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    12 June 2024, Volume 50 Issue 6
      Corrections to the two-sided probability and hypothesis test statistics on binomial distributions
      WANG Jian-Kang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1361-1372.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33057
      Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (349KB) ( 72 )   Save
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      Binomial distributions widely exist in nature and human society, which is classified as discrete by probability theory. In theoretical studies in mathematical statistics, a random variable of binomial distribution B(n,p) is equivalent to the sum of a number of n independent and identical variables of Bernoulli distribution B(1,p). Estimation and testing on parameter p of binomial distribution B(n,p) is therefore equivalent to that of Bernoulli distribution B(1,p). Three corrections were made in this article, relevant to the calculation of two-tailed probability, and the construction of hypothesis test statistics. (1) Assume pk(k=0,1,...,n) is the probability list of binomial distribution B(n,p), and the probability by ascending order is given by p(k). The two-tailed exact probability is equal to , given the value of the observed k. (2) When testing the difference between parameter p of B(n,p) against a given value p0, the test statistic was corrected by , which asymptotically approaches to normal distribution N(p-p0,1) under the condition of large samples. (3) When testing the difference between two parameters of binomial distributions B(n1,p1and B(n2,p2, the test statistic was corrected by , which asymptotically approaches to normal distribution N(p1-p2,1) under the condition of large samples. By the correction, the two-tailed probability has the exact value, and avoids the embarrassing situation of a probability exceeding one. Under either the null or alternative hypothesis conditions, the asymptotical normal distributions always have the variance at one, and therefore are more suitable to study the statistical power in testing the alternative hypothesis. Exact test on binomial distributions under the condition of small samples was also introduced, together with the comparison between exact and approximate tests. Probability theory underlying the corrections was provided. Comparison was made between the tests on parameter of Bernoulli distribution and mean of normal distribution. The general rule in determining the small probability and large sample was present as well. By doing so, the author wishes to provide the readers with a perspective picture on hypothesis testing and statistical inference, consisting of the core content of modern statistics. 

      Identification and verification of low-tillering QTL based on a new model of genetic analysis in wheat
      ZHANG Zhi-Yuan, ZHOU Jie-Guang, LIU Jia-Jun, WANG Su-Rong, WANG Tong-Zhu, ZHAO Cong-Hao, YOU Jia-Ning, DING Pu-Yang, TANG Hua-Ping, LIU Yan-Lin, JIANG Qian-Tao, CHEN Guo-Yue, WEI Yu-Ming, MA Jian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1373-1383.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31051
      Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (5407KB) ( 34 )   Save
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      Effective tiller number (ETN) directly affects panicle number and is closely related to wheat grain yield. Mining quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with wheat tiller number and analyzing the correlation between tiller number and other important agronomic traits can provide the theoretical basis for molecular breeding. In this study, we first proposed and established a novel genetic analysis framework of “multiple environmental assessments-depth analysis of individual traits-comprehensive evaluation of various traits-friendly marker development-verification in different backgrounds”. Using this approach, low-tillering QTLs were identified and validated base on an F6 recombinant inbred line population (MC population) derived from the low-tillering plant msf and Chuannong 16 (CN16), phenotypic data of effective tillers from multiple environments, and a 16K chip-based constructed genetic linkage map. QTL mapping results showed that there were four QTLs controlling tillering on chromosomes 1A, 5A, and 6D, respectively. Qltn.sau-MC-1A was a stable and major low-tillering QTL explaining 13.39%–60.40% of the phenotypic variation rate, and its positive allele was from msf. Phenotypic analysis showed that ETN of the lines carrying the positive allele of Qltn.sau-MC-1A was significantly less than those with the negative alleles. Correlation analysis showed that ETN had a significantly positive correlation with plant height (PH), and a significantly negative correlation with thousand kernel weight (TKW), kernel number per spike (KNPS), kernel weight per spike (KWPS), and flag leaf width (FLW), but no significantly correlation with flag leaf length (FLL) and anthesis date (AD). Genetic analysis showed that positive allele of Qltn.sau-MC-1A had a significant effect on increasing KNPS, KWPS, and TKW, but delaying AD. Validation results in different backgrounds suggested that the ETN of lines carrying positive alleles from Qltn.sau-MC-1A could be significantly decreased. Collectively, we established a new genetic mapping approach and further used it to identify and validate a major QTL controlling low-tiller number, Qltn.sau-MC-1A, which laid a foundation for further fine mapping and understanding the mechanism of tiller formation.

      Creating cold resistant germplasm of potato using Solanum boliviense
      LIU Yuan-Yuan, DONG Jian-Ke, YING Jing-Wen, MEI Wen-Xiang, CHENG Gang, GUO Jing-Jing, JIAO Wen-Biao, SONG Bo-Tao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1384-1393.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34159
      Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (9632KB) ( 83 )   Save
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      Potato cultivars are not tolerant to low temperatures and frost, which directly affects the growth and development of plants and tubers, thus affecting potato yield. Wild potato species, such as S. boliviense, have abundant resources for cold frost resistance, which are important resources for improving cultivated potato varieties. Based on cold resistance identification of different S. boliviense strains, we screened and obtained the excellent strain BLV29-2 (S. boliviense) with comprehensive traits. It was then crossed and backcrossed with the diploid cultivar ED25, resulting in interspecific hybrids with stronger cold resistance. Inter-specific hybrid strains that had shown significant improvement in cold tolerance were treated with recycled colchicine. Cold tolerance and agronomic traits were assessed in some of the strains, and the results showed that all the doubled materials had significant increases in plant height, pollen grain diameter, and individual potato weight. Most of the materials showed there was no significant change in cold tolerance before and after doubling, but significantly improved compared to the cultivated species control. By crossing the treated strain T-FT073-4-7 with the superior tetraploid cultivar Huashu 13, we observed segregation of cold resistance in the offspring, with the 47% of the materials showing a preference towards the maternal parent T-FT073-4-7 and significantly higher cold resistance compared to the paternal cultivar. Through further field evaluations of agronomic traits, we identified selected breeding materials with the improved overall traits and the significantly enhanced cold resistance. This study successfully introduced the excellent cold resistance of the diploid wild species S. boliviense into the tetraploid cultivar, thus addressing the deficiency of the existing cultivar in terms of low-temperature sensitivity. These findings provide an important foundation for the selection and further improvement of cold-resistant genetic breeding materials.

