yield level. JNK 728, characterized by medium-early maturity, higher grain filling rate and yield, was suitable for the later sowing conditions or areas with insufficient accumulated temperature, and could reach physiological maturity in mid-October when sowing at the end of June.

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    Phenotype analysis and gene mapping of small kernel 7 ( smk7) mutant in maize
    JIANG Cheng-Gong, SHI Hui-Min, WANG Hong-Wu, LI Kun, HUANG Chang-Ling, LIU Zhi-Fang, WU Yu-Jin, LI Shu-Qiang, HU Xiao-Jiao, MA Qing
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 285-293.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03015
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    In this study, a stable small kernel mutant, named small kernel 7 (smk7), was isolated from ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of maize inbred line B73. Compared with wild type, the smk7 mutants showed smaller kernel size, defective embryo and endosperm development and a significant decrease in 100-kernel weight. The smk7 kernels showed a low level of germination rate at 10% and cannot grow into normal plants. No significant changes were detected in protein, starch and oil content between mature wild type and smk7 kernels, but the starch grains became significantly smaller and irregular in smk7 kernels compared with wild type. The smk7 kernels could be clearly distinguished from the wild type as early as 12 days after pollination (DAP), on the basis of their smaller and emptier phenotype. Microscopic inspection of the paraffin sections revealed that the development of embryo and endosperm were delayed, and the cell wall in growth in basal endosperm transfer layers (BETL) were arrested in smk7 compared with wild type. The F2 populations with multiple backgrounds were constructed by crossing heterozygous plants (+/smk7) with several other inbred lines. Genetic analysis showed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene. Based on genotyping by target sequencing (GBTS) strategy, the SMK7 was initially mapped on the short arm of chromosome 2. The fine mapping results suggested that SMK7 was located between markers RM1433917 and RM1535316, with a physical distance of 120 kb. There were eight protein-coding genes in this region. This study laid a foundation for further genes cloning and research of the SMK7 function in regulating maize kernel development.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of B-box gene family in wheat
    WANG Yan-Peng, LING Lei, ZHANG Wen-Rui, WANG Dan, GUO Chang-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1437-1449.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01077
    Abstract561)   HTML51)    PDF(pc) (3123KB)(397)       Save

    B-box (BBX) is a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The number, gene structure and phylogenetic relationship of wheat B-box transcription factors, as well as their expression specificity in different tissues and response to abiotic stress were investigated. A total of 87 members of B-box gene family were identified from wheat genome and all contained the B-box domain. TaBBXs encoded 146 to 489 amino acids and the isoelectric points ranged from 4.32 to 10.42. Chromosome mapping showed that these genes were distributed on 18 wheat chromosomes except 1A, 1B, and 1D. Based on phylogenetic analysis, TaBBXs were divided into five subfamilies, with 0-4 introns. The members of the subfamily in the same phylogenetic tree branch in the same group had highly similar gene structures. The qRT-PCR revealed that the investigated 20 genes had different expression patterns, and most genes were highly expressed in leaves, and TaBBX10 and TaBBX39 were only highly expressed in leaves, while TaBBX74 was expressed in spikes, TaBBX43 was specifically expressed in roots. These genes showed different expression patterns under different stress. 11 genes were up-regulated after low temperature stress, 13 genes were down-regulated after ABA treatment, 10 genes were up-regulated after salt stress, and 7 genes were down-regulated after drought stress. TaBBX10, TaBBX39, TaBBX60, TaBBX67, and TaBBX74 were significantly up-regulated under two or more stresses.

