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    12 April 2024, Volume 50 Issue 4
    • REVIEW
      Function and application of calcium in plant growth and development
      WANG Yu, GAO Geng-Dong, GE Meng-Meng, CHANG Ying, TAN Jing, GE Xian-Hong, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, FU Ting-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  793-807.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34145
      Abstract ( 790 )   HTML ( 61 )   PDF (4101KB) ( 683 )   Save
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      Calcium is one of the essential elements in crops. It is widely present in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, and is of great significance for the growth and development of crops. Calcium is a difficult element to redistribute, and its absorption and transport are subject to transpiration. Therefore, crops often experience physiological calcium deficiency, which weakens their stress resistance and reduces both yield and quality. Calcium in crops has dual functions. It not only participates in the formation of cell walls and membranes but also plays a role in responding to various environmental stimuli and internal growth and development signals as an intracellular second messenger. The absorption and transportation of calcium in cells are essential for maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis and ensuring calcium signal transduction. In recent years, the function and application of calcium in crops have been extensively studied. In this study, we describe the distribution, absorption, transportation, and demand of calcium in crops, introduce the symptoms and causes of calcium deficiency in crops, review the nutritional structure functions of calcium, the second messenger function and the mechanism of calcium signal generation, transmission, and decoding, and summarize the role of calcium in crop growth and development, including its effects on yield, quality, and stress resistance. Meanwhile, the future research direction is proposed.

      CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Genetic analysis and two pairs of genes mapping in soybean mutant NT301 with disease-like rugose leaf
      WANG Ya-Qi, XU Hai-Feng, LI Shu-Guang, FU Meng-Meng, YU Xi-Wen, ZHAO Zhi-Xin, YANG Jia-Yin, ZHAO Tuan-Jie
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  808-819.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34106
      Abstract ( 225 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF (4623KB) ( 199 )   Save
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      Research on lesion mimic mutant, mining resistance genes, and developing superior disease-resistant new soybean varieties by molecular design breeding methods can contribute to the alleviating the environmental pollution caused by chemical pesticides and drug resistance to disease. In this study, the disease-like rugose leaf mutant NT301 obtained by 60Coγ mutagenesis as the male parent was crossed with W82, KF1, and KF35, respectively, to construct F2 and F2:3 segregating populations. Using SSR and SNP markers, target gene 1 (rl1) was narrowed to 937 kb on chromosome 18 with 66 genes and target gene 2 (rl2) was narrowed to 130 kb on chromosome 8 with 15 genes. The gene expression patterns of the wild type and NT301 were compared using gene chip technology, and the KEGG pathways of the differentially expressed genes were assessed. Moreover, semi quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR methods were used to analyze the relative expression levels of candidate genes on chromosome 8. The results showed that the relative expression level of Glyma.08G332500 in NT301 was four times higher than the wild type. In contrast, the expression levels of other genes showed no more than double difference. Therefore, we suggest that Glyma.08G332500 may be a candidate gene for NT301.

      Identification of candidate genes associated with drought tolerance based on QTL and transcriptome sequencing in Brassica napus L.
      LI Yang-Yang, WU Dan, XU Jun-Hong, CHEN Zhuo-Yong, XU Xin-Yuan, XU Jin-Pan, TANG Zhong-Lin, ZHANG Ya-Ru, ZHU Li, YAN Zhuo-Li, ZHOU Qing-Yuan, LI Jia-Na, LIU Lie-Zhao, TANG Zhang-Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  820-835.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34144
      Abstract ( 268 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (4758KB) ( 273 )   Save
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      Drought stress severely limits planting promotion and yield increase in Brassica napus L. Drought tolerance is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. Combining QTL and transcriptome is an effective method for identifying candidate genes associated with drought tolerance in B. napus. In this study, the seedlings of F2:6 and F2:8 recombinant inbred lines, constructed by Sanliu’ai (drought sensitivity line) and Kelina-2 (drought tolerance line), were treated with drought stress and well watering at seedling stage. Shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde content, and soluble sugar content were measured. The QTL and candidate intervals were identified based on genetic linkage maps, which were constructed using SSR and SNP markers with polymorphism. Subsequently, candidate genes associated with drought tolerance were screened by combining transcriptome sequencing of No11 (drought tolerance material) and No28 (drought sensitivity material). Drought stress decreased shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and leaf relative water content, and increased the contents of malondialdehyde and soluble sugar. QTL and candidate intervals related to drought tolerance were distributed on chromosome A01, A02, A06, A08, A09, A10, C02, C03, C04, C06, and C09. By transcriptome analysis of drought tolerance and sensitivity materials under well water, drought stress for 24, 36, and 48 h, the major different expression genes were enriched in the pathways associated with photosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosome, circadian rhythm and biosynthesis of keratin, cork and wax. A total of 28 candidate genes related to drought tolerance were identified by combining QTL and transcriptome. They coded FLC, bHLH105, TGA4, TEM1, ERF003, ACO3, CHLI1, LHCB6, PORC, etc., which had transcription factor activity, ethylene production and signal transduction, chlorophyll biosynthesis and binding, chlorophyll oxidoreductase and encoding ribosome proteins. These results could provide a basis for revealing drought tolerance mechanism and molecular breeding of drought tolerance variety in B. napus.