      Genetic difference and genome association analysis of grain quality traits in Xinjiang winter wheat
      MA Yan-Ming, LOU Hong-Yao, WANG Wei, SUN Na, YAN Guo-Rong, ZHANG Sheng-Jun, LIU Jie, NI Zhong-Fu, XU Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1394-1405.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31030
      Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (4566KB) ( 111 )   Save
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      Seven grain quality traits were tested in the panel of 188 winter wheat accessions from Xinjiang. 12 co-associated genetic loci were detected in four different environments via GWAS, explaining 6.021%?31.467% phenotypic variation. Two pleiotropism loci, located on chromosomes 6A and 2B, associated with protein content and settlement value, protein content and bulk density of wheat. Five pleiotropism loci, located on 3A, 1B, 6B, 7B, and 7D, shared by protein content and wet gluten content. One pleiotropism locus, located on 5B chromosome, associated with settlement value, bulk density of wheat and grain hardness. Three pleiotropism loci located on 7A, 3B, and 2D, respectively, which shared by protein content, settlement value, and wet gluten content, while one pleiotropism locus with unknown site was also associated with protein content, settlement value, and wet gluten content. These associated loci or genes might be employed to select favorite wheat genotypes, and cultivate elite wheat genotypes via marker-assisted selection in wheat quality breeding. Candidate genes at stable loci associated with multiple traits were searched, and 11 candidate genes that might be related to wheat grain quality with multiple traits and environments were screened. Among them, TraesCS6B01G347500 encoded a storage and transportation protein, TraesCS1B01G395400 encoded a carbohydrate transport protein/sugar transport protein, and TraesCS2D01G246500 gene encoded a protein ESKIMO1 related to cold tolerance, salt tolerance, and water conservation. These genes can be used as candidate genes for allelic variation analysis and marker development, provide molecular tools for wheat marker assisted selection breeding.

      Generation and identification of a resistance to stripe rust perennial intergeneric hybrid F1 between Roegneria ciliaris and common wheat
      ZHU Ming-Kun, BAO Jun-Hao, PANG Jing-Lu, ZHOU Shi-Qi, FANG Zhong-Yan, ZHENG Wen, ZHANG Ya-Zhou, WU Dan-Dan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1406-1419.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31056
      Abstract ( 34 )   PDF (12180KB) ( 106 )   Save
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      In this study, we evaluated the stripe rust resistance type and estimated the published resistance genes in 13 Rogneria species including 29 materials. Afterward, we conducted artificial crosses and investigated the morphology characters, genome constitution, and stripe rust resistance of the intergeneric hybrid F1. The results showed that: 82.76% of the 29 tested materials exhibited stripe rust resistance at adult stage, and they contained more than 5 alleles of stripe rust resistance genes, which might still carry new resistance genes to wheat stripe rust. An intergeneric hybrids R. ciliaris-CSph2a F1 was generated using the screened high stripe rust resistance Roegneria ciliaris (Trin.) Nevski (ZY11004-R) and common wheat mutant CSph2a, and raised based on the embryo rescue technology. F1 hybrid contained 35 chromosomes with StYABD genome constitution and an average of 26.84 monovalents during pollen mother cell metaphase I. Besides, F1 exhibited morphological intermediacy, except the perennial living was inherited form from maternal R. ciliaris with high resistance to wheat stripe rust. 

      Cloning and functional analysis of ZmGRAS13 gene in maize
      SHE Meng, ZHENG Deng-Yu, KE Zhao, WU Zhong-Yi, ZOU Hua-Wen, ZHANG Zhong-Bao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1420-1434.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33060
      Abstract ( 40 )   PDF (18106KB) ( 114 )   Save
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      GRAS family is a plant-specific transcription factor, which plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development and responding to stresses. Exploring the function of GRAS family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) provides the important genetic resources for the creation of new maize germplasm. In this study, ZmGRAS13 gene (Zm00001eb401210) was cloned, and its basic characteristics, tissue expression characteristics, and the relative expression patterns under stresses were analyzed by bioinformatics and qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics showed that the full-length coding sequence of this gene was 1638 bp, encoding 545 amino acids. ZmGRAS13 protein had no transmembrane structure, and the molecular weight of 60.79 kD, the theoretical isoelectric point of 5.86, and had a conserved domain unique to the GRAS family. The analysis of 2 kb sequence upstream of the gene promoter indicated that the sequence contained cis-acting elements related to stresses, hormone response, and light response. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that ZmGRAS13 gene was expressed in different tissues of maize, and the relative expression level in stem was the highest. At the same time, the gene has different degrees of induced expression under different abiotic stress treatment conditions. The transient expression experiment of maize protoplasts demonstrated that ZmGRAS13 protein was localized in the nucleus. On 1/2 MS solid medium containing different concentrations of NaCl, mannitol, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA), respectively, the root length of ZmGRAS13 transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly longer than the control. In the soil, transgenic Arabidopsis lines grew better than the control under high salt and drought treatments, and the green leaf rate was higher than the control. Compared with the wild type, the content of stress resistance physiological index MDA decreased, the chlorophyll content increased, and the activities of POD and CAT increased in the transgenic ZmGRAS13 Arabidopsis thaliana, and the difference was significant difference. In conclusion, ZmGRAS13 gene may be involved in the regulation of maize growth and development, response to stresses and hormone signal transduction pathway. This study provides an important reference for the further analysis of the biological function of ZmGRAS13 in maize.

