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    12 March 2024, Volume 50 Issue 3
    • REVIEW
      Research progress on genetic basis and QTL mapping of oil content in peanut seed
      ZHANG Yue, WANG Zhi-Hui, HUAI Dong-Xin, LIU Nian, JIANG Hui-Fang, LIAO Bo-Shou, LEI Yong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  529-542.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34083
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      Peanut is an important oilseed crop in China, and oil content is an important quality trait and breeding target of peanut. One percentage point increase in peanut oil content is equivalent to an increase of two percentage points in yield, and oil processing profit can be increased by seven percentage points. This study outlined four predominant methods for phenotyping peanut oil content. The genetic characteristics of oil content in peanut were quantitative traits under polygenic control, that were affected by additive and dominant effects, and influenced by G×E interaction. There were 124 QTL reported for oil content, with 36 major effect loci by (phenotypic variation explained) more than 10%. Eight major effect QTL on A03, A05, and A08 can be consistently identified. A consistent genetic map of oil content in peanut was constructed, with a hotspot region on the 33.59-50.24 Mb of A08. In addition, the research progress of lipid synthesis and the regulatory mechanisms of associated genes was detailed. This review aspires to provide theoretical guidance for the genetic improvement of oil content and the breeding of high oil varieties of peanut.

      Functional analysis of OsFLZ13, the gene encoding a small peptide zinc finger protein in rice
      ZHANG Li-Jie, ZHOU Hai-Yu, MUHAMMAD Zeshan, MUNSIF Ali Shad, YANG Ming-Chong, LI Bo, HAN Shi-Jian, ZHANG Cui-Cui, HU Li-Hua, WANG Ling-Qiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  543-555.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32023
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      FCS-like zinc finger (FLZ) is a protein associated with plant growth and stress. At present, there are few reports on FLZ gene family analysis and functional studies in rice. In this study, TBtools were used to blast rice genome, and a total of 29 OsFLZ genes were identified. Their gene location, gene structure, motif and promoter sequences were analyzed. The relative expression level of FLZ genes in rice from CREP database showed that, OsFLZ13, a member of this family, was predominantly expressed in anthers before flowering. β-D-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays exhibited that OsFLZ13 began to express at stage 9 and gradually peaked at stage 14 of stamen development before flowering. Furthermore, two independent mutant lines, namely Osflz13-1 and Osflz13-2, were obtained with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. Compared with the 94% seed-setting rate of wild type Zhonghua 11, the setting rates of Osflz13-1 and Osflz13-2 were reduced to 44% and 36%, respectively. This study throws light on the evolution of FLZ in planta and indicates the roles of OsFLZ13 in anthers development and pollen fertility, which will be beneficial further studies of its functions. Additionally, it provides a reference for exploring the function of the FLZ family and highlights its potential value for the utilization in male sterility systems in rice.

      Genetic analysis of seed coat and flower color based on a soybean nested association mapping population
      SONG Jian, XIONG Ya-Jun, CHEN Yi-Jie, XU Rui-Xin, LIU Kang-Lin, GUO Qing-Yuan, HONG Hui-Long, GAO Hua-Wei, GU Yong-Zhe, ZHANG Li-Juan, GUO Yong, YAN Zhe, LIU Zhang-Xiong, GUAN Rong-Xia, LI Ying-Hui, WANG Xiao-Bo, GUO Bing-Fu, SUN Ru-Jian, YAN Long, WANG Hao-Rang, JI Yue-Mei, CHANG Ru-Zhen, WANG Jun, QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  556-575.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34094
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      Nested Association Mapping (NAM) population is widely applied in genetic study and breeding practice in many crops. A NAM panel was constructed by crossing of 35 parental lines with the common maternal lines (Zhongdou 41) based on previous evaluation of soybean germplasm. Principle component analysis and clustering analysis showed that clear genetic structure was observed between subpanel of RIL populations. Genetic analysis was performed on flower color and seed coat color in NAM subpanel with significant difference between paternal and maternal parents, and we found that qFC13-1 was significantly associated with flower color, which coincided with the W1 locus. Twelve loci identified were significantly correlated with seed coat color, among which nine loci were co-located by more than three methods, and the other three loci were co-located by two methods, including four reported loci and eight novel loci. In conclusion, NAM population was suitable for genetic analysis of soybean, which provided material basis for genetic interpretation and breeding practice for complex traits in soybean.

