Loading...
Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Table of Content

    12 February 2024, Volume 50 Issue 2
    • REVIEW
      Development, genetic deciphering, and breeding utilization of dwarf lines in foxtail millet
      DIAO Xian-Min, WANG Li-Wei, ZHI Hui, ZHANG Jun, LI Shun-Guo, CHENG Ru-Hong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  265-279.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34131
      Abstract ( 370 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF (4944KB) ( 521 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important cereal crop in northern China’s arid and semiarid dry land agriculture, which has recently been proposed as a novel model for functional genomics. Breeding dwarf varieties is the development trend of foxtail millet industry. To date, more than 70 foxtail millet dwarf lines have been developed and reported worldwide. According to morphological characteristics, foxtail millet dwarf lines can be divided into two types: compact type with erect leaves and conventional type with droopy leaves. Gibberellins (GA) sensitivity assay indicated that four materials were not sensitive to GA and the others were sensitive. Genetic analyses detected that most of the dwarf phenotype lines were controlled by recessive genes, but the height phenotype of Ai 88 was controlled by multi-dwarf-gene. So far, 79 QTL related with plant height regulation were detected by natural population GWAS or linkage analysis. Among seven genes or QTL fine mapped in foxtail millet, the semi-dominant dwarfism gene SiD1 in 84113 was the only one cloned and functionally characterized. In the history of breeding dwarf foxtail millet variety, Ai 88 was a backbone line, which had been utilized to develop 139 cultivars with reducing plant height to meet the requirement of logging resistance and mechanized harvest. In this study, we reviewed systematically the research progress of dwarfing gene in foxtail millet, sorted out the dwarfing genes that had been located and cloned, discussed the problems in the research of dwarfing genetics and breeding, and prospected the future development in foxtail.

      CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Identification for yield and fiber quality traits and evaluation of molecular markers in modern cotton varieties
      KE Hui-Feng, SU Hong-Mei, SUN Zheng-Wen, GU Qi-Shen, YANG Jun, WANG Guo-Ning, XU Dong-Yong, WANG Hong-Zhe, WU Li-Qiang, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Gui-Yin, MA Zhi-Ying, WANG Xing-Fen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  280-293.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34075
      Abstract ( 208 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (7599KB) ( 143 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Cotton is an important cash crop and natural raw material for the textile industry. Cultivar is a major restrictive factor for cotton production, which depends on the identification, evaluation, and effective utilization of elite germplasms. In view of this, 141 modern cotton cultivars derived from the three major cotton-growing regions (the Yellow River valley, the Yangtze River valley, and the Northwest Inland cotton-growing areas) in China were used in the present study, and four yield and five fiber quality traits of these varieties were evaluated under different environments. The genetic diversity of these varieties based on KASP and SSR markers was also analyzed. The results showed that the varieties from the Yangtze River valley presented the highest lint percentage and lint index, the varieties from the Yellow River valley displayed the highest boll weight and seed index, while the varieties from the Northwest Inland cotton-growing areas possessed the best fiber quality traits. The analysis of variance showed that the yield and fiber quality traits were significant different among cotton varieties. The coefficient of variation (CV) of lint index was the largest (10.09%) in the yield traits while the CV of fiber strength was the largest (8.81%) in the fiber quality traits, indicating a great improvement potential in these two traits. The clustering result based on phenotypic traits showed that 141 varieties were divided into two groups with different yield and fiber quality traits. Meanwhile, a total of 74 polymorphic binds were amplified by 30 pairs of SSR primers, and 32 KASP markers were clearly classified among the tested varieties. Based on SSR and KASP markers, the average value of genetic similarity coefficient was 0.62, indicating a high genetic diversity in these cotton varieties. The clustering results based on molecular markers showed that 141 varieties were also divided into two groups, which indicating some consistent with the cluster result based on phenotypic traits. Moreover, three elite germplasms with high boll weight (> 7 g), 24 elite germplasms with high lint percentage (> 42%), six elite germplasms with high fiber length and strength (> 30), and two germplasms with multiple elite yield and fiber quality traits were screened out, which provides elite parents for developing new cotton varieties and theoretical basis for the further utilization of these germplasms.

      Mine the genes of premature yellowing and aging in soybean leaves by BSA-seq combined with RNA-seq technology
      LI Shi-Kuan, HONG Hui-Long, FU Jia-Qi, GU Yong-Zhe, SUN Ru-Jian, QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  294-309.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34062
      Abstract ( 189 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (9043KB) ( 164 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The yield of soybean is positively correlated with the duration of reproductive growth, which delays the aging of leaves after flowering, enhances their physiological performance, and supports growing plants with heavier grains. Leaf yellowing is one of the distinctive features of plant aging. Studies on leaf yellowing at the late stage of soybean drum grain have rarely been reported. The early yellowing feature of soybean late tympanic leaves was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, according to the genetic analysis of the hybrid of the early yellowing mutant ly and wild-type ofc in this study. Using Molecular Marker to Map-Based Cloning, a 2.23 Mb preliminary localization interval on chromosome 19 was obtained. The interval was shortened to 1.75 Mb and contained 219 genes. When this interval was combined with RNA-Seq analysis, 12 candidate genes were detected, including 4 SNP variant genes and 8 differentially expressed genes. The findings of this study provides the framework for the cloning of genes that cause aging and yellowing during the filling later period in soybean.