      Mapping of QTLs for ear-related traits and prediction of key candidate genes in maize
      ZHENG Xue-Qing, WANG Xing-Rong, ZHANG Yan-Jun , GONG Dian-Ming, QIU Fa-Zhan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1435-1450.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33061
      Abstract ( 82 )   PDF (3768KB) ( 53 )   Save
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      Maize ear related traits are directly related to yield, and the analysis of their genetic basis is of great significance for guiding maize genetic improvement. In this study, the phenotypic characteristics of eight traits were identified in 168 high generation backcross recombinant inbred lines (AB-RILs) in six environments over three years. QTLs for eight traits were mapped with 11,407 SNP markers generated by 10 K liquid chip in maize. A total of 32 QTL related to eight ear traits were identified in this study, including five environmentally consistent QTLs and three pleiotropic QTL. Further, we used the genotypic and phenotypic data of 507 maize inbred lines to analyze the candidate regions of major QTL and identified 19 candidate genes that might be related to ear shape. We finally speculated four genes as candidate genes based on the analysis of evolution and expression of the genes. These results provide the important marker information for the genetic improvement of ear traits in maize breeding and offered guidance for the cloning of genes related to ear traits. 

      Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of ARM gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
      LIU Zhen, CHEN Li-Min, LI Zhi-Tao, ZHU Jin-Yong, WANG Wei-Lu, QI Zhe-Ying, YAO Pan-Feng, BI Zhen-Zhen, SUN Chao, BAI Jiang-Ping, LIU Yu-Hui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1451-1466.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34121
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      The armadillo repeats (Armadillo repeats) are widely distributed in higher plants and are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as signal transduction, nuclear transport, and the response to various biotic/abiotic stresses. In this study, 54 potato ARM gene family members (StARMs) were identified at the genome-wide level of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and they were unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Based on their protein structure and phylogenetic characteristics, 54 StARMs were divided into three subfamilies. Segmental duplication events play a major role in the expansion of potato StARM gene family. Collinearity analysis showed that there were 51, 17, 25, 6, and 10 orthologous gene pairs between StARMs and tomato, Arabidopsis, cabbage, rice, and maize, respectively, which evolved under purification selection. RNA-seq data analysis showed that four StARMs genes were specifically expressed in the stolon, two StARMs were specifically expressed in the root and carpel, and one StARM gene was specifically expressed in the tuber. Some StARM genes were involved in potato response to biotic/abiotic stresses. In addition, we performed RNA-seq on three different colored potato tuber tissues (skin and flesh) and analyzed the relative expression pattern of 54 StARMs genes in different colored potato tuber tissues and the StARMs in potato flesh in three different colored potatoes by qPCR. Four candidate genes that may be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato tubers were screened. This study provides a theoretical basis for further understanding the characteristics of the StARM gene family and further analyzing the function of the StARM gene in potato resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tubers.

      Preparation of Bacillus velezensis G-1·lipopeptide suspension seed coating agent and its anti-infection effect on Sphacelotheca reiliana
      SUN Mei-Hong, WANG Cai-Qin, WANG Rong, BAI Wen-Bin, GAO Zhen-Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1467-1485.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34174
      Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (28618KB) ( 5 )   Save
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      In order to screen for biocontrol microorganisms and natural products effective against Sphacelotheca reiliana infection in sorghum root tissue, and to develop a microbial suspension seed coating agent suitable for practical application in sorghum cultivation. In this study, Jinza 2001 sorghum and three excellent disease-resistant bacteria and natural product of lipopeptide were used as the experimental material. Firstly, the anti-infection effects and optimal concentrations of different disease-resistant bacteria and lipopeptide against S. reiliana were determined involving seed germination and in vivo infection rate determination. Subsequently, the optimal formulation, dosage, and storage stability of the suspension seed coating agent were studied based on the active ingredients of the optimum strain and lipopeptide. The anti-infection effect of suspended seed coating agent against S. reiliana was measured under potted conditions. Results showed that Bacillus velezensis G-1 and its secondary metabolites (lipopeptide) exhibited significant efficacy against S. reiliana on infection in sorghum root tissue, with optimal concentrations of 1.0×109 cfu mL-1 for B. velezensis G-1 and and 600 μg mL-1 lipopeptide, respectively. Moreover, there was no significant inhibitory effect on the germination of Jinza 2001 at the optimal concentrations of B. velezensis G-1 and lipopeptide (P > 0.05). The optimal formula for the  B. velezensis G-1·lipopeptide suspension seed coating agent comprised of 5 mL of strain G-1 (1.0 × 1011 cfu mL-1), 5 mL of  lipopeptide substance (8 mg mL-1), 4 g of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.6 g of sodium alginate, 4 g of dispersant MF, 0.2 g of ferrous sulfate, 1 g of magnesium sulfate, 0.5 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 4 g of color paste, and water added to reach 100 g. The optimal dosage of B. velezensis G-1·lipopeptide suspension seed coating agent was 25 g packaged with 1 kg sorghum seeds, resulting in the anti-infection effect for S. reiliana infecting sorghum root was 87.74% under pot test conditions. Additionally, the B. velezensis G-1·lipopeptide suspension seed coating agent demonstrated a positive promoting effect on the growth of sorghum seedlings and exhibited good storage stability. After 12 months of storage in dark and room temperature conditions, the anti-infection effect of B. velezensis G-1·lipopeptide suspension seed coating agent only decreased by 1.63%. In conclusion, B. velezensis G-1·lipopeptide suspension seed coating agent holds promising application prospects in the development of green prevention and control technology for sorghum head smut.