      Cloning, expression, and functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaSPX1 gene in low nitrogen stress tolerance
      ZHANG Bao-Hua, LIU Jia-Jing, TIAN Xiao, TIAN Xu-Zhao, DONG Kuo, WU Yu-Jie, XIAO Kai, LI Xiao-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  576-589.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31025
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      The SPX gene family includes four subgroups: SPX, SPX-EXS, SPX-MFS, and SPX-RING, which play an important role in phosphate signal response, but so far, little is known about the functions of this family in wheat. Previously, we identified a gene TaSPX1 (GenBank No. Ak332300), belonged to SPX subfamily from wheat (Triticum aestivum). Subcellular localization analysis showed that it targeted onto nucleus. Phylogenetic tree of TaSPX1 and its homologous proteins from the wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice SPX families showed that it was closely related to OsSPX1, a member of rice SPX subfamily. The relative expression level of TaSPX1 significantly increased under low nitrogen (low-N) stress when investigated by RT-qPCR. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) overexpression lines were generated. Using the culture methods of Murashige & Skoog (MS) hydroponic solution, the phenotype of WT and OE under low-N stress treatment was investigated. We found that the plants of OE3 and OE4, two OE lines overexpressing TaSPX1, displayed increased growth vigor and leaf area, together with the enhanced plant fresh weight and root weight, and elevated photosynthetic parameters including photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr), along with the increased contents of nitrogen, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and chlorophyll content upon low-N stress with respect to WT. Studies on transport and assimilation related parameters showed that under low-N stress, the relative expression level of some related genes and the activities of nitrogen assimilation-related enzymes were increased. Assays on the SOD, POD, and CAT, the enzymes functional as cellular protector, revealed the higher activities of them in OE plants than those in WT. On the contrary, MDA content was decreased. Further RT-qPCR analysis indicated the expression levels of several protection enzymes mentioned above were higher in OE plants than those of WT under low-N stress. Therefore, TaSPX1 played an important role in mediating plant resistance to low-N stress by improving photosynthetic parameters, enhancing nitrogen absorption and transport, and strengthening the protective enzyme system. The results enrich new understanding on the function of wheat SPX family members involved in abiotic stress, and provide a theoretical basis for genetic improvement of crops against low-N stress.

      QTL mapping and GWAS analysis of coleoptile length in bread wheat
      HAO Qian-Lin, YANG Ting-Zhi, LYU Xin-Ru, QIN Hui-Min, WANG Ya-Lin, JIA Chen-Fei, XIA Xian-Chun, MA Wu-Jun, XU Deng-An
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  590-602.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31034
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      Under drought conditions, the emergence rate of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be improved by proper deep sowing. The maximum sowing depth of wheat is determined by the length of the coleoptile, so it is very important to cultivate wheat varieties with long coleoptile. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 275 lines derived from the cross of Doumai and Shi 4185, and 186 natural population materials were used as the experimental materials. Genotyping results of 90K SNP chip were used to identify QTL for wheat coleoptile length in three different environments. The results showed that two stable QTL sites were identified by inclusive composite interval mapping in the RIL population. The two QTL located on Chromosome 4BS (30.17-40.59 Mb) and 6BL (700.08-703.53 Mb), respectively, and explained 26.29%-28.46% and 4.16%- 4.36% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. A total of 36 stable QTL were identified in the genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the mixed linear model. They were located on Chromosome 1A (3), 1B (3), 1D (2), 2A (1), 3A (2), 3B (2), 4B (11), 5A (1), 5B (3), 6B (4), 7A (2), and 7B (2), respectively. Seven significant association loci were repeatedly detected in the three environments, three of which overlapped or were adjacent to reported loci, and the other four loci were presumed to be new loci. They were located on Chromosomes 1A (499.03 Mb), 3A (73.06 Mb), 4B (648.74-648.87 Mb), and 7A (36.31 Mb), respectively. Five candidate genes (TraesCS1A03G0748300, Rht1, TraesCS4B03G0110000, TraesCS4B03G0112200, and TraesCS7A03G0146600) were predicted. A major QTL locus on Chromosome 4BS (30.17-40.59 Mb) was identified in both RIL and natural populations, and the candidate gene Rht1 at this locus had been shown to reduce the length of wheat coleoptile. The results of this study lay a foundation for the identification of genes controlling the length of coleoptile in wheat and the maker-assisted selection breeding.

      Mapping and functional analysis of maize inflorescence development gene AFP1
      XUE Ming, WANG Chen-Chen, JIANG Lu-Guang, LIU Hao, ZHANG Lu-Yao, CHEN Sai-Hua
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  603-612.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33035
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      The normal development of maize inflorescence is the foundation of yield. Mining genes and metabolic pathways can reveal the molecular mechanism of inflorescence development, which will provide a theoretical guidance for maize yield improvement. In this study, a mutant with altered flower pattern 1 (named afp1) was screened from a Mo17 EMS mutant library. The afp1 mutant showed excrescent branches with no silk in the ear, while it increased the lateral spikelet number in the tassel. Genetic analysis revealed that the afp1 phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene. The gene was initially restricted between M150 and M176 on chromosome 7 by linkage analysis in the afp1×B73 F2 population. It was further narrowed into a 300 kb region between M1722 and M1725 with 14 newly developed molecular markers. Within the mapping region, a known gene related to inflorescence development, BD1 (Branched silkless 1), was located. Due to a C-T mutation in afp1, the 67th conserved arginine (R) in the ERF/AP2 domain of the BD1 protein was altered into tryptophan (W). A total of 274 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between young ears in afp1 and the wild-type by RNA-seq. Among these genes, 56.20% were down-regulated and 43.80% were up-regulated, which were enriched in multiple metabolic pathways by KEGG analysis. Among them, 83.3% of DEGs in phytohormone signaling pathways were significantly down-regulated, suggesting that afp1 may modulate inflorescence development via a hormone-dependent pathway.