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    Association analysis of drought tolerance traits of upland cotton accessions ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    HAN Bei, WANG Xu-Wen, LI Bao-Qi, YU Yu, TIAN Qin, YANG Xi-Yan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 438-450.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04063
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    Drought stress is an important factor that leads to severe reduction in cotton fiber yield and quality worldwide, and new cotton varieties with high-yield, high-quality and drought-tolerant characteristics have been the goal for cotton breeding. In this study, 217 upland cotton accessions were selected for drought stress experiments and association study. The drought stress treatment panels were supplied with 50% the water volume of the controls, until the seedlings emerged. A total of 18 traits including agronomic traits, fiber yield indices and fiber quality indices, were investigated at two locations and for two years. After drought stress, there were significant differences in response between populations, and significant differences in phenotypic traits between control and treatments. The phenotypic data were analyzed by BLUP, and the drought resistance coefficient of each trait was calculated. A total of 393 loci were detected by 214 SSR marker in the tested cotton accessions. The average gene diversity coefficient was 0.402, with the range of 0.072-0.631; and the average PIC value was 0.329, ranging from 0.070 to 0.560. Genetic structure analysis showed that the group could be divided into two subgroups and it had no obvious correspondence with geographical origin. There were detected extremely 76 significant loci (P < 0.01), with explanation rate ranging from 2.931% to 7.218%, by association study using drought resistance coefficient (DRC) of 18 traits. Fourteen SSR marker could be detected by two or more traits at the same time. These results could provide a theoretical basis and reference for the parents selection and drought-resistant molecular marker-assisted breeding in cotton.

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    Mapping and candidate gene analysis of silique number mutant in Brassica napus L.
    ZHAO Gai-Hui, LI Shu-Yu, ZHAN Jie-Peng, LI Yan-Bin, SHI Jia-Qin, WANG Xin-Fa, WANG Han-Zhong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 27-39.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04281
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    The silique number is one of the important components of yield per plant in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the exploitation and utilization of its excellent alleles are essential to increase yield. More than hundreds of silique number QTLs have been mapped in oilseed rape, but they are difficult to be fine-mapped or cloned because of their moderate and unstable effects. A oilseed rape mutant (No.7931) was detected in previous study and it had few siliques at mature stage due to the stop growth after differentiation about 10 flowers on the top of inflorescence. A F2 segregating population consisting of 3400 individuals was constructed using this mutant and another more-silique lines No.73290. Among them, we performed BSA-seq on 30 individuals with extreme more- or less-siliques and detected three associated intervals of 0-1.1 Mb, 4.7-6.2 Mb, and 11.5-12.4 Mb on the C02 chromosome. These genomic intervals contained a total of 522 annotated genes in the reference genome DarmorV8.1, among which 235 genes had functional annotation and SNP/InDel variation. At the early stage of flower bud differentiation, the shoot apical meristems of two parents were subjected to RNA-seq, and a total of 8958 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. These DEGs were significantly enriched into 20 pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and amino acid metabolism (highly associated with flower bud differentiation) and so on, among which 99 were located in the associated intervals. By the integration of gene functional annotation as well as sequence and expression variation analysis, a total of nine candidate genes (BnaC02g00490.1D2, BnaC02g01030.1D2, BnaC02g01120.1D2, BnaC02g00270.1D2, BnaC02g02670.1D2, BnaC02g08680.1D2, BnaC02g08890.1D2, BnaC02g09480.1D2, and BnaC02g10490.1D2) were identified, which were mainly involved in the maintenance of inflorescence meristems and the regulation of flower development. The above results lay the foundation for the following fine-mapping and cloning of the silique number mutant gene in oilseed rape.

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    Contents and compositions of amino acids in rice grains and their regulation: a review
    YANG Jian-Chang, LI Chao-Qing, JIANG Yi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (5): 1037-1050.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12062
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    Amino acids in cereal grains are important nutrients for both human and animals. Increasing the content of amino acids in the rice grain, especially lysine and other essential amino acids, plays a very important role in improving the nutritional standard of people in the countries with rice as staple food. This paper reviewed some research progresses in the contents and compositions of amino acids in the mature grain of rice and their distribution in the different parts of a grain, the synthesis and metabolism of amino acids in the grain, the role of plant hormones in regulating the synthesis and metabolism of on amino acids, and the effects of environmental factors and cultivation practices on the contents and compositions of amino acids in the grain, and discussed the existing problems and key points for future research. It merits further investigating the temporal (at different filling stages) and spatial (at different parts of a grain) distribution characteristics of the contents and compositions of amino acids in a grain during the filling, their physiological and biochemical mechanism, and cultivation regulation and its principle. Such a study is expected to gain new insight into the mechanism in the formation and distributions of amino acids in a rice grain, and explore a new way to increase the contents of amino acids, especially essential amino acids such as lysine, in milled rice.