      Association analysis of three breeding traits with SSR markers and exploration of elite alleles in sugarcane
      TIAN Chun-Yan, BIAN Xin, LANG Rong-Bin, YU Hua-Xian, TAO Lian-An, AN Ru-Dong, DONG Li-Hua, ZHANG Yu, JING Yan-Fen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  310-324.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34066
      Abstract ( 154 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (368KB) ( 153 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Cane yield and sucrose content are the two main breeding objectives in sugarcane, and plant height, stem diameter, and brix are major constituent factors of cane yield and sucrose. Identification of associated molecular markers and exploring elite alleles with yield and sucrose traits could provide a theoretical basis and reference for marker assisted breeding of sugarcane. In this study, 62 sugarcane germplasm entries were used as the experimental materials. Three breeding traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and brix were investigated under four planting environments at maturity stage. ANOVA, genetic variation analysis and association analysis between the identified from related markers for further allele effect analysis. The result of ANOVA revealed that genotype, planting environment and their interaction had significant effect on plant height, stem diameter and brix in sugarcane. The broad-sense heritability of the three traits ranged from 0.68 to 0.76, indicating that they had stable genetic characteristics and their phenotype was mainly determined by its genotype. The frequency of these three traits showed typical quantitative traits with normal distribution characteristics. The coefficients of variation of the three traits ranged from 6.73% to 19.89%, suggesting a rich variation in phenotypes. A total of 204 alleles were found with a mean of 5.5135 per marker. The average gene diversity coefficient was 0.6779, and the average PIC value was 0.6252. The 89.19% of total markers were highly polymorphic with PIC>0.5. Population structure analysis revealed that the tested group could be divided into three subgroups. A total of 20 markers were detected associated with plant height, stem diameter, and brix traits based on MLM method, which explained 5.04%-27.98% of phenotypic variation. Seven of them detected in two or more planting environments were considered as elite markers, 8 alleles with positive effect were identified and considered as the elite alleles, and 10 typical materials were found carrying these elite alleles by allele effect analysis. These results provide a great significance for candidate gene mining of yield and sucrose content traits and parents selection of hybrid combinations in sugarcane breeding.

      Character identification and floral organ transcriptome analysis on artificial allotetraploids of Gossypium hirsutum L.
      CHEN Tian, LI Yu-Ying, RONG Er-Hua, WU Yu-Xiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  325-339.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34061
      Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (7441KB) ( 39 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The artificial allotetraploid of Gossypium herbaceun and G. raimondii was created in the laboratory to broaden the genetic background of cotton and provide novel materials for the germplasm innovation of cotton. In this study, fiber characters, physiological and biochemical comparison, SSR markers and floral transcriptomes analysis were conducted among three generations of the artificial allotetraploid and their parents, including G. hirsutum L. acc. TM-1. The results showed that the fiber color of artificial allotetraploid, light yellow, mid-parent of G. herbaceun and G. raimondii, and the fiber length was close to TM-1. The activities of SOD, POD, CAT, and MDA content in artificial allotetraploid plants were significantly higher than parents and TM-1, indicating that the stress resistance of artificial allotetraploid was enhanced after distant hybridization and chromosome doubling. 55 polymorphic loci were detected from 11 pairs of SSR primers, with 2-10 mutation loci per primer and an average of 5. PIC ranged from 0.498 to 0.892, with an average of 0.742. The results indicated that SSR markers could reflect rich genetic diversity information among the test materials. The complementary of parents and specific bands were amplified in S2, S3, and S4, simultaneously, indicating that chromosome segment recombination occurred in the artificial allotetraploid at the molecular level. There were 37, 19, and 20 bands of S2, S3, and S4 identical with TM-1 respectively, among which 17 bands were shared with TM-1 by all generations, indicating that the artificial allotetraploid had homology in genetic background with TM-1. The floral organ transcriptome analysis showed that there were 5653 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between artificial allotetraploid and TM-1, in which 3062 were up-regulated and 2591 were down-regulated. GO functional analysis showed that DEGs had significant differences in photosynthesis, photosystem II, RNA directed DNA polymerase activity and other pathways. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were more active in photosynthetic-antenna proteins, photosynthesis and isoflavone biosynthesis. The enrichment analysis of fertility related DEGs between artificial allotetraploids and TM-1 revealed that most of the DEGs of artificial allotetraploids in pollen development and recognition were down-regulated, which may be the key factor leading to low seed setting percentage of artificial allotetraploid. Three G-type lectin receptor serine/threonine protein kinases (Gh_D01G067500, Gh_D05G168100, Gh_A01G062500) were obtained from Nr annotation information by clustering. The results showed that the artificial allotetraploid performed advantage in fiber color, resistance to stress and photosynthesis, combining the excellent quality of its parents. It is expected to restore its fertility by crossbreeding with G. hirsutum, and to further cultivate a valuable novel material for production.