      Comprehensive evaluation of maize hybrids in the mega-environments of Huanghuaihai plain based on GYT biplot analysis
      YUE Hai-Wang, WEI Jian-Wei, LIU Peng-Cheng, CHEN Shu-Ping, BU Jun-Zhou
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  836-856.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33034
      Abstract ( 180 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (7608KB) ( 231 )   Save
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      The selection of superior maize hybrids under different climatic types and multiple traits has been a difficult problem for crop breeders. It is necessary to explore the combination of envirotyping techniques (ET) and multi-trait selection for the comprehensive evaluation of the participating hybrids in the summer maize regional trials in the Huanghuaihai plain, which can provide a theoretical basis for the rational layout of hybrids. In this study, based on the data of the Huanghuaihai summer maize group from 2016 to 2017 were used, 40 sites were divided into different mega-environments (ME) by envirotyping techniques based on 19 environmental covariates in the same year. The combination performance of agronomic traits such as growth period, plant height, ear height, lodging rate, empty ears rate, ear length, bare tip length, kernels row number, grains weight per ear, hundred-seed weight, stalk rot, and common smut in the different mega-environments was comprehensively evaluated by using the GYT biplot technique. The ANOVA of the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model showed that genotype (G), environment (E), and GE effects for the evaluated agronomic traits reached highly significant level (P<0.01) in 2016 and that genotype, environment, and GE effects for the evaluated agronomic traits reached highly significant level in 2017, except for the GE effect of ear height, which was not significant. The 40 sites located in eight provinces were divided into four MEs based on the meteorological factor information of the current year, and meteorological factors deficit by precipitation (dbp), maximum temperature (Tmax), vapor pressure deficit (vpd), and relative humidity (rh) showed a large trend during the five phenological periods. Among the hybrids evaluated in 2016, Hengyu 321 and Jifeng 118 both showed outstanding productivity and good stability in the four mega-environments, which belonged to the productive and stable genotypes. Among the genotypes evaluated in 2017, DK 56 showed a more harmonious yield-trait combination in ME2 and ME4, while DK205 and Hengyu 6105 performed better in ME1 and ME3, respectively. The control hybrid Zhengdan 958 had a good stability but an average productivity in the two-year regional trials. In conclusion, based on the combination of environtyping techniques to divide mega-environments and GYT biplot, we evaluated the high-yielding, the adaptability and stability of the evaluated hybrids, which could realize the fine positioning of genotype promotion, and provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive evaluation of multiple traits of genotypes in the summer maize area of the Huanghuaihai plain.