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    Integrated analysis between folate metabolites profiles and transcriptome of panicle in foxtail millet
    MA Gui-Fang, MAN Xia-Xia, ZHANG Yi-Juan, GAO Hao, SUN Zhao-Xia, LI Hong-Ying, HAN Yuan-Huai, HOU Si-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 837-846.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04173
    Abstract487)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (2043KB)(390)       Save

    Folate (FA) is an important donor for energy metabolism, amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis, and participates in the intracellular carbon unit transfer reaction. In previous study, we found that folate content in panicle of foxtail millet was higher than other cereal crops, but the composition characteristics of folate metabolites are still unclear. In this study, in order to explore the expression patterns of folic acid components and folic acid metabolism pathway genes and their correlation with variable shear, and to predict the protein interaction network of folic acid synthesis pathway genes, folate metabolome was performed on three panicle development stages using the middle part of the ‘Jingu 21’ panicles as the experimental materials by RNA-seq. The results showed that the total folate content decreased with panicle development stage, and the contents of 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-M-THF) and 10-formyl folate (10-F-FA) were the main components of panicle development. The expression pattern analysis of 17 key genes of folate synthesis can be divided into two groups during the panicle development in foxtail millet. The alternative splicing showed that the 16 key genes for folate synthesis produced transcription start site (TSS) and transcription terminal site (TTS) during the panicle development, the number of other types of alternative splicing was different at each stage, and this specific alternative splicing affects folate content. In addition, methylation pathway, hormone signaling pathway and immune pathway related genes showed a certain correlation with different folate metabolite content, and we preliminarily hypothesized that the expression of folate synthesis related and coupling pathway genes would influence the folate content during the panicle development. The different expression of ADCS, DHFR2, and GGH may be the main reason for the influence of folate content in panicle, and could be used as key target gen 837-846es for folate biofortification of foxtail millet by genetic engineering technology in the future.

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    Effects of irrigating at different growth stages on kernel number of spring maize in the North China Plain
    GAO Zhen, LIANG Xiao-Gui, ZHANG Li, ZHAO Xue, DU Xiong, CUI Yan-Hong, ZHOU Shun-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1324-1331.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03045
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    Drought stress is the main limiting factor for kernel setting of spring maize in the North China plain (NCP). It is important to investigate the effects of irrigation at different growth stages on kernel number, which contributes much to improve grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in the NCP. A three-year field experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2016. Irrigating at V6, V12, tasseling, 15 days after silking stage, and rain-fed treatments were set to evaluate the soil water change, ear leaf photosynthesis rate, kernel number per ear and their relationships. The results indicated that irrigating could increase kernel number in dry years, and irrigating at tasseling stage increased kernel number by 1.4%-97.0% compared with other treatments in 2015 and 2016. However, there were no significant differences among each treatment in kernel number in the rainy year of 2016. Irrigating at V6 and V12 stage increased vegetative growth of spring maize, including leaf area and biomass, whereas drought stress occurring at flowering stage still reduced kernel number. In irrigating treatment at tasseling stage, vegetative growth would be inhibited by drought, thus lowing leaf area index and biomass, but ensuring water availability during silking-pollination-kernel growth stage. Moreover, irrigating at tasseling stage increased photosynthesis rate (Pn) by 5.2%-32.8% than other treatments. Regression analysis suggested that high water availability could significantly increase Pn (P = 0.0034) and kernel number (P = 0.0137), but excess rainfall (low solar radiation) had adverse effect on kernel setting. Overall, irrigating at tasseling stage in dry years was a critical management to ensure kernel number of spring maize.