      Genetic contribution and decision coefficient analysis of agronomic characters and lint yield traits of upland cotton in southern Xinjiang
      LI Chang-Xi, DONG Zhan-Peng, GUAN Yong-Hu, LIU Jin-Wei, LI Hang, MEI Yong-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1486-1502.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34157
      Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (306KB) ( 67 )   Save
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      To study the inheritance of agricultural characteristics and lint yield traits in upland cotton parents and F1 crosses can provide the reference for breeding workers to select and improve certain traits. Four agronomic characters and four yield traits of 130 varieties (lines) and their 206 F1 crosses of upland cotton were analyzed on additive and effects by a genetic model with additive, dominance, and their interaction effects with the environment, genetic contribution analysis and decision coefficient analysis were conducted on the observation results. The results showed that these traits had rich genetic diversity with the coefficient of variation of the eight traits of the parents ranging from 5.54% to 50.83%, and the F1 crosses ranging from 3.96% to 55.87%. The additive contribution rate of agronomic traits (except for the first fruit branch node position to yield) to yield traits reached a very significant level (contribution rate was 4%–100%), and the additive contribution rate and dominant contribution rate of five petal boll rate and plant height to the boll number and boll weight and the contribution rate of dominant × environmental interaction reached a positive and significant level above 0.01. The genetic effects controlled by additive effects included the height of the first fruit branch, plant height, five petal boll rate, boll weight, and lint percentage, with lint percentage being the largest. Except for the small additive effect, plant height exhibits significant differences in dominant and additive effects × Environmental interaction effects, dominance × the environmental interaction effect and the generalized heritability of interaction were the maximum. The main decision-making and limiting traits for improving the Lint yield in hybrid offspring of upland cotton had been identified. The coefficient of variation of upland cotton was relatively large. The five petal boll rate and plant height played a more important role in increasing the boll number and boll weight per plant. The boll number, boll weight, and lint percentage were the main decision-making traits for increasing the lint yield.

      Transcriptomic analysis of differences in the starch content of different potatoes
      ZHAO Na, LIU Yu-Xi, ZHANG Chao-Shu, SHI Ying
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1503-1513.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34172
      Abstract ( 55 )   PDF (10656KB) ( 90 )   Save
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      Starch is one of the most important quality characteristics of potatoes, which is widely used in the food, medical, petrochemical and other industries. The demand for starchy potato varieties in the market is increasing year by year. To explore the characteristics and key genes of starch accumulation and regulation of potato tuber, in this study, transcriptome profiling of creeping stems (a), pre-tuber expansion (b), mid-tuber expansion (c), late tuber expansion (d), and mature stage (e) of high and low starch potato cultivars DXY and DS1 by RNA sequencing analysis, and a total of 9494 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at five stages. Binding function annotation revealed that the differential genes were mainly enriched in molecular functions such as binding and catalytic activity. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that the differential genes were mainly enriched in carbohydrate-related metabolic pathways, of which 137 DEGs were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism. Nine key genes regulating starch synthesis were examined, and the relative expression level of the sucrose synthase gene PGSC0003DMG400013547 was higher during growth period of DXY than that at any stage. The relative expression level of the fructokinase gene PGSC0003DMG400026916 was significantly higher in DXY than in DS1 during the a and b periods. The relative expression level of amylase gene PGSC0003DMG400009891, PGSC0003DMG400001549, and glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase gene PGSC0003DMG400024642, PGSC0003DMG400003181 in DS1 was significantly higher than that in DXY with starch-rich cultivars during the c and e periods. The described gene might be a key regulatory gene for starch synthesis and accumulation. This study provides a clue for the investigation of the regulatory mechanism of tuber starch metabolism in different potato cultivars.

      Preliminary study on the regulation of cassava plant type by MeLAZY1c gene
      WANG Jia-Xiang, YU Xue-Ting, LI Meng-Tao, MAI Wei-Tao, CHEN Xin, WANG Wen-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1514-1524.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34154
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      The IGT gene family is involved in the regulation of crop plant type, and LAZY belongs to the IGT subfamily. By comparing the amino acid sequences of six Arabidopsis LAZY members as ‘seeds’ in the cassava genome, a total of 8 LAZY genes were identified in cassava, among which MeLAZY1c is highly homologous to AtLAZY1, which regulates branching angles. Based on this, MeLAZY1c had the highest transcription level in the stem by qRT-PCR and pMeLAZY1c was deeply stained in the vascular bundle by GUS staining, using MeLAZY1c as the experimental materials in this study. Eight photoresponsive/regulatory elements were found in the MeLAZY1c promoter, and we subsequently found that darkness significantly inhibited the relative expression level of MeLAZY1c. At the same time, gene editing of MeLAZY1c was performed and 19 homozygous edited lineages. The phenotype of MeLAZY1c mutants was observed after seedling transplantation, compared to the SC8 wild-type, the main stems of MeLAZY1c mutants had crawing growth, and the stem skin cells at the curved part were distorted and deformed with different sizes. The number of cells at 1 mm near the ground was about 1.5 times that of cells at the far ground. In conclusion, these results indicates that MeLAZY1c plays an important role in the establishment of upright/creeping growth of cassava.

