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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (3): 686-694.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33031


Effects of green manure application methods on dry matter accumulation, distribution, and yield of maize in oasis irrigation area

SHANG Yong-Pan(), YU Ai-Zhong(), WANG Yu-Long, WANG Peng-Fei, LI Yue, CHAI Jian, LYU Han-Qiang, YANG Xue-Hui, WANG Feng   

  1. College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of Arid land Crop Science, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
  • Received:2023-05-16 Accepted:2023-09-13 Online:2024-03-12 Published:2023-09-28
  • Contact: *E-mail: yuaizh@gsau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2022YFD1900200);National Natural Science Foundation of China(32160524);Science and Technology Plan of Gansu Province(20JR5RA037);Fuxi Outstanding Talent Cultivation Program of Gansu Agricultural University(GAUfx-04J01)


The study of green manure application methods on the accumulation and distribution of maize dry matter and yield has significant implications for optimizing regional maize cropping systems. Field experiments were conducted in the inland river oasis irrigation area of Gansu province, China, from 2020 to 2021 to investigate the effects of five treatments, including tillage with full quantity of green manure incorporated in the soil (TG), no-tillage with full quantity of green manure mulched on soil surface (NTG), tillage with root incorporated in the soil and above ground green manure removed (T), no-tillage with above ground manure removed (NT), and conventional tillage and leisure (CT), on dry matter accumulation, distribution, and yield of maize. The results showed that the NTG and TG treatments had significant advantages in dry matter accumulation, with above-ground dry matter accumulation increasing by 20.2% and 17.7%, respectively, compared with CT treatment at the fully mature stage. The above-ground dry matter accumulations of NTG and TG treatments were also significantly higher than T and NT treatments, with the increases of 20.2% and 7.3%, and 15.7% and 13.0%, respectively. In addition, NTG and TG treatments promoted the distribution of dry matter to the ear, increasing by 10.3% and 9.0%, respectively, compared with CT treatment. By fitting the Logistic equation, we found that the maximum growth rate (Vmax) and average growth rate (Vmean) of maize dry matter in the NTG and TG treatments were significantly higher than CT treatment, with the increase of 36.6%, 24.8%, and 20.2%, 17.7%, respectively. The NTG and TG treatments also significantly increased yield by 24.9% and 25.7%, respectively, compared with CT treatment, mainly attributed to the increase in the number of grains per ear. Therefore, no-tillage with full quantity of green manure mulched on soil surface and tillage with full quantity of green manure incorporated in soil treatments were beneficial for promoting dry matter accumulation and distribution and increasing yield of maize, with the former being the most effective and recommended green manure application method in this area.

Key words: green manure, dry matter accumulation, dry matter distribution, yield

Fig. 1

Mean daily precipitation and air temperature during growth period of crops in the study area from 2020 to 2021"

Table 1

Experiment treatment and code"

Treatment code
TG 春小麦7月收获后复种箭筈豌豆, 10月全量翻压, 翌年4月覆膜平作玉米。
Planting Vicia sativa after spring wheat harvest in July, tillage with full quantity of green manure incorporated in the soil in October, and flat planting maize with film mulching in April of the next year.
NTG 春小麦7月收获后复种箭筈豌豆, 10月地表覆盖免耕, 翌年4月覆膜平作玉米。
Planting Vicia sativa after spring wheat harvest in July, no-tillage with full quantity of green manure mulched on soil surface in October, and flat planting maize with film mulching in April of the next year.
T 春小麦7月收获后复种箭筈豌豆, 10月地上部收获移除根茬翻压, 翌年4月覆膜平作玉米。
Planting Vicia sativa after spring wheat harvest in July, harvesting and removing above ground green manure and tillage with root incorporated in the soil in October, and flat planting maize with film mulching in April of the next year.
NT 春小麦7月收获后复种箭筈豌豆, 10月地上部收获移除免耕, 翌年4月覆膜平作玉米。
Planting Vicia sativa after spring wheat harvest in July, no-tillage with above ground green manure harvested and removed in October, and flat planting maize with film mulching in April of the next year.
CT 春小麦收获后传统翻耕、休闲。
Conventional tillage and leisure without green manure after spring wheat harvest.

Fig. 2

Dynamics of dry matter accumulation of maize under different treatments TG: tillage with full quantity of green manure incorporated in the soil; NTG: no-tillage with full quantity of green manure mulched on soil surface; T: tillage with root incorporated in the soil and above ground green manure removed; NT: no-tillage with above ground manure removed; CT: conventional tillage and leisure. Error bar indicates the value of LSD in the figure."

Table 2

Logistic equation analysis on above-ground dry matter accumulation of maize under different treatments"

Regression equation
Maximum increase rate
(Vmax, kg hm-2 d-1)
Time of Vmax (t50, d)
Mean increase rate
(Vmean, kg hm-2 d-1)
2020 CT Y=30743/(1+e5.118-0.052t) 399.2 d 98.5 a 186.9 c 0.997
T Y=33142/(1+e5.657-0.058t) 480.7 bc 97.5 a 199.6 b 0.999
NT Y=32742/(1+e5.444-0.054t) 445.2 cd 100.1 a 197.5 c 0.998
NTG Y=35791/(1+e6.580-0.066t) 590.7 a 99.7 a 214.5 a 0.998
TG Y=35657/(1+e5.513-0.056t) 497.3 b 98.8 a 211.6 a 0.999
2021 CT Y=28733/(1+e4.601-0.045t) 323.2 d 102.2 a 159.7 c 0.987
T Y=32584/(1+e4.820-0.049t) 399.2 c 98.4 c 190.8 b 0.997
NT Y=29724/(1+e4.640-0.046t) 341.8 d 100.9 b 168.8 c 0.995
NTG Y=37641/(1+e5.889-0.058t) 545.8 a 101.5 a 219.8 a 0.995
TG Y=36125/(1+e5.116-0.051t) 460.6 b 100.3 bc 209.1 a 0.995

Fig. 3

Dry matter distribution ratio in different organs of maize under different treatments"

Fig. 4

Grain yield of maize under different treatments Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2. Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference within the same year among the treatments at the 0.05 probability level; Error bars indicate standard errors (n = 3) in the figure."

Table 3

Correlation coefficient and path coefficient of maize between grain yield and yield components"

Correlation coefficient with yield
Direct path coefficient
间接通径系数Indirect path coefficient
X1 X2 X3
X1 0.771** 0.099 0.698 -0.027
X2 0.856** 0.809 0.085 -0.038
X3 0.638** -0.049 0.054 0.633
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doi: 10.1007/s10705-012-9491-3
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