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    Research progress regarding the function and mechanism of rice AP2/ERF transcription factor in stress response
    CHEN Yue, SUN Ming-Zhe, JIA Bo-Wei, LENG Yue, SUN Xiao-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 781-790.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12026
    Abstract467)   HTML55)    PDF(pc) (277KB)(385)       Save

    AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor) is a family of plant specific transcription factors that are widely involved in various biological processes including plant growth and development and stress responses. Rice is an important food crop in China, but it is severely affected by multiple adverse environmental factors during growth period. It has been found that AP2/ERF transcription factors play important roles in stress response in rice. In this paper, we reviewed the classification and structure architecture of rice AP2/ERF transcription factors and summarized the function and molecular mechanism of different AP2/ERF subfamilies in rice response to disease, drought, saline, and low temperature stresses. This study provides a reference for further interpretation of the molecular network of rice AP2/ERFs-mediated regulatory network in stress responses and their application potential for stress resistance improvement of rice cultivars.

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    Phenotype identification and gene mapping of defective kernel 48 mutant ( dek48) in maize
    SHI Hui-Min, JIANG Cheng-Gong, WANG Hong-Wu, MA Qing, LI Kun, LIU Zhi-Fang, WU Yu-Jin, LI Shu-Qiang, HU Xiao-Jiao, HUANG Chang-Ling
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (9): 1359-1367.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03005
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    Maize kernel is not only a main nutrient storage organ, but also a model organ for seed development research of gramineous plants. In this study, a stable defective kernel mutant 48 (dek48) was identified from a library of mutants of the maize inbred line Zheng58 treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS). Compared with wild type, the hundred-kernel weight of the dek48 was decreased greatly due to shrunken appearance and small flat size. Moreover, the dek48 was incapable of growing into a plantlet owning to the severely defective embryo and endosperm. The obvious defective development of the mutant can be observed at 12 days after pollination (DAP), indicating that the mutation occurred at an early stage of kernel development. Microscopic observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that starch granule of the dek48 was significantly smaller than wild type (WT). The observation of the paraffin section demonstrated that the starch granule of dek48 endosperm was partially filled and the aleurone layer cells developed irregularly. Genetic analysis based on kernel form indicated that the mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Based on genetic F2 population mapping, the gene of the mutant was located between 7.39 Mb-7.52 Mb on chromosome 3. The bioinformation analysis indicated that there were six new open reading frames (ORFs) and unknow genes related to kernel development in this region. Furthermore, candidate gene will be identified through sequencing and gene expression analysis in the future.

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    Differences in photosynthetic performance of leaves at post-flowering stage in different cultivation modes of summer maize ( Zea mays L.)
    LI Jing, WANG Hong-Zhang, LIU Peng, ZHANG Ji-Wang, ZHAO Bin, REN Bai-Zhao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1351-1359.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03051
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    Photosynthesis plays an important role in crop growth and yield formation. Different cultivation patterns can significantly affect the photosynthetic performance of leaves at post-flowering stage in summer maize. In order to explore the effects of different cultivation modes on the photosynthetic performance of summer maize leaves at post-flowering stage, field experiments were carried out with Denghai 605 maize hybrid variety as experimental material from 2018 to 2019 in Tai’an, Shandong, China. With the local farmer management mode (FP) as the control, the super-high-yield cultivation mode (SH) and high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode (HH) by comprehensively optimizing the planting density, fertilizer planting and management mode were set in this study. Leaf area index, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, rapid chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetic curve (OJIP) were evaluated, which indicated significant differences in biomass of different cultivation modes at maturity stage. Compared with FP, the biomass of SH and HH increased by 27.77% and 7.43%, respectively, and the population biomass at post-flowering stage of HH increased significantly as well. Besides, the photosynthetic rate all declined in different cultivation modes, reaching the highest degree of decline on the 30th day at post-flowering stage (R1+30 d). In contrast with FP, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of SH and HH increased at post-flowering stage stage (R1) by 21.63% and 12.96%, respectively, and on the 30th day (R1+30 d) at post-flowering stage by 35.37% and 12.37%, respectively, which could maintain a higher level of photosynthetic capacity. In addition, these results revealed that the differences of net photosynthetic rate among the different cultivation modes were caused by non-stomatal factors. The stomatal conductance (Gs) of SH and HH was increased at the silking stage by 18.36%, 16.66%, 26.16%, and 10.74%, respectively, and while on the 30th day at post-flowering stage intercellular carbon dioxide (Ci) declined by 12.85%, 7.34%, 14.08%, and 9.75%, respectively. Compared with FP, Wk and Vj of SH and HH significantly decreased, indicating that SH and HH apparently improved the performances of both electron donor and acceptor sides of electron transport chain in PSII reaction center, the quantum yield of electron transfer (φE0), the electron transfer ability as well as the reaction center activities of PSII and the coordination between PSI and PSII. In conclusion, SH and HH effectively improved the photosystems performance, increased the net photosynthetic rate, and prolonged duration of high photosynthesis rate, resulting in the increase of the population biomass and high yield.