      Overexpression of soybean isopropyl malate dehydrogenase gene GmIPMDH promotes flowering and growth
      LIU Wei, WANG Yu-Bin, LI Wei, ZHANG Li-Feng, XU Ran, WANG Cai-Jie, ZHANG Yan-Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  613-622.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34093
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      Isopropyl malate synthase (IPMS) and isopropyl malate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) are important rate-limiting enzymes in leucine biosynthesis. However, their functions in plant growth and development have rarely been reported. In this study, we cloned and performed sequence analysis of GmIPMDH, a homologous gene of Arabidopsis AtIPMDH2 in soybean. GmIPMDH contained a conserved domain of Iso_dh, and the promoter of GmIPMDH contained a large number of light and hormonal responsive elements. The qRT-PCR showed that the relative expression level of GmIPMDH in soybean leaves gradually increased with the growth and development of plants. We then performed a function analysis of GmIPMDH by ectopic expression in tobacco and overexpression in soybean. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the overexpression of GmIPMDH significantly promoted flowering of tobacco and soybean. Meanwhile, plant height and nodes number were also increased significantly. Transcriptome analysis displayed that the expression of several flowering-related genes and gibberellin synthesis-related genes were changed in soybean GmIPMDH-overexpression plants. Therefore, we speculated that GmIPMDH may be involved in the gibberellin-mediated flowering and plant type architecture regulation. This study elucidates the role of GmIPMDH in the regulation of flowering time and provides a molecular basis for further research on the mechanism of GmIPMDH regulating soybean flowering and plant growth.

      Genome-wide association analysis and candidate genes predication of leaf characteristics traits in soybean (Glycine max L.)
      WANG Qiong, ZHU Yu-Xiang, ZHOU Mi-Mi, ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Hong-Mei, CEHN Xin, CEHN Hua-Tao, CUI Xiao-Yan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  623-632.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34091
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      Leaf shape and vertical distribution of soybean affect canopy structure, photosynthetic efficiency, and yield. The existence of different leaf shapes and sizes on the same plant, which is known as heterophylly, has been observed in many flowering plant species. Yet, the genetic characteristics and genetic basis of heterophylly in soybean remain unknown. In this study, leaf characteristics such as leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, and heterophylly index were investigated in 283 soybean germplasm resources for two consecutive years in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. A total of 181 related loci were detected by genome-wide association study (GWAS), among which 18 loci could be repeatedly detected in two environments or among multiple traits. Using the loci associated with leaf characteristics, we integrated the GWAS approach with the expression profiling data and gene-based association and functional annotation of orthologs in Arabidopsis to identify candidate genes involved in leaf development in soybean. The known soybean leaf shape regulatory gene Ln (Glyma.20G116200) was found upstream of locus Chr20:36152820. In addition, two candidate genes (Glyma.19G192700 and Glyma.19G194100) were identified near the related locus Chr19:45155943 on chromosome 19, homologous genes of growth-regulating factor 4 (GRF4), and LITTLE ZIPPER 3 (ZPR3), respectively. These results lay a solid foundation for expanding our understanding of the genetic mechanism of heterophylly in soybean.

      Component characterization of chromosome sets in the hybrids between sugarcane and Tripidium arundinaceum
      XUE Li, LI Xin-Yi, HUANG Yong-Tai, OU Cai-Lan, WU Xiao-Qing, YU Ze-Huai, CUI Ze-Tian, ZHANG Mu-Qing, DENG Zu-Hu, YU Fan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  633-644.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34100
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      T. arundinaceum (Tripidium arundinaceum) is an important wild germplasm resource of sugarcane. It is one of the important ways of sugarcane breeding to infiltrate its lineage to improve sugarcane resistance. Karyotyping of the hybrids between sugarcane and T. arundinaceum is beneficial for the efficient utilization of its various superior traits. In this study, we used species-specific primers for identifying the authenticity of the high generation hybrids between sugarcane and T. arundinaceum, and typed the sugarcane and T. arundinaceum chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to investigate the inheritance, segregation, and structural characteristics of T. arundinaceum in the offspring. These results indicated that 30 clones were true progeny with 1-10 T. arundinaceum chromosomes, indicating that their progeny population basically obeyed n+n mode of chromosome inheritance that accounted for 60% in the entire true progeny population. The probability of recombination at the chromosomal level between T. arundinaceum and sugarcane was about 16.67%, and the probability of recombination between T. arundinaceum and sugarcane of different lineages tended to be the same. Co-localization of S. spontaneum species-specific probes showed that infiltration of T. arundinaceum lineages reduced the proportion of S. officinarum and recombinant chromosomes in modern sugarcane cultivars, and simultaneously increased the proportion of S. spontaneum. In conclusion, analyzing the genetic and structural characteristics of different chromosome sets in the hybrids between sugarcane and T. arundinaceum provides a cytogenetic basis for improving the exploitation of T. arundinaceum germplasm resources in sugarcane breeding.