      Phenotypic identification and disease resistance mechanism analysis of rice lesion mutant lms1
      YU Yao, WANG Zi-Yao, ZHOU Si-Rui, LIU Peng-Cheng, YE Ya-Feng, MA Bo-Jun, LIU Bin-Mei, CHEN Xi-Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  857-870.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32010
      Abstract ( 251 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (14288KB) ( 284 )   Save
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      Lesion mimic mutants are important genetic materials for studying molecular mechanisms of plant cell death and disease resistance. Through radiation mutagenesis of a japonica rice cultivar ‘Wuyunjing 7’, a rare lesion mimic and disease-susceptible mutant lms1 was obtained. Compared to the wild type, the leaves of this mutant spontaneously appeared reddish-brown spots, and its plant height, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, and yield per plant decreased, but the weight of 1000-grain increased. In addition, the resistance of lms1 to rice bacterial blight decreased significantly, and tissue staining showed significant cell death and excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the mutant leaves. Genetic analysis showed that the phenotype of the lms1 mutant was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, and the lms1 gene was finely located between two molecular markers, Indel7 and Indel8, on chromosome 9 of rice with a physical distance of 62 kb. PCR amplification and sequencing of candidate genes in the localization interval showed that a 654 bp sequence was inserted into the first exon of the OsLMP1 (Lesion Mimic Phenotype 1) gene, which encodes a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, resulting in premature termination of protein translation. The protein compositions of lms1 mutants and WT controls were analyzed by a proteomics technology, which identified a total of 19 differentially accumulated proteins (7 upregulated and 12 down-regulated), mainly involved in redox, chlorophyll synthesis, photosynthesis, and other metabolic pathways. The above results provide a reference for further research on the function of the OsLMP1 gene and its molecular mechanism of regulating programmed cell death and disease resistance.

      Genome-wide association study and candidate gene prediction of nerolidol and linalool primeveroside content in tea plants
      ZHANG Li-Lan, YANG Jun, WANG Rang-Jian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  871-886.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34124
      Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (3143KB) ( 219 )   Save
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      Nerolidol and linalool are volatile terpene alcohols compounds widely distributed in plants. They are mainly existing in the form of primeveroside in tea plant tender shoots, and increasing their content is of great significance for improving the aroma quality of tea. The objective of this study is to reveal the genetic mechanism of nerolidol and linalool primeveroside in tea plants. 169 natural hybrid progenies were used as associated populations, and the contents of nerolidol and linalool primeveroside in tea plant tender shoots in three years were analyzed by using 675,245 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers evenly distributed uniformly on the chromosomes of tea genome. The results showed that the phenotypic variation of nerolidol and linalool primeveroside content were 60.83%-80.08%, and the broad-sense heritability were 51.29% and 61.87% respectively. Nerolidol and linalool primeveroside content were in normal distribution, suggesting that the traits have typical genetic characteristics of quantitative traits. A total of 50 significantly associated loci were detected by GWAS, and each locus contributed more than 20% to the variations of nerolidol and linalool primeveroside content, of which the maximum contribution rate of nerolidol primeveroside content (NPC) variation site was 38.73%, and the maximum contribution rate of linalool primeveroside content (LPC) variation site was 39.07%. Furthermore, the elite alles of the four major SNPs was identified by allelic variation effect analysis, among which one locus that could affected NPC and LPC simultaneously. Finally, a total of 59 genes were annotated in the confidence intervals of each significantly associated loci, and the most likely candidate genes were predicted according to the comparison with previous reports and gene functional annotations. These candidate genes were mainly involved in multiple biological processes such as sugar metabolism, transcriptional regulation, terpene biosynthesis. Among them, there were significant differences in the relative expression levels of 26 genes between green tea varieties and oolong tea varieties. This study provides new information for further dissecting the genetic mechanism of nerolidol and linalool primeveroside content in tea plants, and provides important gene resources for accelerating the breeding of new tea varieties with high quality.