      Transcriptomics profile of transgenic OsPHR2 wheat under different phosphorus stress
      LI Yan, FANG Yu-Hui, WANG Yong-Xia, PENG Chao-Jun, HUA Xia, QI Xue-Li, HU Lin, XU Wei-Gang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  340-353.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31020
      Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (1779KB) ( 236 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The PHR gene is the core transcription factor in the phosphorus signaling regulatory system, responsible for initiating the adaptive response of downstream parts to phosphorus starvation. At the early stage, the transgenic OsPHR2 wheat pure lines with high phosphorus efficiency were obtained, but the molecular mechanism of OsPHR2 improving the phosphorus absorption and utilization efficiency of wheat is still unclear. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of OsPHR2 improving the phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiency in wheat, transgenic OsPHR2 wheat pure line with high phosphorus efficiency earlier as the experimental material in this study. Transgenic OsPHR2 wheat and the control were treated with low phosphorus stress when they grew to 4 leaves and 1 heart in hydroponics experiment. Transgenic OsPHR2 wheat and control under low phosphorus stress for 0, 6, 24, and 72 h were used for transcriptomes analysis by RNA-seq. The differentially expression genes (DEGs) in roots and leaves of transgenic wheat and control were analyzed. There were 22 common DEGs in the roots of transgenic wheat and control under low phosphorus stress for 0, 6, 24, and 72 h, and there were nine common DEGs in the leaves under four treatments. The functional and pathway enrichments of differentially expressed genes in roots and leaves were also performed by GO and KEGG analysis. The result showed that the number of DEGs in the root of transgenic wheat and control was the highest under low phosphorus stress for 0 h, followed by 6 h. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis suggested that DEGs were mainly clustered into biological processes such as glucose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and molecular functions such as nutrient storage activity, ATPase activity, etc. The number of DEGs in the leaves of transgenic wheat and the control was the highest under low phosphorus stress for 72 h. DEGs were mainly clustered into biological processes such as glucose metabolism, organic acid biosynthesis, as well as molecular functions related to glycosyltransferase activity and cellulose synthase activity. Compared with the control, the key enzyme genes of the defense system such as heme peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase in the root of the transgenic line OsT5-28, as well as the trisphosphate transporter family genes in the leaf were up-regulated before and after low phosphorus stresses. The response of transgenic OsPHR2 wheat to low phosphorus stress was different from that of the control. Transgenic wheat had stronger phosphorus absorption and utilization ability than the control under low phosphorus stress, mainly because OsPHR2 regulated the relative expression level of related genes in wheat.

      Function analysis of the promoter of natural antisense transcript cis- NATZmNAC48 in maize under osmotic stress
      MAO Yan, ZHENG Ming-Min, MOU Cheng-Xiang, XIE Wu-Bing, TANG Qi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  354-362.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33013
      Abstract ( 105 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (5170KB) ( 57 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Previous studies indicate that natural antisense transcript, cis-NATZmNAC48, acts as a negative regulator for maize drought stress response gene ZmNAC48. To further characterize the function of cis-NATZmNAC48, we used cis-NATZmNAC48 cDNA sequence and ZmNAC48 protein coding sequence to retrieve maize B73 reference genome and obtain the upstream promoter. PlantCARE and New PLACE were used to predict promoter regulatory elements, which revealed that the promoter of cis-NATZmNAC48 and ZmNAC48 contained not only CAAT-box, TATA-box, and other basic elements, but also hormone response elements and transcription factor binding element. Plant expression vectors of GUS fusion with cis-NATZmNAC48 and ZmNAC48 promoters were constructed and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was obtained by infecting inflorescences. GUS staining analysis showed that Procis-NATZmNAC48:GUS and ProZmNAC48:GUS was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. After osmotic stress treatment, the relative expression level of GUS gene and GUS enzyme activity of Procis-NATZmNAC48:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis were significantly decreased and increased significantly in ProZmNAC48:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis, which indicating that both cis-NATZmNAC48 and ZmNAC48 promoters responded to osmotic stress. DNA methylation was one of the regulatory events that affected promoter activity. In this study, we found that DNA methylation modification existed in the promoter region of cis-NATZmNAC48. After osmotic stress treatment, the methylation enrichment changed significantly, but the methylation sites with significant changes were not in the cis-regulatory elements. These results laid an important basis for the analysis of cis-NATZmNAC48 regulation.

      Genome-wide association study of yield traits and special combining ability in maize hybrid population
      MA Juan, CAO Yan-Yong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  363-372.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33022
      Abstract ( 157 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (462KB) ( 192 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Supplementary Material | Related Articles | Metrics

      Increasing yield is the long-term goal of maize breeding. It is important to analyze the genetic basis of yield-related traits and combining ability for breeding new maize varieties with high yield. In this study, 123 maize inbred lines and eight tester lines were selected as the experimental parents, and 540 hybrids were obtained according to NCII (North Carolina design II). The F1 hybrids were investigated at the Xinxiang and Zhoukou experimental fields for eight yield and component traits, including kernel weight per ear, ear weight, 100-kernel weight, and kernel number per row. Parental genotypes were detected using maize 5.5K liquid breeding chip, and the genotypes of F1 hybrids were inferred. The additive and dominant models of BLINK (Bayesian information and links-disequilibrium iteratively nested keyway) were used to conduct genome-wide association study of the F1 hybrid phenotypes and special combining ability (SCA). The results showed that 10 and 31 significant association loci were detected by additive and dominant models for F1 hybrids, respectively. Eight SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) were significantly associated with SCA using the dominant model. There were seven co-detected loci among different traits and models, and one of them was co-detected between ear weight and SCA. A total of 26 candidate genes were identified by scanning the major-effect and co-detected SNPs. Among them, transcription factors MYBR85, NLP9, PHD3, auxin up-regulated small RNA (SAUR11 and SAUR12), and FCS-like zinc finger protein gene FLZ16 may be important candidate genes for controlling yield traits and SCA of F1 hybrid.