      Cloning, expression, and function of HcKAN4 gene of kenaf in flavonoid synthesis
      WU Fa-Xuan, LI Qin, YANG Xin, LI Xin-Gen, XU Jian-Tang, TAO Ai-Fen, FANG Ping-Ping, QI Jian-Min, ZHANG Li-Wu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  645-655.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34084
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      MYB-like transcription factor KAN4 (KANADI4) plays an important role in flavonoid synthesis and fiber development in kenaf. In this study, the variety “Fuhong 952” was used as the experimental material to clone and analyze the relative expression pattern of HcKAN4 genes, and to investigate the effect of TRV-VIGS-induced silencing of HCKAN4 gene on the expression of key enzyme genes in flavonoid synthesis pathway in kenaf, the variety ‘Fuhong 952’ was used as the experimental material. Gene cloning showed that the total length of ORF of HcKAN4 gene was 966 bp, encoding 322 amino acids and containing a conserved domain of MYB. Phylogenetic tree revealed that it was closely related to KAN4s of Arabidopsis and Hibiscus. The relative expression pattern indicated that the gene was expressed in different plant tissues, and the transcription level increased with plant growth in kenaf. VIGS-induced gene silencing revealed that the transcription level of 6 HcKAN4 individuals was significantly down-regulated, indicating gene silencing successfully. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the relative level of flavonoid synthesis-related genes, HcCHS, HcF3'5'H, HcANS, and HcANR, were significantly down-regulated, which were 0.51, 0.14, 0.23, and 0.11 times of those in the control group, respectively, suggesting that the relative expression level of HcKAN4 gene can regulate the biosynthesis of flavonoid in kenaf. These results provide a basis for clarifying the regulation of flavonoid synthesis by MYB transcription factor and give research ideas for improving fiber quality in kenaf.

      Cloning and relative expression pattern analysis of CsMCC1 and CsMCC2 in tea plant (Camellia sinensis)
      DAI Hong-Wei, LIU Jie-Qiang, ZHANG Li, TONG Hua-Rong, YUAN Lian-Yu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  656-668.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34069
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      Histone acetylation is an essential type of epigenetic modifications, which is mainly catalyzed by histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) and plays a crucial role in plant growth, stress response, and hormone regulation. However, little research information is available about tea plants histone acetylases. We cloned two MCC (MEIOTIC CONTROL OF CROSSOVERS) genes (CsMCC1 and CsMCC2) of HATs family from the ‘Fuding Dabaicha’ tea plant. Meanwhile, the function of these two CsMCC genes was analyzed by bioinformatics methods, qRT-PCR, and subcellular localization. Results showed that the CsMCC1 and CsMCC2 genes were located on chromosomes 1 and 7, encoding alkaline unstable hydrophilic proteins of 257 and 269 amino acids, respectively. The CsMCC genes and protein structure of tea plant were similar to those of the Arabidopsis AtMCC1 gene. The phylogenetic tree and conserved structural domain analysis showed that the MCC protein belonged to the GNAT (GCN5-related N-terminal acetyltransferases) subfamily of HATs proteins, and contained GNAT conserved structures. The evolutionary relationship of CsMCC proteins was closely related to the MCC members in grapes and tomatoes with the highly conserved protein sequences. The subcellular localization in Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed that the CsMCC1 and CsMCC2 proteins were localized on the cytoplasmic membrane. And the promoters of CsMCC1 and CsMCC2 genes contained a number of elements involved in responses to stress, light, and phytohormones. According to transcription data and expression analysis, the relative expression level of CsMCC1 gene was significantly higher in the younger stages of leaf, flower, and root development than the older stages, and CsMCC2 gene was higher in root than other tissues and lasted for a longer time during root development period. The CsMCC1 and CsMCC2 could be regulated by various abiotic stresses (drought, salt, and cold) and exogenous hormones (MeJA, GA3, and IAA). In addition, CsMCC proteins could interact with acetyltransferase-related proteins. Hence, CsMCC genes might play roles in tea plant growth and development, and the response to environment through histone acetylation modification. This study explored the basic features and functions of CsMCC, providing the useful theoretical reference for further research on the functions of CsMCC genes in tea plant.

      Identification of candidate genes implicated in low-nitrogen-stress tolerance based on RNA-Seq in sorghum
      WANG Rui, ZHANG Fu-Yao, ZHAN Peng-Jie, CHU Jian-Qiang, JIN Min-Shan, ZHAO Wei-Jun, CHENG Qing-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  669-685.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34055
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      The objective of this study is to explore gene differential expression between different sorghum materials under low nitrogen stress conditions and to provide the references for probing into the breeding of low-nitrogen-tolerant sorghum varieties and the molecular mechanism of low-nitrogen-stress tolerance in sorghum. Two low-nitrogen-tolerant sorghum varieties (BSX44 and BTx378) were selected as experimental materials, and both of them were subjected to normal-growth treatment and low-nitrogen-stress treatment respectively before the gene expression of sorghum was detected at seedling stage, heading stage and flowering stage via RNA-Seq technology. The biological functions and metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed by bioinformatics to screen genes that may be involved in the low-nitrogen regulation, and to understand the possible molecular pathways for nitrogen efficient materials in the process of nitrogen absorption and utilization. The results showed that: For BTx378 and BSX44, under normal-growth and low-nitrogen-stress treatments, 937 and 787 DEGs were detected at the seedling stage, 1305 and 935 at the heading stage, and 1402 and 963 at the flowering stage, for BTx378 and BSX44 respectively. Then the converged DEGs at the three stages were identified, and it was found that 246 genes were differentially expressed in the two low-nitrogen-tolerant sorghum varieties at the seedling stage, 371 at the heading stage, and 306 at the flowering stage. Furthermore, a total of 28 genes were consistently detected as DEGs at all three stages in the two low-nitrogen tolerant varieties, among which 5 genes were up-regulated and 23 genes were down-regulated. The KEGG analysis of the 28 common DEGs showed that they were mainly enriched in nitrogen metabolism, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. This suggested that regulation of the genes in these pathways mainly affects the low nitrogen stress tolerance in sorghum.

