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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (3): 721-733.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31036


Optimal phase selection for extracting distribution of winter wheat and summer maize over central subregion of Henan Province based on Landsat 8 imagery

ZHAO Rong-Rong2(), CONG Nan1,*(), ZHAO Chuang2   

  1. 1Plateau Ecosystem Research Station, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2023-06-05 Accepted:2023-09-13 Online:2024-03-12 Published:2023-10-09
  • Contact: *E-mail: congnan@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFA0606101);National Natural Science Youth Foundation of China(42201032);National Natural Science Fund for Excellent Young Scholars(Overseas), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(15053348)


Remote sensing technology provides an ideal mean for the real-time monitoring of large-scale agriculture production. And the best phase of remote sensing images for vegetation classification is important to monitor crop area by means of remote sensing. In this study, we selected 6 Landsat 8 images from 2020 to 2021, including the growth period of summer maize from milk ripening to harvest and winter wheat from overwintering to ripening. Based on these data, we analyzed the differences in spectral characteristics and NDVI between winter wheat-summer maize and other landcovers at different phases. Then we extracted the spatial distribution of winter wheat-summer maize by the decision tree in central region of Henan province. The results showed that the area ratio of winter wheat-summer maize changed during growth period. For summer maize, the extraction effect at milky stage was better than that at the later stage, and the overall precision was the highest on August 26th, 2020, accounting for 83.60%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.72, indicating that the classification quality was good. For winter wheat, the best identification period was in the wintering period, and its overall precision on January 1st, 2021 had the highest of 92.36%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.81, which suggesting it was good for information extraction. In addition to the coverage change of the crop's own growth process, imaging at different stages also affected the classification accuracy. The multi-temporal information extraction also found that the planting areas of summer maize and winter wheat were not completely overlapped due to the limitation of weather and other environmental conditions. The local weather in the mountainous area was not suitable for winter wheat growth, and it was not consistent with the planting area of summer maize. This study helps us to make timely and effective judgments on crop distribution and growth status at a macro level, and has broad application prospects for agricultural monitoring, especially for information management of rotation farmland and crop phenology and planting area.

Key words: winter wheat-summer maize, spectral characteristics, decision tree, classification accuracy, Landsat 8-OLI remote sensing image

Fig. 1

Landsat 8 OLI Image of the study area on January 1, 2020"

Table 1

Landsat 8 OLI data parameters"

Serial number
Wave length (μm)
Resolution (m)
波段1 Band 1 海岸波段 Coastal 0.433-0.453 30
波段2 Band 2 蓝波段 Blue 0.450-0.515 30
波段3 Band 3 绿波段 Green 0.525-0.600 30
波段4 Band 4 红波段 Red 0.630-0.680 30
波段5 Band 5 近红外波段 NIR 0.845-0.885 30
波段6 Band 6 短波红外 SWIR1 1.560-1.660 30
波段7 Band 7 短波红外 SWIR2 2.100-2.300 30
波段8 Band 8 全色波段 Pan 0.500-0.680 15
波段9 Band 9 卷云波段 Cirrus 1.360-1.390 30

Table 2

Interpretation symbols of land-use types"

Land-use type
Landsat 8影像
Landsat 8 image
Interpretation indicator
Build land
Fig. 2-A
图斑亮度高, 颜色为混合亮色, 聚集式成片分布, 纹理结构粗糙。
The color of the spot is mixed bright color with high brightness. It is distributed in clustered patches with rough texture structure.
Bare land
Fig. 2-B
颜色为褐色或黄色, 几何形状明显, 边界清晰, 主要为休耕地。
The color is brown or yellow, with distinct geometric shapes and clear borders. It is mainly fallow land.
Fig. 2-C
假彩影像颜色为蓝黑色, 边界清晰, 呈连续条带状, 走势不规则, 拐弯处弧度相对圆滑。
The color of the false color image is blue and black, the boundary is clear and irregular, and the curve of the corner is relatively smooth.
Fig. 2-D
颜色呈暗红色, 多位于山区, 纹理目视可见明暗对比, 地形起伏造成阴影判读清晰。
The color is dark red, mostly located in mountainous areas. And the contrast between light and shade of the texture can be observed, meanwhile the shadow caused by the terrain can be clearly interpreted.
Summer maize
Fig. 2-E
颜色以鲜红色为主, 呈条带状分布, 多位于平坦的区域, 质地相较于冬小麦斑块更加粗糙。
The color is mainly bright red, with banded distribution, mostly located in flat areas. The texture is rougher than that of winter wheat.
Winter wheat
Fig. 2-F
冬小麦: 颜色以明亮的红色为主, 相较于夏玉米, 其颜色的饱和度更高, 呈规则的田块状分布, 质地均匀, 纹理更加细腻趋同。
The color is bright red, in regular patches. Compared to summer corn, it has a higher color saturation, displaying a regular field-like distribution. The texture is uniform with finer and more homogeneous patterns.

Fig. 2

Ground objects in Landsat 8 images based on different bands combination A: August 26, 2020, true color (composite band 4, 3, 2); B: August 26, 2020, true color (composite band 4, 3, 2); C: August 26, 2020, false color (composite band 5, 6, 4); D: August 26, 2020, standard false color (composite band 5, 4, 3); E: August 26, 2020, standard false color (composite band 5, 4, 3); F: January 1, 2021, standard false color (composite band 5, 4, 3)."

Fig. 3

Spectral characteristic changes of winter wheat and summer maize in different phases A: August 26, 2020; B: September 11, 2020; C: September 30, 2020; D: January 1, 2021; E: March 22, 2021; F: May 9, 2021."

Fig. 4

NDVI changes of winter wheat and summer maize at different stages"

Fig. 5

Flow chart of planting information using a decision tree to extract"

Table 3

Precision verification of classification result of winter wheat and summer maize area in study area"

Producer’s accuracy (%)
User accuracy (%)
Overall accuracy (%)
Kappa 系数
Kappa coefficient
2020-08-26 夏玉米Summer maize 88.00 76.20 83.60 0.72
非夏玉米Others 77.36 83.65
2020-09-11 夏玉米Summer maize 85.67 73.92 80.42 0.69
非夏玉米Others 89.58 89.23
2020-09-30 夏玉米Summer maize 75.36 73.00 72.60 0.65
非夏玉米Others 86.23 83.51
2021-01-01 冬小麦Winter wheat 89.36 86.39 92.36 0.81
非冬小麦Others 97.32 93.25
2021-03-22 冬小麦Winter wheat 88.92 85.66 90.33 0.80
非冬小麦Others 95.36 92.25
2021-05-09 冬小麦Winter wheat 96.32 93.56 86.54 0.77
非冬小麦Others 78.69 80.35

Fig. 6

Classified image of winter wheat and summer maize A: August 26, 2020; B: September 11, 2020; C: September 30, 2020; D: January 1, 2021; E: March 22, 2021; F: May 9, 2021."

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