      Effects of side deep placement of controlled release nitrogen management on rice yield, NH3, and greenhouse gas emissions
      GUO Song, GUO Hui-Ting, ZHANG Yu-Liang, QIAN Zi-Hui, WANG Zi-Jun, LU Jia-Ming, WANG Yuan, ZHAO Can, WANG Wei-Ling, ZHANG Hong-Cheng, YANG Feng-Ping, HUO Zhong-Yang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1525-1539.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32036
      Abstract ( 78 )   PDF (1220KB) ( 138 )   Save
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      The objective of this study is to establish controlled-release nitrogen fertilization technology for achieving high yield and reduce carbon emissions. Two late-maturing medium japonica rice varieties, Nanjing 9108 and Taixiangjing 1402, were selected in this study. The controlled-release fertilizer with resin-coated urea (N 43%, the longevity was 100 d) and common urea (46% N) were used as nitrogen fertilizers. Different ratios of basal and panicle nitrogen fertilizers were set for different treatments of 10:0 (NM1), 8:2 (NM2), 7:3 (NM3), and 6:4 (NM4). The basal fertilizer was applied using the side-deep fertilization method, with a ratio of 5:5 for resin-coated urea and common urea. The panicle nitrogen fertilizer was common urea. Conventional fertilization (FFT) and no nitrogen fertilizer (0N) control treatments were also included. The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer application methods on rice yield, NH3 volatilization, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The results showed that the side-deep application of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer delayed the peak of NH3 volatilization, preventing it from occurring at tillering stage compared to the FFT treatment. In addition, the flux of NH3 volatilization and the average flux after topdressing were significantly reduced by the side-deep application of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer. The NH3 emission accumulation, NH3 emission factor, and NH3 emission intensity were reduced by 25.33%–48.76%, 29.14%–60.81%, and 29.60%–56.01%, respectively. Furthermore, the CH4 emission fluxes were significantly reduced at tillering stage and after heading stage. The N2O emission fluxes were also significantly reduced during the shelving and heading period. The CH4 and N2O emission accumulation were reduced by 20.20%–55.04% and 25.56%–61.56%, respectively. The CH4 emission reduction rate decreased as the proportion of basal and panicle fertilizer decreased. The N2O emission reduction rate followed the order of NM1 > NM3 > NM2 > NM4. The GWP and GHGI were reduced by 20.96%–53.35% and 25.91%–55.40%, respectively. Considering the economic and ecological benefits, NM1 treatment had the best effect on the reduction of NH3 volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions. NM1 treatment reduced the number of fertilization times 1–2 compared with the NM3 and FFT treatments, which was advantageous for achieving green, simple, and large-scale rice production. NM3 treatment exhibited the highest increase in yield, and its impact on reducing NH3 volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions was second only to NM1 treatment. In summary, the present study explored a set of controlled-release nitrogen fertilization method (NM1 and NM3 focused on 'light and simple + emission reduction' and 'high yield + emission reduction', respectively) suitable for reducing emission and increasing yield of late-maturing medium japonica rice.

      Effect of nitrogen application on morphological conformation and fractal characteristics of drip irrigated rice roots
      TANG Qing-Yun, YANG Jing-Jing, ZHAO Lei, SONG Zhi-Wen, WANG Guo-Dong, LI Yu-Xiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1540-1553.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32040
      Abstract ( 55 )   PDF (6367KB) ( 58 )   Save
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      The aim of this study was to explore the changes of root morphology, configuration, and nitrogen use efficiency of rice under mulched drip irrigation and their relationship with fractal dimension. From 2021 to 2022, a pot experiment was conducted with two irrigation methods of drip irrigation (DI) and flooding irrigation (FI) and four nitrogen (N) application levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg hm-2) using high nitrogen efficient (high-NUE) cultivar (T-43) and low-NUE cultivar (Ken-26) as the experimental materials. Based on the box-counting method combined with the root image fractal analysis program, the fractal dimension and fractal abundance of root morphology were calculated, and the effects of drip irrigation and nitrogen application on rice yield, nitrogen use efficiency, root morphology, configuration, fractal dimension, and fractal abundance were studied. The results showed that: (1) under the same N application level, compared with FI, the fine root percentage, root length density (RLD) β value, and N agronomic efficiency (NAE) of the two varieties under DI were significantly increased (6.8%–14.5% and 9.9%–17.2%, 0.65%–5.45% and 0.32%–3.43%, 12.1%–22.4% and 12.2%–20.5%); >0.5 mm RLD, surface area density (SAD) and root bulk density (RLD), fractal dimension (FD), fractal abundance (FA) were significantly lower in the 0-40 cm soil layer, resulting in lower yields (3.8%–37.4% and 7.6%–48.3%). (2) Under DI, nitrogen application significantly increased FD and FA of rice roots. T-43 had the highest FD and FA when the nitrogen application rate was 300 kg hm-2 (1.55 and 14.07), and Ken-26 had the highest FD and FA when the nitrogen application rate was 450 kg hm-2 (1.62 and 14.78). (3) Correlation analysis showed that FD and FA were significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with RLD of 0.1–0.3 mm in diameter, root length, and root mass density, yield and N grain production efficiency in 0–10 cm soil layer, and significantly negatively correlated with the surface area density in 30–40 cm soil layer. Therefore, under drip irrigation, the high-NUE cultivar "T-43" with 300 kg hm-2 N fertilizer can increase the proportion of fine root length density, optimize the distribution of surface root morphology, and increase the fractal dimension and abundance of the root system, thus achieving a synergistic increase in the yield of drip-irrigated rice and the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer utilization.