      Effects of green manure application methods on dry matter accumulation, distribution, and yield of maize in oasis irrigation area
      SHANG Yong-Pan, YU Ai-Zhong, WANG Yu-Long, WANG Peng-Fei, LI Yue, CHAI Jian, LYU Han-Qiang, YANG Xue-Hui, WANG Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  686-694.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33031
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      The study of green manure application methods on the accumulation and distribution of maize dry matter and yield has significant implications for optimizing regional maize cropping systems. Field experiments were conducted in the inland river oasis irrigation area of Gansu province, China, from 2020 to 2021 to investigate the effects of five treatments, including tillage with full quantity of green manure incorporated in the soil (TG), no-tillage with full quantity of green manure mulched on soil surface (NTG), tillage with root incorporated in the soil and above ground green manure removed (T), no-tillage with above ground manure removed (NT), and conventional tillage and leisure (CT), on dry matter accumulation, distribution, and yield of maize. The results showed that the NTG and TG treatments had significant advantages in dry matter accumulation, with above-ground dry matter accumulation increasing by 20.2% and 17.7%, respectively, compared with CT treatment at the fully mature stage. The above-ground dry matter accumulations of NTG and TG treatments were also significantly higher than T and NT treatments, with the increases of 20.2% and 7.3%, and 15.7% and 13.0%, respectively. In addition, NTG and TG treatments promoted the distribution of dry matter to the ear, increasing by 10.3% and 9.0%, respectively, compared with CT treatment. By fitting the Logistic equation, we found that the maximum growth rate (Vmax) and average growth rate (Vmean) of maize dry matter in the NTG and TG treatments were significantly higher than CT treatment, with the increase of 36.6%, 24.8%, and 20.2%, 17.7%, respectively. The NTG and TG treatments also significantly increased yield by 24.9% and 25.7%, respectively, compared with CT treatment, mainly attributed to the increase in the number of grains per ear. Therefore, no-tillage with full quantity of green manure mulched on soil surface and tillage with full quantity of green manure incorporated in soil treatments were beneficial for promoting dry matter accumulation and distribution and increasing yield of maize, with the former being the most effective and recommended green manure application method in this area.

      Effects of biochar application on dry matter accumulation, transport, and distribution of foxtail millet and soil physicochemical properties
      LI Bo-Yang, YE Yin, CHU Rui-Wen, JING Miao, ZHANG Sui-Qi, YAN Jia-Kun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  695-708.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34097
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      Foxtail millet is an important minor crop in North China. Biochar could increase the yield production of foxtail millet, but the effects of biochar on the dry matter accumulation and transport of foxtail millet and the soil physical and chemical properties have not been studied detailly. To explore the effects of biochar adding on dry matter accumulation, transport, and distribution in foxtail millet and soil, a new reclamation land in Mu Us desert was selected to conduct a field experiment in 2021 and 2022 with ‘Yugukang 1’ as the experimental material. In this experiment, there were one control group (CK, biochar addition 0 t hm-2) and 3 test groups with 3.0 t hm-2 (C1), 4.5 t hm-2 (C2), and 6.0 t hm-2 (C3), respectively. The results showed that, compared with CK, the grain yield and the total dry material quality were significantly increased by 12.22%-53.70% and 9.62%-40.62%, respectively. Biochar application significantly increased the dry weight of foxtail millet leaves from the top one leaf (flag leaf) to the top thirteen leaves at 0 (flowering stage), 7, 14, 21, 28, and 45 days after flowering. Biochar increased the net photosynthetic rate at flowering stage, the amount of assimilates accumulated after flowering, the contribution rate of assimilates accumulated after flowering to grain yield, and the dry matter distribution ratio of ears at harvest, but the latter three indexes showed a slight downward trend with the increase application amount of biochar. The total dry matter distribution ratio of stems and leaves at harvest stage decreased and 1000-grain weight and harvest index increased first and then decreased with the increase application amount of biochar. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between foxtail millet yield and stem weight at harvest stage (R2 = 0.68), the total above-ground weight at harvest stage (R2 = 0.71), and the total plant weight at harvest stage (R2 = 0.70). Biochar application could also effectively improve the activities of soil catalase, urease, and sucrase, and significantly increase the content of soil available nitrogen and phosphorus, among which C2 (4.5 t hm-2) treatment had a greater improvement. In conclusion, biochar could improve soil quality, increase net photosynthetic rate of foxtail millet at flowering stage, increase the accumulation of photosynthetic products in vegetative organs after flowering, and increase the proportion of dry matter distribution in ears, so as to increase yield of foxtail millet finally.