      Genetic similarity and its detection accuracy analysis of wheat varieties based on SNP markers
      XU Nai-Yin, JIN Shi-Qiao, JIN Fang, LIU Li-Hua, XU Jian-Wen, LIU Feng-Ze, REN Xue-Zhen, SUN Quan, XU Xu, PANG Bin-Shuang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  887-896.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31044
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      The accuracy estimation of genetic similarity detection of crop varieties is an indispensable supplement and improvement to the application of SNP marker method in crop variety detection technology system. In this study, based on the cross-laboratory collaborative validation test data using SNP molecular marker method in 2021, the genetic similarity among wheat varieties and the accuracy of SNP molecular marker method in variety similarity detection were analyzed. The results showed as follows: (1) The overall accuracy of marker locus similarity detection among 55 wheat variety combinations by 10 laboratories was approximately 98%. (2) The genetic relationship between varieties view of GGE biplot delineated the genetic relationship between varieties. The genetic similarity between seven combinations of wheat varieties was over 95%, and the genetic similarity of other combinations was relatively lower. (3) The “trueness-precision” view and “accuracy ranking” view of GGE biplot identified that the similarity detection accuracy of the variety combination Jinmai 47/Linkang 11 was on average, Jimai 22/Yingbo 700 was relatively lower, while Luohan 7/Luohan 11 and other variety combinations were relatively high. (4) Significant differences were existed in detection accuracy among the 10 laboratories, and the performances in detection trueness, precision and accuracy of two laboratories were significantly worse than those of other laboratories. (5) The tolerance error of the trueness of each laboratory ranged from 1.3% to 1.9%, with an average of 1.5%. The tolerance error of accuracy was distributed between 1.5% and 2.0%, with an average of 1.7%. Among them, the tolerance errors of the detection trueness and accuracy of Lab2 and Lab3 were significantly worse than those of the other laboratories. In this study, the detection accuracy statistical model of SNP marker method in detecting crop variety similarity was constructed to analyze the detection accuracy and the corresponding tolerance error of variety combination in different laboratories, and the GGE biplot techniques were adopted to visualize the detection trueness, precision, and accuracy, so as to verify the accuracy and reliability of the detection method for variety locus similarity in each laboratory. Therefore, the findings in this study could provide the theoretical support and application examples for the accuracy evaluation of SNP marker detection technique system for genetic similarity among crop varieties.

      Whole genome identification and analysis of GRFs transcription factor family in wheat and its ancestral species
      WANG Tian-Ning, FENG Ya-Lan, JU Ji-Hao, WU Yi, ZHANG Jun, MA Chao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  897-813.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31046
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      Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) play important roles in plant growth, stress response, and hormone signal transduction. Systematic analysis of the distribution, structure, evolution, and expression characteristics of the GRF transcription factor family members in the genome of wheat and its ancestral species is of great significance for in-depth research on the biological functions of GRF family and the evolution of wheat. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to identify the whole genome of GRF members from five species (Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii, Triticum turgidum, and Triticum aestivum), and their physical and chemical properties, phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, promoter cis-regulatory element, and expression characteristics were also analyzed. The results showed that there were 15, 12, 19, 29, and 53 GRF members in Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii, Triticum turgidum, and Triticum aestivum, respectively. Through interspecific colinearity analysis, we found that 18 and 29 members of TtGRFs were colinear with TuGRFs and AesGRFs, and 36 and 37 members of TaGRFs were colinear with TtGRFs and AetGRFs, respectively. The prediction of promoter cis-regulatory element found that GRF gene had basic transcription elements and some binding elements with growth, development, and stress response. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that most GRF genes up-regulated under exogenous IAA, GA, and drought stress, but down-regulated under high temperature stress, indicating that members of the GRF family exerted a crucial influence in hormone response and stress. Phylogenetic analysis evidenced that there was a conserved and complex evolutionary relationship between the GRF members of wheat and its ancestral species. The above results provide a theoretical basis for the evolution and functional research of the GRF transcription factor family.