      Effect of key cultivated measures on rapeseed oil comprehensive quality
      NING Ning, YU Xin-Ying, QIN Meng-Qian, LOU Hong-Xiang, WANG Zong-Kai, WANG Chun-Yun, JIA Cai-Hua, XU Zheng-Hua, WANG Jing, KUAI Jie, WANG Bo, ZHAO Jie, ZHOU Guang-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1554-1567.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34135
      Abstract ( 57 )   PDF (714KB) ( 69 )   Save
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      In order to clarify the influence of key cultivation measures on rapeseed oil quality, a single factor field experiments of sowing date, planting density, and nitrogen rate were carried out in Wuhan and Lanzhou with “Xiangzayou 518 (XZY518)” and “Dadi 199 (DD199)” as the experimental materials. The rapeseed was harvested at maturity stage, followed by cold pressing and oil content, oil extraction efficiency, color of rapeseed oil, peroxide value, total polar phenols, and phytosterol content were assessed, and rapeseed oil quality was evaluated comprehensively under each treatment. The results showed that sowing date, density, and nitrogen rate all significantly affected the key quality indexes of rapeseed oil, and the pattern of change of each index was not the same between the two varieties from two sites. Two varieties from two sites had higher oleic acid content in rapeseed oil under early sowing conditions, and as the sowing date was delayed, rapeseed oil color deepened, chlorophyll content increased, and the comprehensive quality decreased. The XZY518 from two sites at D2 density (4.5×105 hm-2) had a lower acid value, higher total polar phenol, total phytosterol, and total tocopherol contents, and better comprehensive quality. The DD 199 from two sites with increasing density, the chlorophyll content of rapeseed oil increased, the color deepened, the linoleic acid content decreased, and the comprehensive quality also decreased. Two varieties from two sites had higher oil content and oil extraction efficiency under low nitrogen (120 kg hm-2). With the increase of nitrogen rate, rapeseed oil color deepened, comprehensive quality declined. Principal component analysis showed that the effect of sowing date on the comprehensive quality of rapeseed oil was greater than that of planting density and nitrogen rate treatments, and that acid value, chlorophyll, total polar phenols, antioxidant power and total phytosterols were key quality indicators affecting rapeseed oils. Correlation analysis showed that seed oil content was significantly positively correlated with oil extraction efficiency, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and rapeseed oil color were all significantly positively correlated, and total polar phenols were significantly positively correlated with antioxidant power. In summary, early sowing at an appropriate date, reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate, and lowering planting density in production can improve the quality of pressed rapeseed oil. The findings of this study offer technical assistance to produce high-quality rapeseed oil raw materials.

      Difference in germination characteristics of different winter wheat cultivars under drought stress
      QIAO Zhi-Xin, ZHANG Jie-Dao, WANG Yu, GUO Qi-Fang, LIU Yan-Jing, CHEN Rui, HU Wen-Hao, SUN Ai-Qing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1568-1583.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31037
      Abstract ( 57 )   PDF (2411KB) ( 76 )   Save
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      Drought is an important stress affecting wheat production, which can reduce the quality of germination and seedling establishment. In order to understand the seed germination characteristics of wheat cultivars under drought stress, the germination characteristics under drought stress of 128 wheat cultivars widely used in production were identified by sand cultivation and water control method. Six wheat cultivars with significant differences in germination characteristics under drought stress ((Shannong 28 (SN28), Chang 6878 (C6878), Yannong 19 (YN19), Shannong 23 (SN23), Xinmai 296 (XM296), and Xinmai 38 (XM38)) were selected for physiological and biochemical analysis during seed germination under drought stress. The results showed that the germination characteristics under drought stress of 128 wheat cultivars were divided into 5 categories according to the drought tolerance coefficient of vigor index: good, the better, medium, the worse, and the worst. Eighteen wheat cultivars with good germination characteristics under drought stress, including SN28 and C6878, had fast seed germination and healthy seedlings. 26 wheat cultivars with poor germination characteristics under drought stress, such as XM38 and Lemai 185, had slow seed germination, dispersed germination time, low germination percentage (GP), and poor seedling uniformity. The physiological and biochemical indices of wheat cultivars with different germination characteristics under drought stress were further determined. The results showed that the relative expression level of TDP1 gene at the early stage of germination under drought in SN28 and C6878 with good germination characteristics under drought stress was significantly higher than the control. POD activity at the early stage of germination under drought was significantly higher than the control. The activities of α-amylase and cysteine protease were less affected by drought, and the soluble protein content at the late stage of germination was significantly higher than the control. However, the relative expression levels of DNA and protein repair genes in seed embryos of XM296 and XM38 with poor germination characteristics under drought stress were relatively delayed under drought stress. The activity of cysteine protease decreased significantly under drought stress. The above results indicated that wheat cultivars with good germination characteristics under drought stress showed strong macromolecular repair ability in seed embryos and antioxidant capacity in seed, early mobilization of storage substances during seed germination and seedling establishment under drought stress, and finally had fast germination speed and high seedling quality.