      Effects of low temperature on the expression of insecticidal protein in Bt cotton fibers and its physiological mechanism
      DAI Yu-Yang, YUE Ye, LIU Zhen-Yu, HE Run, LIU Yu-Ting, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN De-Hua, CHEN Yuan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  709-720.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34088
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      The study in pot experiments using conventional cultivar Sikang 1 (SK1) and hybrid cultivar Sikang 3 (SK3) as the experimental materials conducted the changes of Bt insecticidal protein content and nitrogen metabolism related physiological characteristics in Bt cotton fibers at peak boll stage under different low temperature and processing duration. The content of insecticidal protein in fibers decreased with the decrease of temperature, and the duration of low temperature treatment significantly affects the content of insecticidal protein compared with the control, the greater decrease of insecticidal protein content was observed with the extension of low temperature stress time. The soluble protein content, GOT activity, and GPT activity had a downward trend, while the free amino acid content, peptidase activity, and protease activity had an upward trend. After low temperature treatment for 48 hours, there was a significant correlation between those nitrogen metabolism related parameters with insecticidal protein content. Therefore, low temperature stress also decreased protein synthesis, enhanced protein decomposition, resulting in a decrease in soluble protein content, an increase in free amino acid content, and thus a reduced Bt insecticidal protein content, which significantly affected by the duration of low temperature stress.

      Optimal phase selection for extracting distribution of winter wheat and summer maize over central subregion of Henan Province based on Landsat 8 imagery
      ZHAO Rong-Rong, CONG Nan, ZHAO Chuang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  721-733.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31036
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      Remote sensing technology provides an ideal mean for the real-time monitoring of large-scale agriculture production. And the best phase of remote sensing images for vegetation classification is important to monitor crop area by means of remote sensing. In this study, we selected 6 Landsat 8 images from 2020 to 2021, including the growth period of summer maize from milk ripening to harvest and winter wheat from overwintering to ripening. Based on these data, we analyzed the differences in spectral characteristics and NDVI between winter wheat-summer maize and other landcovers at different phases. Then we extracted the spatial distribution of winter wheat-summer maize by the decision tree in central region of Henan province. The results showed that the area ratio of winter wheat-summer maize changed during growth period. For summer maize, the extraction effect at milky stage was better than that at the later stage, and the overall precision was the highest on August 26th, 2020, accounting for 83.60%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.72, indicating that the classification quality was good. For winter wheat, the best identification period was in the wintering period, and its overall precision on January 1st, 2021 had the highest of 92.36%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.81, which suggesting it was good for information extraction. In addition to the coverage change of the crop's own growth process, imaging at different stages also affected the classification accuracy. The multi-temporal information extraction also found that the planting areas of summer maize and winter wheat were not completely overlapped due to the limitation of weather and other environmental conditions. The local weather in the mountainous area was not suitable for winter wheat growth, and it was not consistent with the planting area of summer maize. This study helps us to make timely and effective judgments on crop distribution and growth status at a macro level, and has broad application prospects for agricultural monitoring, especially for information management of rotation farmland and crop phenology and planting area.

      Effects of salinity stress on grain-filling characteristics and yield of rice
      WEI Huan-He, ZHANG Xiang, ZHU Wang, GENG Xiao-Yu, MA Wei-Yi, ZUO Bo-Yuan, MENG Tian-Yao, GAO Ping-Lei, CHEN Ying-Long, XU Ke, DAI Qi-Gen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  734-746.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32021
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      To investigate the effect of salinity stress on grain-filling and yield of rice, the conventional japonica rice Nanjing 9108 and Huaidao 5 which were widely planted in saline alkali soil of Jiangsu province were used as the experimental materials. The treatments including the control (CK, 0 salt concentration), medium-salinity (medium-salinity, MS, 0.15% salt concentration), and high salt (high salinity, 0.3% salt concentration) were set. The results showed that, compared with the CK: (1) MS and HS both significantly reduced rice grain yield by 26.3% and 57.7% (average of the two cultivars), respectively. The number of panicles, spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentage, and 1000-grain weight were all significantly decreased under salinity stress. (2) Salinity stress significantly reduced rice panicle length, the number of superior and inferior grains per panicle, filled-grain percentage, and 1000-grain weight. The decreases in filled-grain percentage and 1000-grain weight of superior grains per panicle under salinity stress were lower than those of inferior grains. (3) Salinity stress significantly reduced the dry matter weight of plants at heading and maturity stages, and the dry matter accumulation from heading to maturity, while increased the harvest index. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value at 15 and 30 days after heading of rice leaves under salinity stress were significantly lower than CK. (4) Salinity stress reduced the maximum and mean grain-filling rates of grains during grain-filling period, while the time to achieve the maximum grain-filling rate and effective grain-filling duration of grains increased. Salinity stress increased the days at the first, middle, and late stages during grain-filling period for superior and inferior grains, while the mean grain-filling rate and grain filling amount significantly decreased at the first, middle, and late stages during grain-filling period. The decrease in grain filling amount of superior grains at the first, middle, and late stages during grain-filling period was lower than that of inferior grains. (5) Salinity stress significantly decreased activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthases (SSS), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzymes (SBE), and the decrease was greater in inferior grains than superior grains. In conclusion, the grain-filling days for superior and inferior grains increased under salinity stress, but the decrease in grain filling rate and activities of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis was greater, resulting in a significant deterioration in grain filling traits and a significant decrease in grain weight and yield. The inhibitory effects of salinity stress on grain-filling rate and grain filling amount of inferior grains were higher than those of superior grains.