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    Response of grain filling and dehydration characteristics of kernels located in different ear positions in the different maturity maize hybrids to plant density
    ZHU Ya-Li, WANG Chen-Guang, YANG Mei, ZHENG Xue-Hui, ZHAO Cheng-Feng, ZHANG Ren-He
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 507-519.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03024
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    Exploring the regulation effect of planting density on grain filling and dehydration characteristics of kernels located in different ear positions in different maturity maize hybrids could provide theoretical and technical reference for high yield production for the mechanized grain harvest of spring maize in northern Shaanxi irrigation area. A field experiment was conducted using the medium maturity maize hybrid Xianyu 335 and the late maturity maize hybrid Dongdan 60 with four plant densities of 45,000 (D1), 60,000 (D2), 75,000 (D3), and 90,000 (D4) plants hm-2 from 2018 to 2019. Their grain filling and dehydration characteristics at different grain positions and their correlation with climatic factors were analyzed. The results showed that increasing density could significantly increase the grain yield with different maturity maize hybrids with both hybrids reaching the highest yield under D4 treatment in 2018; Xianyu 335 and Dongdan 60 reached the highest yield under D4 and D3 treatments in 2019, respectively, and the 2-year average highest yields were 18,739 kg hm-2 and 17,111 kg hm-2, which were 32.2% and 27.7% higher than those under D1 treatment. With the increase of plant density the grain filling rate and the grain weight decreased, and the dehydration rate accelerated of different grain positions. Under D4 plant density, the average grain filling rate of the lower and upper grains of Xianyu 335 was 0.08 g d-1 and 0.04 g d-1 higher than that of Dongdan 60, and the grain weight was 3.6 g and 1.6 g higher than that of Dongdan 60, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that the grain moisture content of different grain positions was positively correlated with the effective accumulated temperature from silking to physiological maturity stage, but the total dehydration rate was not significantly correlated with grain filling rate. The grain dehydration rate of Xianyu 335 at different grain positions was high, and the average total dehydration rate of lower and upper grains was 0.006% °C d -1 and 0.005% °C d -1 higher than that of Dongdan 60. Furthermore, compared with the lower grains, the upper kernels had lower filling rate, longer filling period, smaller grain weight, faster dehydration at the later stage, and required less accumulated temperature to reach 28% and 25% moisture content. Based on our study, the upper kernels were more sensitive to higher plant density than lower kernels. Compared with Dongdan 60, the mid-mature maize hybrid Xianyu 335 has the higher grain filling rate, larger grain weight, and faster dehydration rate in the dense planting conditions. In conclusion, properly increased plant density coupled with middle-maturity maize hybrids is a potential way to increase the grain yield for mechanized grain harvest in the irrigation area of Northern Shaanxi.

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    Cloning and expression analysis of lncRNA27195 and its target gene TaRTS in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)
    WANG Na, BAI Jian-Fang, MA You-Zhi, GUO Hao-Yu, WANG Yong-Bo, CHEN Zhao-Bo, ZHAO Chang-Ping, ZHANG Ling-Ping
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1417-1426.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01071
    Abstract442)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (3770KB)(377)       Save