      Genomic prediction of maize agronomic and quality traits using multi-omics data
      YANG Jing-Lei, WU Bing-Jie, WANG An-Zhou, XIAO Ying-Jie
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  373-382.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33021
      Abstract ( 134 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2499KB) ( 158 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Genomic selection predicts unknown phenotypes by using high-density genetic markers covering the genome. In the plant, this method allows early selection for traits, retaining dominant individuals and saving costs for field management and phenotype identification, which greatly accelerating the breeding process. In this study, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data were used for genomic prediction of agronomic and quality traits of maize by using two statistical models, rrBLUP, and LASSO. We found that the order of predictive power was genomic data, transcriptomic data, and metabolomic data. For different traits, genomic prediction was more powerful than agronomic traits for quality traits. For both rrBLUP and LASSO models, rrBLUP was the best model for all traits when using genomic data, 53 traits were the best predicted by rrBLUP and 2 traits were the best predicted by LASSO when using transcriptomic data, 43 traits were the best predicted by rrBLUP and 12 traits were the best predicted by LASSO, and 12 traits were the best predicted by LASSO based on metabolomic data. In addition, when performing genomic prediction using different lineages, the accuracy of predicting the temperate maize from the tropic maize was slightly better than that of predicting the tropic maize from the temperate. For quality traits, we found the cross-lineage prediction was higher than the within-lineage prediction. This study systematically evaluated the differences in the predictive ability of maize agronomic and quality traits based on various multi-omics data and statistical models, which providing a theoretical basis for future genomic breeding of important agricultural traits in maize.

      Transcriptome and metabolomic analysis of foliar spraying of Salvia miltiorrhiza carbon dots to alleviate low phosphorus stress in sweetpotato
      ZHU Xiao-Ya, ZHANG Qiang-Qiang, ZHAO Peng, LIU Ming, WANG Jing, JIN Rong, YU Yong-Chao, TANG Zhong-Hou
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  383-393.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34063
      Abstract ( 183 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (10990KB) ( 127 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The objective of this study is to explore the effects of foliar sprayed carbon dots (CDs) on the growth and development of sweetpotato seedlings under low phosphorus (P) stress, discovery the key genes that regulate the response of sweetpotato roots to low P stress, analyze the synergistic changes between root metabolites and key genes, and explore the mechanism of CDs alleviating low P stress in sweetpotato. In this study, Shangshu 19 and Xushu 32 were selected as the experimental materials. Three treatments, namely, foliar sprayed with ultra-purewater (CK1 treatment), Salvia miltiorrhiza CDs (CDs treatment) at low P levels (0.01 mmol L-1 KH2PO4), foliar sprayed with ultra-pure water at normal P levels (1 mmol L-1 KH2PO4) (CK2 treatment), were set up to conduct metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of sweetpotato roots in different treatments, and analysis the changes in biomass and P content in leaves, stems and roots. Results showed that foliar sprayed Salvia miltiorrhiza CDs significantly increased the biomass of leaves, stems, and roots of sweetpotato seedlings under low P stress, increased the P content of roots, and enhanced the low P tolerance of sweetpotato seedlings. Transcriptome analysis revealed that phosphate uptake and transport genes (PHO1, PHT1-4), root configuration regulation genes (ZAT6, ZFP5, PLT5), and inositol phosphate biosynthesis genes (VIP2) play key roles in alleviating low P stress in sweetpotato seedlings. The metabolomic analysis indicated that the relative expression level of inositol phosphate in sweetpotato roots treated with CDs was significantly lower than that in CK1 treatment. These results suggested that foliar spraying CDs can improve the ability of sweetpotato to absorb P by inducing the high affinity P uptake and transport system of sweetpotato and optimizing root configuration, while maintaining P homeostasis by adjusting the P metabolism process in the plant. However, there were differences in the response of different sweetpotato varieties to low P stress mediated by CDs. Compared with CK1 treatment, it was also observed that the expression levels of phosphate esters such as phosphoethanolamine and D-Myo-inositol 4-phosphate in the roots of Shangshu 19 were significantly reduced in CDs treatment, and the expression of citric acid and oxalic acid secreted by the roots of Xushu 32 significantly increased, which can activate insoluble P in the soil and promote P absorption by plants. This may be related to differences in low P tolerance among different sweetpotato varieties. In conclusion, these results can provide scientific support and theoretical basis for establishing efficient regulation theories and new pathways for P nutrition in sweetpotato, and also provide candidate molecular resources for subsequent research on nano CDs to alleviate low P stress in sweetpotato.

      Phosphorus transporter StPHO1.2 improving heat tolerance in potato
      LI Wan, LI Cheng, CHENG Min, WU Fang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  394-402.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34064
      Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (6839KB) ( 63 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Plants absorb and transport phosphorus through phosphorus transporters, and sufficient phosphorus can improve crop yield, quality, and stress resistance. High temperature is an important environmental factor affecting the growth and development of potato. In this study, we overexpressed the phosphorus transporter StPHO1.2 in potato mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then compared the growth of transgenic strains and wild-type strains at high temperature (35℃) and normal temperature (22℃±1℃). The results showed that overexpression of StPHO1.2 could improve the heat resistance and promote the growth of potato. And the higher the phosphorus concentration, the stronger the resistance, the better the growth. Subcellular localization in tobacco showed that StPHO1.2 was expressed on cell membrane. Therefore, the membrane system library plasmid was selected to screen the interacting proteins of StPHO1.2. This study demonstrated that the phosphorus transporter StPHO1.2 interacted with both the calcium ion transporter associated protein (StCAX1) and the photosynthetic system II protein subunit (StPsbR) by the yeast two-hybrid and BiFC. In conclusion, overexpression of StPHO1.2 may improve the heat tolerance and promote the growth of potato by affecting photosynthesis and signal transduction in potato. These results provide theoretical basis and reference for further understanding of the function of phosphorus transporters and promote the breeding of new potato varieties.