      Effects of cutting on the recovery characteristics, grain and straw yield, and quality traits of Qingke
      HE Jia-Qi, BAI Yi-Xiong, YAO Xiao-Hua, YAO You-Hua, AN Li-Kun, WANG Yu-Qin, WANG Xiao-Ping, LI Xin, CUI Yong-Mei, WU Kun-Lun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  747-755.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31032
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      The objective of this study is to investigate the changes in agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of Qingke plants during regeneration and recovery after cutting and to analyze the response patterns of grain and straw yield, as well as quality indicators of Qingke. The findings will provide a theoretical basis for the application of the “food-seed-forage trinity” production model of Qingke and the analysis of regulatory mechanisms for plant regeneration and recovery in Qingke. This experiment was conducted from 2021 to 2022, focused on the Qingke varieties Kunlun 18 and Zang 1257. Using normal growth (CK) as the control, a two-factor split-plot design was adopted. Samples were taken at seven developmental stages: 0 hour (T0), 2 hour (T1), 24 hours (T2), 72 hours (T3) after cutting, jointing stage (T4), heading stage (T5), and grain filling stage (T6), which aimed to analyze the regeneration rate of stem recovery and changes in antioxidant enzymes in the stubble after cutting and to analyze the yield, quality characteristics of Qingke straw and grain, and the rapid response patterns of endogenous hormones after cutting. The results indicated that cutting increased the regrowth of Qingke straw and grain yield. It also leaded to higher levels of crude protein and crude ash content in the stem, while reducing the fiber content. As a result, the relative feeding value of the straw was significantly improved. Cutting promoted the recovery rate of plant height and individual biomass growth in the stem of Qingke. It increased the number of spikes per hectare and 1000-grain weight, resulting in a significant increase in grain yield. Additionally, it leaded to the accumulation of higher levels of crude protein and starch in the grains. After cutting, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the stubble of Qingke increased rapidly. It also significantly increased the content of trans-zeatin riboside (TZR) and isopentenyladenosine (iPA) in the stubble. However, it leaded to a significant decrease in the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the stubble. Cytokinins and auxins in the stubble of Qingke may play important regulatory roles in the rapid response of the antioxidant enzyme system and the rapid regeneration process of above-ground parts after cutting. This study provided the foundation for the analysis of the regulatory mechanisms in the post-cutting regeneration and recovery of Qingke plants.

      Effects of rice straw mulching combined with green manure retention and nitrogen reduction applications on dry matter quality accumulation, nitrogen transport and grain yield of rice
      WANG Lyu, WU Yu-Hong, QIN Yu-Hang, DAN Ya-Bin, CHEN Hao, HAO Xing-Shun, TIAN Xiao-Hong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  756-770.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32013
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      The integrated effect of milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) and rice straws combined with nitrogen reduction on dry matter, nitrogen uptake, and transport during key growth period in rice, and rice yield was studied to provide the theoretical basis for green and efficient cultivation in rice. A field experiment was conducted at Hantang Experimental Base of Hanzhong Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Shaanxi Province from 2019 to 2021. The randomized block design was adopted and repeated for 3 times. The tested rice variety was high-quality indica rice ‘Huanghuazhan’. Five treatments included: (1) winter fallow, no rice straw mulching, no fertilization (CK); (2) winter fallow, no rice straw mulching, conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate (NPK); (3) planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate (GRN100); (4) planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with 80% conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate (GRN80); (5) planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with 70% conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate (GRN70). The dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation, nitrogen transport and nitrogen utilization at the full heading and mature stage in rice were analyzed. The results showed that: (I) Compared with NPK, the yield of rice increased by 3.50%-7.65% under the milk vetch+rice straw treatments, and the dry weight of stem sheath, leaf, and panicle increased by 25.54%-44.79%, 44.79%-53.74%, 33.76%-61.81% at the full heading stage. The dry weight of stem sheath and leaf increased by 6.87%-25.57%, 20.87%-23.46% at maturity stage. Compared with GRN100, the grain yield of GRN80 and GRN70 was increased by 4.00%-2.77%, the dry weight of panicle increased by 21.33%-4.56% at the full heading stage, and the dry weight of stems sheath, and panicle increased by 17.52%-10.91% during the mature stage of GRN80. (II) Compared with NPK, the nitrogen accumulation in stem sheath, leaf and panicle of the milk vetch+rice straw treatments increased by 34.84%-60.59%, 50.41%-69.28%, 26.57%-45.35% during the full heading stage, 48.61%-54.78%, 54.67%-91.81%, 6.42%-19.96% at mature stage, 16.89%-64.99% in stem sheath nitrogen transport, 47.85%-73.05% in leaf nitrogen transport, and 27.75%-41.09% in nitrogen transport contribution rate. Compared with GRN100, nitrogen increasement in the panicle of GRN80 increased by 19.76%, and nitrogen transport capacity, stem sheath transport rate, leaf transport rate, and nitrogen transport efficiency increased by 7.46%, 2.73%, 9.35%, and 6.86%, respectively. (Ⅲ) Compared with NPK, the nitrogen dry matter production efficiency decreased by 10.64%-20.92%, the nitrogen fertilizer physiological utilization efficiency decreased by 17.88%-32.89%, the nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency increased by 7.81%-63.03%, the nitrogen recovery rate increased by 57.36%-97.19%, and the nitrogen fertilizer partial productivity increased by 3.55%-52.00%. Compared with GRN100, GRN80 and GRN70 increased nitrogen dry matter production efficiency by 13.00%-10.97%, nitrogen fertilizer physiological utilization efficiency by 12.34%-22.37%, nitrogen fertilizer agricultural efficiency by 35.66%-51.21%, nitrogen recovery rate by 21.04%-25.52%, and nitrogen fertilizer partial productivity by 30.04%-46.79%. In conclusion, the co-incorporation of Chinese milk vetch and rice straw in winter accompanied by reducing 20% or 30% N application rate based on conventional N application rate, can significantly increase rice yield, nitrogen absorption and transportation and nitrogen utilization. It may be a green and efficient cultivation model suitable for rice production in the Hanzhong region.