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a non-coding RNA length over 200 bp, which is abundant in plants. It plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response by regulating gene expression or protein function. In the previous study, a fertility-related lncRNA named lncRNA27195 was screened and obtained by transcriptome sequencing from the anther of wheat Photoperiod-thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (PTGMS) line BS366. To investigate the function of lncRNA27195 in wheat, the lncRNA27195 gene and its target gene TaRTS were cloned from BS366. Bioinformatics analysis were performed on TaRTS. The expressions of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS in different tissues and their expression correlation between them were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS under different light and temperature treatments, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were investigated. The results showed that the TaRTS gene with 315 bp length, encoded 104 amino acids. Additionally, RTS proteins were only found as anther-specific proteins in gramineae plants. Both lncRNA27195 and TaRTS with a significantly positive correlation were highly expressed in stamens, and revealed different expression patterns in different fertility environments. The results demonstrated that the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS were also regulated by light and temperature. In addition, we found that the appropriate concentration of MeJA could promote the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS while SA could inhibit the expression. The results indicated that under the induction of photoperiod, temperature, and plant hormones, IncRNA27195 positively regulated TaRTS gene expression, resulting in affecting pollen development and male fertility. This study contributed to the mechanism research and production application of PTGMS wheat.

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    Genome-wide association study of β-glucan content in barley grains
    GENG La, HUANG Ye-Chang, LI Meng-Di, XIE Shang-Geng, YE Ling-Zhen, ZHANG Guo-Ping
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1205-1214.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01074
    Abstract530)   HTML74)    PDF(pc) (2090KB)(372)       Save

    β-glucan is an important trait in barley, as its content greatly affects the quality in the applications of malting, feeding, and food. Although the genes associated with β-glucan synthesis have been reported, genetic regulation of β-glucan accumulation in barley grains is still unclear. In this study, genome-wide association study (GWAS) with mixed linear model (MLM) and general linear model (GLM) was performed to analyze the grain β-glucan content of 119 barley germplasms collected from worldwide previously, which were planted at two plots with certain differences in soil and climate conditions. The results showed β-glucan content in barley grains was significantly different in genotypes and the heritability of β-glucan was 73.9% in two environments. There were eight and 40 loci for grain β-glucan content detected by MLM and GLM, respectively. A total of 44 loci were obtained by combining the same loci of the two models. HORVU5Hr1G022710 gene identified in both models and sites was considered as a putative candidate gene significantly associated with β-glucan content. Significantly positive correlation was detected between grain β-glucan content and the number of favorable alleles in both models. In addition, 10 enzymatic genes related to sugar synthesis, transport and decomposition were identified based on gene annotations. These genes may significantly relate to β-glucan synthesis, accumulation and hydrolysis. The results provided a new insight into the genetic regulation of β-glucan accumulation and laid a foundation for the genetic improvement breeding of barley seed β-glucan.

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    Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting traits in wheat
    XIE Lei, REN Yi, ZHANG Xin-Zhong, WANG Ji-Qing, ZHANG Zhi-Hui, SHI Shu-Bing, GENG Hong-Wei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (10): 1891-1902.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01078
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    To understand the genetic mechanism of wheat pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat breeding, it is significant to explore marker loci and candidate genes associated with PHS resistance using intact spikes. In this study, a total of 207 wheat varieties (lines) from China and 16,686 SNP markers were analyzed in wheat whole genome. The mixed liner model (Q + K) was used to analyze PHS phenotypic data in three environments. Genome-wide association study showed that there were abundant phenotypic variations in different environments and wheat varieties (lines). The coefficient of variation was 0.34 and 0.25, the polymorphic information content of value (PIC) was from 0.01 to 0.38, and the attenuation distance of whole genome LD was 3 Mb. The population structure and principal component analysis revealed that 207 wheat varieties (lines) could be divided into three subgroups. GWAS results indicated that 34 SNP markers were detected, which were significantly associated with pre-harvest sprouting at P < 0.001. They were located on chromosomes 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5D, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7B, and 7D, and each explained 5.55%-11.63% of phenotypic variation. There were 16 markers loci detected in more than two environments, and the marker Np_Ex_c14101_22,012,676 on 6B chromosome detected in E1, E2, and average environment. Meanwhile, 13 candidate genes were screened out by mining association loci with large phenotypic effect value and stable inheritance. TraesCS3A01G589400LC, TraesCS6B01G138600/TraesCS6B01G516700LC/TraesCS6B01G548900LC, TraesCS6D01G103600, and TraesCS7B01G200100 could affect seed dormancy by regulating the sensitivity of endogenous ABA in plants. The F-box proteins were encoded by TraesCS3B01G415900LC, TraesCS6A01G144700LC, and TraesCS6B01G294800, which played major roles in plant hormone signal transduction, light signal transduction, and flower organ development. TraesCS6A01G108800, TraesCS6B01G138200/ TraesCS6B01G293700 encoded Myb transcription factor family. These candidate genes are important genes related to wheat sprouting.