      Effects of planting density with nitrogen rate on regulation of nitrogen utilization in summer direct seeded cotton
      XU Ze, WU Xin-Ling, LIU Zhen-Yu, LI Han-Jia, LENG Xin-Hua, WU Tian-Fan, CHEN Yuan, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN De-Hua
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1584-1596.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34123
      Abstract ( 7 )   PDF (427KB) ( 11 )   Save
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      In order to clarify the effects of planting density with nitrogen rate on regulation of nitrogen utilization in summer direct seeded cotton, the CCRI 425 were used as the experimental materials in the Key Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology of Yangzhou University in 2019 and 2020. Density were used as the main treatments in 2019 and three levels of density of 60,000 plants hm–2, 90,000 plants hm–2, and 120,000 plants hm–2 were set. Nitrogen application rate as the secondary treatments and four levels of convention nitrogen application rate (0 kg hm–2, 90 kg hm–2, 150 kg hm–2, and 210 kg hm–2) were conducted. Production application (90,000 plants hm–2, 180 kg hm–2 nitrogen application rate) was used as the CK. Under the density of 120,000 plants hm–2, there were four levels of convention nitrogen application rate (0 kg hm–2, 90 kg hm–2, 150 kg hm–2, and 210 kg hm–2). The results showed that cotton seed yield was increased, reaching 4147.8–5119.2 kg hm–2, at the density of 12′104 plants hm–2 with nitrogen application of 150 kg hm–2. The dry matter of reproductive organs was 2605.6–2863.6 kg hm–2 and accounted for over 50% of the total dry matter weight. Nitrogen accumulation in reproductive organs was significantly increased, reaching 45.97–60.70 kg hm–2. Nitrogen use efficiency was significantly increased, nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) was 42.58%–44.17%, agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (aNUE) was 7.16–21.34 kg (kg N)1, physiological nitrogen use efficiency (pNUE) was 19.16–24.03 kg (kg N)1, partial productivity of nitrogen fertilizer (NPP) was 21.12–34.13 kg (kg N) 1. Regression analysis further showed that nitrogen recovery efficiency, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, nitrogen physiological efficiency, and physiological efficiency were linearly positively correlated with yield. The percentage of open bolls reached 43.59%60.76% before spraying defoliation and ripening agent and the normal flocculation rate could be achieved after spraying defoliation and ripening agent. Therefore, high-density with medium nitrogen rate is beneficial to nitrogen absorption and utilization, which provides the technical support for high yield, high efficient production, and nitrogen reduction in cotton.

      Effects of salt stress on yield, quality, and physiology in rapeseed
      WANG Long, LI Jing, QIAN Chen, LIN Guo-Bing, LI Yi-Yang, YANG Guang, and ZUO Qing-Song
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1597-1607.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34137
      Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (494KB) ( 114 )   Save
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      The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of salt stress on seed yield, quality, and physiological processes in rapeseed. During rapeseed growing season from 2020 to 2022, two different  soil salinity levels of low soil salinity (LS) and high soil salinity (HS) were conducted for rapeseed planting in Dafeng city, Jiangsu province, China (33°24′N, 120°35′E). The results indicated that, compared with LS treatment, the biomass accumulation under HS treatment was decreased by 18.46%–35.67% at the early flowering stage, and 20.92%–46.03% at maturity stage, respectively. HS treatment increased the proportion of dry biomass distribution in roots and leaves and decreased the proportion of stem and branch distribution at the early flowering stage, and increased the proportion of root, stem, and branch distribution and decreased the proportion of pod and seed distribution at maturity stage. Moreover, compared with LS treatment, HS treatment decreased the accumulations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in various organs at both early flowering and maturity stages, and decreased the efficiency of C and N translocation in stems, branches, and leaves at reproductive stage, indicating that salt stress inhibited C and N assimilation and translocation, and ultimately led to a decrease in seed yield. Besides, C/N in all organs under HS treatment was lower than that under LS treatment, indicating that the adverse effects of salt stress on C assimilation were more intensive than those on N assimilation, which resulted in the increased seed protein content and decreased oil content. In addition, compared with LS treatment, HS treatment decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (CE); however, it increased intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and water use efficiency (WUE), which indicating that the effects of salt stress on rapeseed photosynthesis were mainly attributed to the non-stomatal factors. HS treatment increased peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by 27.41% and 42.33% compared with LS treatment. The superoxide (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, soluble protein content, and soluble sugar content under HS treatment were increased by 65.54%, 22.85%, 29.68%, 9.75%, and 16.84%, compared with LS treatment, respectively. In conclusion, salt stress decreased the yield and changed quality by inhibiting C and N assimilation and photosynthesis in rapeseed, which could improve the antioxidants and osmotic regulation ability to adapt to salt stress environment.