      Is cob color variation in maize accidental or incidental to any agronomic traits? —An example of nationally approved common hybrids over the years
      LIANG Xing-Wei, YANG Wen-Ting, JIN Yu, HU Li, FU Xiao-Xiang, CHEN Xian-Min, ZHOU Shun-Li, SHEN Si, LIANG Xiao-Gui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  771-778.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33026
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      Maize cob color has undergone powerful artificial selection in temperate germplasm and commercial hybrids. To clarify the selection bias of cob color in maize in different regions, and to explore the association of cob color with various agronomic traits, we used the public data of nationally approved maize hybrids from 1992 to 2020 to analyze the released regions and multiple agronomic traits of hybrids with different cob colors (red or white). Among the 1604 hybrids counted, the proportion of red cob hybrids has gradually increased from 50% in 1992 to more than 80% in 2020. The proportion of red cobs in the Northern spring maize region, Huanghuaihai summer maize region, and Northwestern maize region increased faster than that in the Southwestern and Southern maize regions. The average ear length and kernel row number of the red cob hybrids and white axis varieties were significantly higher than those of the whites in the recent 15-20 years. The average crude starch content of the reds increased significantly over the years, while the average crude fat content decreased significantly. The average crude protein and lysine content of the reds were weaker than that of the white axis varieties. Therefore, we speculate that the strong artificial selection for red cob may be mainly related to the pursuit of maize yield potential per plant. However, the performance of red cob hybrids in abiotic stress and grain protein quality deserves further exploration.

      Genome wide identification and expression analysis of TaPOD family in wheat
      JU Ji-Hao, MA Chao, WANG Tian-Ning, WU Yi, DONG Zhong, FANG Mei-E, CHEN Yu-Shu, ZHANG Jun, FU Guo-Zhan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(3):  779-792.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31045
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      Peroxidase (POD) family members play the important roles in regulating plant growth, development, and responding to stress. In order to systematically explore the functions and expression patterns of the TaPOD gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in this study, we identified the members of the TaPOD gene family in wheat using bioinformatics methods, predicted their physical and chemical properties, promoter homeopathic elements, and evolutionary characteristics, and analyzed their expression patterns in different tissues, exogenous hormones, and stress conditions through wheat transcriptome and RT-qPCR. The results showed that 659 members of the TaPOD gene family were identified from wheat, and their protein sequence lengths were 206-518 amino acids; Phylogenetic analysis showed that the members of wheat TaPOD family were divided into I-VII groups with different numbers of each group. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the members of wheat TaPOD family had five conservative motifs, with significant differences in gene structure, indicating diversification in functions. Chromosome localization revealed uneven distribution of its quantity on 21 chromosomes of wheat, with the highest number on chromosome 2B. The intraspecific collinearity analysis, showed that there were 396 repetitive events in wheat TaPOD genes, with high homology and very conservative evolutionary process. It was amplified mainly through fragment replication and tandem replication, and the Ka/Ks ratio showed that only four pairs of family members were subjected to positive natural selection pressure. The analysis of cis-regulatory element showed that there were 23 binding elements related to growth, development, and stress resistance in the upstream 2 kb region. Analysis of gene expression patterns showed that most TaPOD genes were highly expressed in wheat roots, and the relative expression level was closely related to hormone induction and abiotic stress. The above results provide a preliminary theoretical basis for further understanding the functions of TaPOD genes in regulating wheat growth, development, and stress.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548