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    Changes of endogenous hormones on storage root formation and its relationship with storage root number under different potassium application rates of sweet potato
    JIANG Zhong-Yu, TANG Li-Xue, LIU Hong-Juan, SHI Chun-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (11): 1750-1759.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04097
    Abstract444)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (549KB)(372)       Save

    In order to explore the changes of endogenous hormones on storage root formation and its relationship with storage root number under different potassium application rates of sweet potato root, sweet potato varieties ‘Yanshu 25’ and ‘Beijing 553’ with significant differences in storage root number were used as experimental materials, potassium oxide (K2O) was used as fertilizer, and four potassium fertilizer gradients of 0 (K0), 120 (K2), 240 (K3), and 360 kg hm-2 (K4) were set. The effects of different potassium application rates on the contents of endogenous hormones, the activity of related metabolic enzymes, the number of storage root and root evenness in swelling roots of sweet potato during root formation and harvest stage were studied. Compared with the treatment without potassium fertilizer (K0), the application of potassium fertilizer decreased the enzyme activities of indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO) and peroxidase (POD), increased the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), increased the content of zeatin riboside (ZR) and decreased the content of gibberellins (GA3). Potassium application enhanced the activity of primary cambium and promoted the differentiation from adventitious root to storage root by regulating the content of endogenous hormones in swelling roots of sweet potato. Compared with the control, the application of potash fertilizer significantly increased the number and weight of storage roots per plant and root yield of ‘Yanshu 25’ and ‘Beijing 553’. The number of storage roots per plant of ‘Yanshu 25’ and ‘Beijing 553’ increased by 3.16%-25.40% and 3.85%-33.11%, respectively, and the yield increased by 4.22%-17.31% and 3.94%-18.45%, respectively. Compared with the potassium application treatments of the two varieties, the K2 treatment had the highest storage roots number per plant, the highest weight and yield of storage roots, with the best root evenness.

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    Characteristics of carbon emission and approaches of carbon mitigation and sequestration for carbon neutrality in China’s crop production
    YAN Sheng-Ji, DENG Ai-Xing, SHANG Zi-Yin, TANG Zhi-Wei, CHEN Chang-Qing, ZHANG Jun, ZHANG Wei-Jian
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (4): 930-941.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12073
    Abstract306)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (777KB)(371)       Save

    Crop production not only ensures national food security, but also is the main source of agricultural carbon emissions and an important pool of carbon sequestration. To clarify the characteristics of carbon emissions from crop production and discuss the approaches to reach the peak and neutrality in major agricultural areas can provide important scientific basis to the decision making of green and high-quality agricultural development and “dual-carbon” goal. Based on the national statistical data, this study compared and analyzed the characteristics of carbon emissions in crop planting regions in China, and presented the recommendations for carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission mitigation. The carbon emissions of crop production accounted for 45.5% of the national agricultural total carbon emissions in 2018, and the emissions of farmland methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) of diesel consumption accounted for 22.9%, 14.7%, and 7.9% of the total carbon emissions of agricultural production, respectively. In terms of the regional emissions, both the total carbon emission of crop production and the carbon emission per sowing area are higher in South than North China, with the highest emissions in East and central China and the greatest potential for emission mitigation. In the carbon emission from crop production, CH4 emission from rice fields accounts for the main part (50.3%) and is the focus of emission reduction. The annual carbon emission of crop production in China peaked in 2015, and then dropped down. It was mainly attributed to the decrease trend of rice sown area, agricultural nitrogen application rate, and diesel oil consumption. If the existing agricultural imports are not significantly affected, the carbon emissions in crop production have basically reached the peak. However, it is very difficult to achieve carbon neutrality in crop production if only by soil carbon sequestration of farmland, and it is necessary to consider both farmland emission reduction and carbon sequestration. On the premise of high and stable grain yield, the carbon neutrality of modern crop production should prioritize CH4 and N2O reduction, and fully exploit the integrated carbon sequestration potential of farmland ecosystems, such as straw utilization, combination of the use and protection of farmland, and construction of farmland forest network.