      Cloning of TabHLH112-2B gene and development of its functional marker associated with the number of spikelet per spike in wheat
      FAN Zi-Pei, LI Long, SHI Yu-Gang, SUN Dai-Zhen, LI Chao-Nan, JING Rui-Lian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  403-413.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31016
      Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (4989KB) ( 141 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) transcription factor plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, wheat gene TabHLH112-2B was cloned, which consists of seven exons and six introns, encoding 444 amino acids, and has a typical HLH conserved domain at 315-364 amino acids. The tissue expression pattern analysis showed that TabHLH112-2B was expressed in all tissues at seedling stage, jointing stage, heading stage, and flowering stages. Among them, the relative expression levels in leaves and roots were higher. The cis-acting element analysis showed that the promoter region of TabHLH112-2B contained a variety of cis-acting elements related to plant hormone responses, stress responses, and meristem development. The qRT-PCR exhibited that the relative expression level of TabHLH112-2B was responsive to plant hormones (such as ABA, IAA, MeJA) and abiotic stresses (such as drought, salt, low and high temperatures). Two SNPs were detected in its promoter region by genomic sequence polymorphism, which were classified into two haplotypes. A molecular marker was developed based on SNP-682, and association analysis showed that the marker was significantly correlated with the number of spikelet per spike in various environments such as drought and high temperature. Hap-2B-2 was a favorable haplotype with more spikelets per spike. These results of this study provide the valuable genetic resources and technical support for molecular marker-assisted breeding of wheat varieties with high yield and wide adaptability.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Changes of root characteristics of super hybrid rice variety contributing to high nitrogen accumulation under low nitrogen application at seedling stage
      WU Yu, LIU Lei, CUI Ke-Hui, QI Xiao-Li, HUANG Jian-Liang, PENG Shao-Bing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  414-424.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32015
      Abstract ( 172 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (438KB) ( 222 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Crop root system plays an important role in nitrogen uptake. In this study, two rice varieties, conventional rice variety Huanghuazhan (HHZ) and super hybrid rice variety Yangliangyou 6 (YLY6), were grew hydroponically under high nitrogen (HN) and low nitrogen (LN) treatments to investigate the changes of root characteristics and their relationships with nitrogen accumulation at seedling stage. Compared to HN, LN significantly decreased the total N accumulation in HHZ by 19.7% and had no substantial effect in YLY6. Under LN, root dry weight, the total root length, root surface area, and root tips in YLY6 significantly increased by 41.3%, 57.1%, 74.9%, and 20.6%, respectively. However, these four morphological parameters had no significant change in HHZ. Under LN, root diameter and root cortical area in YLY6 significantly increased by 12.4% and 24.2%, respectively. However, the two parameters and root stele diameter in HHZ significantly reduced by 12.0%, 21.9%, and 11.4%, respectively. In YLY6, LN significantly up-regulated the relative expression level of root ammonium transporter genes (AMT2;1, AMT2;3, AMT3;1, and AMT3;2) by 195.6%, 29.3%, 314.9%, and 388.9%, respectively, and increased the relative expression level of glutamine synthetase gene GS1;1 by 158.2%. However, LN had no effect on the relative expression level of the five genes in HHZ. Total nitrogen accumulation was significantly and positively correlated with the root characteristics (but thickness of root cortical sclerenchyma) and expression of above-mentioned genes under LN. These results indicated that the enhanced positive responses of above-mentioned root characteristics contributed to high nitrogen accumulation in YLY6 seedlings under LN. Developing varieties with root positive responses to nitrogen reduction should be a considerable target for green rice production.

      Effects of different irrigation regimes on grain yield and water use efficiency in japonica-indica hybrid rice cultivar Yongyou 1540
      XU Ran, YANG Wen-Ye, ZHU Jun-Lin, CHEN Song, XU Chun-Mei, LIU Yuan-Hui, ZHANG Xiu-Fu, WANG Dan-Ying, CHU Guang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  425-439.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32016
      Abstract ( 146 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1106KB) ( 163 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The objective of this study is to understand how different irrigation regimes affected on grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of japonica-indica hybrid rice cultivar Yongyou 1540 and its physiological bases. In the present study, Yongyou 1540 was used and three irrigation regimes were set up during the whole growth period, including continuous flooding (CF), alternate wetting and moderate drying (AWMD), and alternate wetting and severe drying (AWSD). The results showed that compared with CF, both AWMD and AWSD significantly improved WUE, with the increase of 22.6%-25.6% and 18.2%-23.1%, respectively. AWMD significantly increased yield by 8.6%-10.0%, while AWSD significantly decreased yield by 6.0%-7.5%. Compared with CF, AWMD significantly reduced the number of tillers, shoot dry weight and leaf area index (LAI) at the jointing stage, and reduced leaf area duration (LAD) from transplanting to heading, and the crop growth rate (CGR) from transplanting to jointing. However, AWMD significantly increased the percentage of productive tillers, CGR from jointing to heading, root length density, deep root ratio, root to shoot ratio, specific root length, root total absorbing area, and activity absorbing area during the whole growth period, and increased the net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves, root oxidation activity, and Z+ZR content in both roots and leaves, key enzymes involved in sucrose-starch metabolism in grains at two soil re-watering stages at grain filling stage. In conclusion, these results indicated that AWMD could increase both grain yield and WUE, promote root and shoot growth, and improve plant physiological activity at grain filling stage, and achieve high yield and high WUE, which was the best irrigation regime in this study.