      Effects of phosphorus application levels on selenium absorption, distribution, and transformation in sweet potatoes
      SUN Yi-Ming, TIAN Xia, WANG Shao-Xia, LIU Qing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1608-1615.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34158
      Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (422KB) ( 60 )   Save
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      To investigate the effects of soil phosphorus application on selenium uptake, distribution, and transformation in sweet potato under selenium foliar spraying conditions, the field experiment were conducted in Laiyang county, Shandong province in 2021 and 2022. The split-plot design was used with pure selenium applications of 0 g hm-2 (Se0) and 150 g hm-2 (Se1) in the main plots, and P2O5 applications of 0 kg hm-2 (P0), 75 kg hm-2 (P1), and 225 kg hm-2 (P2) in the sub-plots, the dry matter weight, total selenium, and organic selenium content in different organs of sweet potato were measured, and the selenium utilization rates were calculated. The results showed that phosphorus application significantly increased the dry matter quality of different organs in sweet potato, but the effect of selenium application on the dry matter quality was not significant difference on the dry matter quality of different organs. Phosphorus application significantly increased the selenium content and accumulation in sweet potato root tubers. Compared with no phosphorus application (P0), the selenium content and accumulation in root tubers with low phosphorus application (P1) increased by 19.54% and 27.74% on average under seleniium application under selenium application conditions, respectively, while high phosphorus application (P2) increased selenium content and selenium accumulation in root tubers by 40.24% and 52.64% on average, respectively. Phosphorus application can also improve the selenium distribution and utilization rates in root tubers under selenium applications. The selenium distribution rate increased by 7.77% and 12.46%, and the selenium utilization rate increased by 1.81% and 3.36% in root tubers applied with low phosphorus (P1) and high phosphorus (P2) respectively, while the effect of phosphorus application on selenium utilization of the whole plant of sweet potato was not significant. Phosphorus application not only increased the total selenium content in sweet potato tubers, but also increased the organic selenium content in tubers. However, the effect on the proportion of organic selenium to the total selenium in tubers was not significant. In summary, proper increase of phosphorus application can appropriately increase the dry matter quality of different organs of sweet potato, increase the content of total selenium and organic selenium of root tubers, and improve selenium utilization rate, but the environmental risks caused by excessive phosphorus application should be avoided.

      Compensation mechanism of increased maize density on yield with water and nitrogen reduction supply in oasis irrigation areas
      WANG Fei-Er, GUO Yao, LI Pan, WEI Jin-Gui, FAN Zhi-Long, HU Fa-Long, FAN Hong, HE Wei, YIN Wen, CHEN Gui-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1616-1627.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33054
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      Aiming at the production and ecological problems of the lack of water resources and excessive chemical nitrogen fertilizer input in arid oasis irrigation areas, the effect of increased planting density to compensate for the loss of maize yield caused by reducing water and nitrogen inputs was analyzed under reduced water and nitrogen inputs, which could provide theoretical and technical support for the efficient production of maize with water and nitrogen reduction. Based on a split-plot field experiment conducted in 2016, the main plot was divided into two irrigation quotas: reduced irrigation by 20% (W1, 3240 m3 hm-2) and traditional irrigation (W2, 4050 m3 hm-2), and the split-plot was divided into two nitrogen application rates: reduced nitrogen (N1, 270 kg hm-2) by 25% and traditional nitrogen (N2, 360 kg hm-2) were applied, and the sub-split plot was divided into three maize densities: traditional planting density (D1, 7500 hm-2 plants), increased density by 30% (D2, 97,500 hm-2 plants) and increased density by 60% (D3, 12.00 hm-2 plants). We measured grain yield and biological yield of maize in 2020 and 2021, analyzed the characteristics of dry matter accumulation, distribution, and transport characteristics, quantified the yield composition factors, and clarified the compensation effect and mechanism of densification on maize yield with water and nitrogen reduction. The study showed that water and nitrogen reduction inputs decreased the grain yield and biological yield in maize, but the increased density by 30% can compensate for the loss of yield due to reducing water and nitrogen inputs and improve maize yield under reduced water while maintaining traditional nitrogen. The grain yield and biological yield of W1N1D1 (reduced water and nitrogen and traditional density) was 9.1%–15.0% and 10.0%–11.0% lower than W2N2D1 (comparison: traditional irrigation, traditional nitrogen application, and traditional density), but there was no significant difference in W1N1D2 (reduced irrigation, reduced nitrogen, and increased density by 30%) compared with W2N2D1. Compared with W2N2D1, W1N2D2 (reduced irrigation, traditional nitrogen, and increased density by 30%) increased grain yield and biological yield by 12.9%–15.4% and 6.4%–12.0%, respectively. Increased density by 30% compensated for the negative effect of water and nitrogen reduction mainly attributed to improving spike number of W1N1D2, which further increased dry matter accumulation from the early-filling stage to the maturity stage in maize, population growth rate and dry matter remobilization at pre-anthesis from seeding stage to the flare opening stage. Increasing spike number of W1N2D2 improved dry matter accumulation and population growth rate, promoted dry matter distribution in the ear, and increased dry matter remobilization. In addition, the dry matter remobilization efficiency and contribution of dry matter remobilization to grain at pre-anthesis were the main reasons for increasing maize yield with the increased density by 30% under water and nitrogen reduction inputs. Therefore, increasing density by 30% was a feasible measure for simultaneous reduction of water and nitrogen in oasis irrigation area to stabilize and increase maize yield.

      Screening and validation of OsCYP22 interacting proteins in rice
      ZHANG Xiao-Fang, ZHU Qi, HUA Yun-Yan, JIA Li-Hui-Ying, QIU Shi-You, CHEN Yu-Jie, MA Tao, DING Wo-Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(6):  1628-1634.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32041
      Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (2924KB) ( 129 )   Save
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      In order to understand the function of cyclophilin family OsCYP22 from Oryza sativa L., the yeast two hybrid bait vector of OsCYP22 was constructed and proteins interacting with OsCYP22 were screened by yeast two hybrid. The results showed that noself-activating activity and toxicity of OsCYP22 bait vector to yeast cells were detected., among which 38 positive colonies were obtained by yeast two hybrid screening. Combining sequencing analysis and bioinformatics methods, 20 candidates that may interact with OsCYP22 were screened. Further validation of the full-length interactions between OsCYP22 and OsCSN5 and OsRUB1 related to the regulation of plant root growth was conducted. The results showed that OsCSN5 interacted with OsCYP22 in yeast. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study of the biological function of OsCYP22.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548