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    Effect of OsPAL2;3 in regulation of rice allopathic inhibition on barnyardgrass ( Echinochloa crusgalli L.)
    LI Lan-Lan, MU Dan, YAN Xue, YANG Lu-Ke, LIN Wen-Xiong, FANG Chang-Xun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 197-209.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02034
    Abstract373)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (13621KB)(370)    PDF(mobile) (13621KB)(41)    Save

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC is the key enzyme in regulation of the synthesis of phenolic acid allelochemicals. PAL gene in rice belongs to a multigene family. In allelopathic accession rice PI312777 and non-allelopathic rice accession Lemont, the promoter sequences of the same PAL gene member were different, and there was the largest difference in OsPAL2;3 and OsPAL2;4 gene promoter sequence. Gene promoter of OsPAL2;3 from PI3127777 showed higher activity than the corresponding promoter from Lemont. Overexpression of OsPAL2;3 in PI312777 and Lemont resulted in increasing allelopathic inhibition on barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and the inhibitory ratios was increased by 11.11% in PI312777 and 5.56% in Lemont. Gene expression level of OsPAL2;3, OsC4H, OsCCA, OsCOL, and OsOMT was up-regulated in the OsPAL2;3-overexpressed transgenic rice compared with that of wild-type rice, and the contents of protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid were also increased. The results from Co-IP combined with mass spectrometry showed that transketolase, carbonic anhydrase, fructose-bisphospate aldolase isozyme, ATP synthase subunit alpha and ATP synthase subunit beta were interacted with OsPAL2;3 protein, resulting in regulating the phenylalanine pathway in rice. Our study indicated that the transcriptional activity of OsPAL2;3 contributed to the alleloapthic activity between PI312777 and Lemont, OsPAL2;3 was interacted with a couple of proteins to jointly regulate the synthesis of phenolic acids, and OsPAL2;3 could be considered as a candidate gene to improve the allelopathy of rice in breeding.

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    Comprehensive identification and evaluation of foxtail millet for saline-alkaline tolerance during germination
    CHEN Er-Ying, WANG Run-Feng, QIN Ling, YANG Yan-Bing, LI Fei-Fei, ZHANG Hua-Wen, WANG Hai-Lian, LIU Bin, KONG Qing-Hua, GUAN Yan-An
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (10): 1591-1604.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04064
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    In the present study, the evaluation of 53 main foxtail millet cultivars was carried out under saline-alkaline mixed stress (100 mmol L-1, NaCl : NaHCO3 = 4 : 1). The results showed that germination potential, germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh root weight and fresh shoot weight of the 53 cultivars were inhibited, among which with root length most affected by the salt and alkaline condition. Exposed to such a stress condition, significant or extremely significant positive correlations were observed for relative germination potential and relative germination rate, relative root length and relative shoot length, and relative fresh root weight and relative fresh shoot weight. 14 traits were integrated into four principal components with a cumulative contribution rate of 90.4% through principal component analysis (PCA). Composite scores for saline-alkaline tolerance were calculated from membership function with scores of the four principal components. The 53 cultivars were assigned to six different groups of saline-alkaline resistance by using cluster analysis, including 2 highly resistant, 16 moderately resistant, 17 lower resistant, 6 sensitive, 9 susceptible and 3 extremely intolerant foxtail millet cultivars. Meanwhile, a regression equation, D° = 0.298 + 0.037 X2 + 0.144X3 + 0.018X6 + 0.209X7 - 0.183X9 + 0.115X11 - 0.201X12 + 0.112X13 - 0.101X14 + 0.284X15, was established to estimate the tolerance of foxtail millet cultivars to saline-alkaline stress. Relative germination rate, salt injury rates for root length and shoot length, and root-shoot ratio could be regarded as the indicators of assessing the resistance of foxtail millet to saline-alkaline mixed stress.

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the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548