      Effects of straw mulching from autumn fallow and phosphorus application on nitrogen uptake and utilization of winter wheat
      XIE Wei, HE Peng, MA Hong-Liang, LEI Fang, HUANG Xiu-Lan, FAN Gao-Qiong, YANG Hong-Kun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  440-450.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31019
      Abstract ( 148 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (583KB) ( 193 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Frequent occurrence of drought in winter and spring, combined with soil P deficiency limits nitrogen absorption of winter wheat in southwest wheat. This study aims to investigate the effects of straw mulching from autumn fallow and phosphorus application on root NO3- uptake dynamic potential, nitrogen uptake and utilization, chlorophyll content, and grain yield in wheat, which provides the theoretical basis for high and stable yield of wheat as well as efficient use of nutrients. The experiment was carried out at Renshou in Sichuan province from 2020 to 2022. Two factors spilt-plot design was employed with main plot of maize straw mulching (SM) and no mulching (NSM), and three phosphorus levels 0 (P0), 75 (P75), and 120 (P120) kg hm-2 were set as sub-plot. Results showed that straw mulching and phosphorus application significantly increased above-ground phosphorus accumulation. Compared with NSM, SM increased root tip NO3- net absorption rate, grain nitrogen accumulation, nitrogen transport, nitrogen assimilation, nitrogen partial productivity and grain yield by 28.2%, 8.4%, 9.0%, 41.9%, 23.3%, and 21.9%, respectively. Compared with P0, P75 and P120 increased by 35.1%-37.6%, 12.6%-19.0%, 7.1%-9.3%, 35.7%-60.5%, 17.6%-23.8%, 17.2%-23.6%, respectively. Compared with NSM, SM increased the content of chlorophyll in flag leaf at grain filling stage, thus improving grain yield. In summary, straw mulching and phosphorus application can promote NO3- absorption in root tip of wheat and chlorophyll content, significantly increase post anthesis nitrogen absorption and reserved N remobilized to developing grains, and ultimately improve grain yield. Considering the economic benefits and yield returns, it is recommended to apply 75 kg hm-2 of phosphate fertilizer with straw mulching for high yield and efficiency cultivation of wheat in southwest China.

      Quality differences between noodle rice grown in early and late seasons
      XIAO Zheng-Wu, HU Li-Qin, LI Xing, XIE Jia-Xin, LIAO Cheng-Jing, KANG Yu-Ling, Hu Yu-Ping, ZHANG Ke-Qian, FANG Sheng-Liang, CAO Fang-Bo, CHEN Jia-Na, HUANG Min
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  451-463.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32014
      Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (556KB) ( 199 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      In order to identify the influence of climatic conditions of different rice-growing seasons on cooking quality of the rice noodles, a field experiment was conducted in Liuyang, Hunan Province from 2020 to 2022. Five noodle rice cultivars (Guanglu’ai 4, Zhongjiazao 17, Xiangzaoxian 24, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 729), were grown in the early and late seasons to compare the cooking quality of rice noodles and the grain quality of noodle rice. The results showed that the mean temperature and solar radiation at grain-filling stage were 18.7% and 12.7% lower in the late season than in the early season, respectively. The cooking loss rate of rice noodles was reduced by 7.4% in the late season compared to the early season. There were not significant differences in cooked break rate and water absorption rate between early and late seasons. The peak viscosity, through viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, consistency viscosity, and pasting temperature were lower by 25.8%, 22.9%, 34.3%, 19.7%, 14.2%, and 2.0%, whereas the setback viscosity and peaking time were higher by 11.8% and 2.3% in the late season compared to the early season, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the mean temperature at grain-filling stage was positively correlated with peak viscosity, through viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, consistency viscosity, and pasting temperature, and negatively correlated with setback viscosity. The mean radiation at grain-filling stage was positively correlated with peak viscosity, through viscosity, final viscosity, and negatively correlated with setback viscosity. The cooking loss rate of rice noodles was positively correlated with the final viscosity, pasting temperature, and peaking time. Therefore, the cooking quality of rice noodles can be improved by growing noodle rice in the late season. The final viscosity and pasting temperature in the paste properties of noodle rice were the critical factors affecting the cooking loss rate of rice noodles.

      Sensitivity analysis and optimization of spring wheat grain growth parameters under APSIM model with the increase of temperature
      ZHANG Kang, NIE Zhi-Gang, WANG Jun, LI Guang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  464-477.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31018
      Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (643KB) ( 159 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      In order to effectively identify spring wheat yield sensitivity parameters in grain growth parameters based on APSIM model, the local model parameters were quickly and accurately estimated. Using the meteorological data of Anjiagou Village, Fengxiang Town, Anding District, Dingxi City, Gansu Province from 1971 to 2018 and the field test data of dryland spring wheat from 2000 to 2018, the sensitivity analysis of 32 model parameters under five temperature gradients (0℃, 0.5℃, 1.0℃, 1.5℃, and 2℃) was conducted by EFAST method. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize and verify the parameters sensitive at all temperatures. The results showed that, under different temperature gradients, there were nine grain growth model parameters that had the greatest influence on the yield of spring wheat in dry land, which were extinction coefficient, the number of grains per gram of stem, the number of grains per ear, the maximum grain mass per plant, the accumulated temperature from filling to maturity, the accumulated temperature from emergence to jointing, plant height, the maximum specific leaf area, and water stress slope of photosynthetic leaf aging. The sensitivity intensity of spring wheat yield was significantly different, among which extinction coefficient and the number of seeds per gram of stem were the most influential parameters in spring wheat yield, and the sensitivity sequence of other parameters was different under different temperatures. Particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to optimize the nine parameters. Compared with before optimization, the optimized spring wheat yield, root mean square error of grain dry matter, normalized root mean square error and model validity index were significantly improved. After parameter optimization, the optimized spring wheat yield, root mean square error of grain dry matter and model validity index were significantly improved. The mean square error of yield at maturity stage decreased by 13.50-5.99 kg hm-2, 183.17-69.44 kg hm-2, and 141.69-48.51 kg hm-2, respectively. The normalized root-mean-square error decreases by 4.94%-2.19%, 10.92%-4.65%, 8.39%-2.87%, and the average model validity index increases by 0.894-0.979, 0.893-0.981, and 0.898-0.988, respectively. The optimized parameters can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of the model. This study provides a scientific basis for the local application of APSIM model and the calibration of model parameters.

      Effects of cultivation optimization on root characteristics and starch properties of rice at grain filling stage in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River
      WU Hao, ZHANG Ying, WANG Chen, GU Han-Zhu, ZHOU Tian-Yang, ZHANG Wei-Yang, GU Jun-Fei, LIU Li-Jun, YANG Jian-Chang, ZHANG Hao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  478-492.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32011
      Abstract ( 158 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1289KB) ( 185 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      In order to investigate the relationship between root characteristics and starch properties of rice at grain filling stage in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River under different integrative cultivation practices techniques, field experiments were carried out with Yongyou 2640, Wuyunjing 24, Yangdao 6, and Jinxiangyu 1 as the experimental materials. Five cultivation techniques were set up, including nitrogen blank area (0N), local farmers’ practice (control), densification and nitrogen reduction, alternate wetting and drying irrigation and increasing application of rapeseed cake fertilizer. The results showed that compared with the local farmers’ practice (control), the yield of Yongyou 2640 under the treatment of densification and nitrogen reduction, alternate wetting and drying irrigation and increasing application of rapeseed cake fertilizer increased by 6.49%, 11.06%, and 12.72%, respectively. The yield of Wuyunjing 24 increased by 1.92%, 11.10%, and 17.05%, respectively. The yield of Yangdao 6 increased by 9.30%, 18.50%, and 22.89%, respectively, and the yield of Jinxiangyu1 increased by 6.92%, 14.72%, and 17.89%, respectively. At the same time, we also observed that with the integration and optimization of cultivation practices, root morphological and physiological characteristics (root dry weight, root length, root diameter, root oxidation activity, root bleeding intensity, zeatin and zeatin riboside contents in root and root bleeding sap and total organic acid content in exudates), the activity of key enzymes for starch synthesis in grains (soluble starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase), peak viscosity, hot viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, solubility and swelling degree gradually increased. Correlation analysis showed that the morphological and physiological characteristics of roots at grain filling stage were closely related to grain yield and starch properties. It indicated that the integration and optimization of cultivation practices might improve rice quality through regulating the growth of underground roots, and finally achieve the goals of high yield, good quality and high efficiency.

      Effect of planting density and weak light stress at pod-filling stage on seed oil accumulation in rapeseed
      NIE Xiao-Yu, LI Zhen, WANG Tian-Yao, ZHOU Yuan-Wei, XU Zheng-Hua, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, KUAI Jie, ZHOU Guang-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  493-505.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.24273
      Abstract ( 155 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (1082KB) ( 173 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The seed oil content of rapeseed is affected by insufficient light at pod-filling stage, while more seeds can be harvested with the increasing planting density. The interaction of pod shading and planting density on the mechanism that affecting seed oil content has not been reported. The objective of this study is to study the effect of density on seed carbon and lipid metabolism of shaded rapeseed at pod-filling stage. In this experiment, two varieties (Huayouza 62, H, and Fengyou 520, F) were selected, and three levels of densities (15×104, 30×104, and 45×104 plants hm-2) and two light intensities (100% light transmission, LT100%, and 70% light transmission from 10-35 d after terminating flowering, LT70%) were conducted in a field trial. The results showed that pod shading caused a decrease in seed chlorophyll content, the activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) at 25 days and 35 days after flowering (DAF) of both varieties, leading to 0.4%-27.9% decrease in glucose content. Meanwhile, the decrease in the activities of sucrose synthase-cleavage (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) under shading inhibited sucrose conversion and resulted in a decrease by 4.8%-24.5% in fructose content. The activities of seed phosphatidate phosphatase (PPase) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were also reduced, resulting in 2.1%-11.8% decline in seed oil content and 27.0%-35.3% decline in oil production. Compared with the shading under lower density, the reduction in content of seed chlorophyll, fructose, glucose, and activities of rubisco and SuSy became lower, while the decrease of seed G6PDH and PPase activities became higher at 35DAF, which aggravated the decrease of seed oil content under shading. However, the decline in oil yield was alleviated due to the increase in population yield with denser planting.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Discovery of auxin pathway genes involving spike type and association analysis between TaARF23-A and spikelet number in wheat
      TAN Dan, CHEN Jia-Ting, GAO Yu, ZHANG Xiao-Jun, LI Xin, YAN Gui-Yun, LI Rui, CHEN Fang, CHANG Li-Fang, ZHANG Shu-Wei, GUO Hui-Juan, CHANG Zhi-Jian, QIAO Lin-Yi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  506-513.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31040
      Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (4066KB) ( 115 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      Auxin is one of the major endogenous hormones that regulate the spike morphology in crops. In order to explore the auxin pathway genes involving spike type in wheat, the line SY95-71 with spindle spike and line CH7034 with compacted spike were selected to detect the endogenous auxin content in their young spikes. The results showed that the tryptophan content in SY95-71’s young spikes was significantly higher than that in CH7034. RNA-seq results showed that four specific auxin-related GO items were enriched in SY95-71 young spikes within the high confidence interval (P<0.01), and the relative expression levels of Tryptophan Decarboxylase genes (responsible for transforming tryptophan into tryptamine) and Auxin Response Factor genes (ARFs) in SY95-71 were significantly higher than those in CH7034. Further analysis of two highly expressed ARF genes (TraesCS7A02G475600 and TraesCS7A02G475700) in SY95-71 revealed that they were a pair of tandem repeat genes located on the long arm of chromosome 7A and named TaARF23-A1 and TaARF23-A2 based on the IDs of ARF family member in wheat, respectively. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that the relative expression levels of TaARF23-A1 and TaARF23-A2 in SY95-71 young spikes were significantly higher than those in CH7034. The sequencing results showed that the exon of TaARF23-A had two SNPs and one InDel site between SY95-71 and CH7034. A molecular marker was developed based on the InDel site and then used to associated with the spike phenotypes of the recombinant inbred lines population derived by the cross of SY95-71 and CH7034 in six field environments. The results showed that TaARF23-A was significant correlation with spikelet number (P<0.0001), and its CH7034 allele increased by 1.67 spikelets compared with the SY95-71 allele. The results of this study provide the reference for the understanding of the development mechanism of spikelet and molecular marker for the improvement of ideal spike type in wheat.

      Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and DPC combined application on temporal distribution of cotton yield and fiber quality
      LI Zhi-Kun, JIA Wen-Hua, ZHU Wei, LIU Wei, MA Zong-Bin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(2):  514-528.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.34086
      Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (466KB) ( 145 )   Save
      Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics

      The temporal and spatial distribution of cotton pre-summer boll, summer boll, early-autumn boll, and late-autumn boll (“four peaches”) are different, but there are few reports on the difference of their fiber yield and quality, as well as response to nitrogen (N) rates and mepiquat chloride (DPC) application. From 2015 to 2017, we employed a split-plot design in randomized complete blocks in this work in the Yellow River beach area of Zhengzhou city. The main plots were assigned to N fertilizer rates, namely no N application (N0), normal N (N1), and excessive N (N2), with the rate of 0, 225, and 450 N kg hm-2, respectively. And the subplots to DPC dosages, namely no DPC (D0), normal DPC (D1), and excessive DPC (D2), with the dosages of 0, 75, and 150 g hm-2, respectively. The effects of N fertilizer and DPC combined application on temporal distribution of cotton yield and fiber quality were studied. The results showed that: (1) The fiber yield of N1 treatment increased by 36.79% and 3.72% compared with N0 and N2 treatments, respectively, and N2 treatment did not significantly decrease the yield compared with N1. The fiber yield of D1 treatment increased by17.53% and 8.50% compared with D0 and D2 treatments, respectively, and D2 treatment decreased the yield significantly compared with D1. The fiber yield of N1D1 combined treatment was the highest, and yield of all the other combined treatments decreased by 1.15%-51.53% compared with N1D1. The proportions of fiber yield of pre-summer boll, summer boll, early-autumn boll, and late-autumn boll with N1D1 combined treatment were 8.89%, 45.35%, 33.41%, and 12.36%, respectively. Both summer boll and early-autumn boll were main yield components, but the early-autumn boll had the highest intensity of yield formation in particular. And with the increase of N application rates, the proportions of fiber yield of early-autumn boll and late-autumn boll increased, but DPC application dosages showed the opposite characteristics. (2) With the exception of the fiber elongation, fiber length, fiber length uniformity, fiber strength, and micronaire value of “four peaches” were significantly affected by N fertilizer rates and DPC dosages. The optimal fiber quality was harvested with N1 treatment compared with N0 and N2 treatments, and D1 treatment showed the highest-grade fiber compared with D0 and D2 treatments, but the fiber micronaire values with D0 treatment was the best. N and DPC combined treatments had significantly interaction effect on fiber strength and micronaire value, and N1D1 had the best fiber strength and micronaire value with “four peaches” among the different treatment combinations, while N2D2 showed opposite trend. Moreover, the excessive using of N fertilizer and DPC led to the degradation of fiber micronaire value. (3) The fiber quality of “four peaches” were different. The fiber length, fiber length uniformity, and fiber strength of pre-summer boll were poor, but its micronaire value was higher grade, and the fiber quality of summer boll and early-autumn boll had exactly the opposite effect. As for fiber quality of late autumn boll, the elongation was the best, and the other quality index were in the middle. These findings enriched the theoretical basis of the yield and quality difference of cotton “four peaches”, and provided scientific supports for rational application of N and DPC in cotton fields and reasonable utilization of the fiber of cotton “four peaches”.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

WeChat
  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

WeChat