      Induction, identification and salt-alkali tolerance evaluation of tetraploid Haidao 86
      LI Hang-Yu, LIU Xin-Cheng, HE Wen-Ting, LIU Ke-Yi, QIAO Zhen-Hua, LYU Pin-Cang, ZHANG Xian-Hua, HE Yu-Chi, CAI De-Tian, SONG Zhao-Jian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  914-931.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.32035
      Abstract ( 194 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (5217KB) ( 197 )   Save
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      Polyploidization is an important trend in plant evolution. Polyploid plants often have stronger resistance to stress than diploid ones. Haidao 86 is a rice germplasm resource with strong salt-alkali tolerance, which has important utilization value for the application of saline-alkaline land and the increase of grain yield. To make full use of the advantages of enhanced stress resistance in polyploid plants and breed new tetraploid rice varieties with stronger salt-alkali tolerance, diploid Haidao 86 was submitted for in vitro chromosome doubling to create autotetraploid Haidao 86 in this study. After stress treatment with NaCl, Na2CO3, and PEG-6000, the phenotypic indexes, physiological and biochemical indexes of tetraploid and diploid Haidao86 at germination and seedling stages were detected to understand the salt-alkali tolerance characteristics and differences between them. The results showed as follows: (1) By in vitro chromosome doubling, tetraploid plants can be efficiently induced, with a doubling rate of 27.63%. (2) Compared with diploid Haidao 86, the nuclear DNA content and root tip chromosome number of tetraploid Haidao 86 was doubled. There were significant changes in morphology and agronomic traits, such as plants becoming shorter, stems becoming thicker, effective panicles per plant decreasing, grain and thousand grain weight increasing, total grains per panicle, and filled grains per panicle decreasing, and seed setting rate decreasing. (3) At germination stage, the germination energy, germination rate, shoot length, root length, root number, and water content of tetraploid Haidao 86 were the highest, followed by diploid Haidao 86, and the control Huanghuazhan was the lowest. Tetraploid Haidao 86 had the lowest salt alkali damage rate and grade, followed by diploid Haidao 86, and the control Huanghuazhan had the highest salt alkali damage rate and grade. (4) At seedling stage, tetraploid Haidao 86 had the highest proline and chlorophyll content, the lowest malondialdehyde content and relative electrical conductivity, the highest superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, followed by diploid Haidao 86, and the control Huanghuazhan had the lowest proline and chlorophyll content, the highest malondialdehyde content and relative electrical conductivity, and the lowest superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity. So tetraploid Haidao 86 had significant advantages in salt-alkali tolerance in both phenotypic indexes, and physiological and biochemical indexes, and had stronger salt-alkali tolerance than diploid Haidao 86. The results lay the foundation for in-depth research on the salt-alkali tolerance mechanism of Haidao 86, and provide the material and theoretical basis for the breeding of new salt-alkali resistant tetraploid rice varieties.

      Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of AhGA3ox gene family in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
      LI Hai-Fen, LU Qing, LIU Hao, WEN Shi-Jie, WANG Run-Feng, HUANG Lu, CHEN Xiao-Ping, HONG Yan-Bin, LIANG Xuan-Qiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  932-943.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34122
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      Gibberellin 3-beta-dioxygenase (GA3ox) is one of the key enzymes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, which can regulate plant growth and development by affecting gibberellin formation. There were no systematic studies in peanut genome. In this study, AhGA3ox family genes were identified from the genome database of cultivated peanut species by bioinformatics, and the distribution, structure, evolutionary characteristics, physical and chemical properties, promoter cis-acting elements were also analyzed. The relative expression pattern of AhGA3oxs in different peanut tissues was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the relative expression level of in shell of two peanut lines with different pod size were also analyzed. The results showed that 7 AhGA3oxs were distributed on 7 chromosomes of peanut, all of which were composed of 1 intron and 2 exons. All the AhGA3ox proteins contained 1 DIOX_N domain and 1 2OG-FeII_Oxy domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they were closely related to GA3ox proteins of soybean,. The AhGA3oxs showed obvious tissue expression specificity in root, stem, leaf, flower and peg. The expression levels of AhGA3oxs were not only different in different development stages of the peanut shell, but also different at the same development stage of the two lines. Interestingly, the relative expression levels in large pod lines were significantly higher than those in small pod lines at most development stages. Therefore, we predict that the gene expression of AhGA3ox gene family may promote the formation of large pod.

      Transcriptome analysis of tobacco in response to cadmium stress
      ZHANG Hui, ZHANG Xin-Yu, YUAN Xu, CHEN Wei-Da, YANG Ting
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  944-956.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34141
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      With the development of industrialization process in society, the problem of cadmium (Cd) pollution in soil is increasing. However, Nicotiana tabacum has a strong Cd enrichment capacity in leaves, which seriously affects its economic value. To investigate the mechanism by which tobacco responds to Cd stress, tobacco leaves were harvested from the culture solution with Cd concentrations of 0 μmol L-1 and 500 μmol L-1 for subsequent transcriptome sequencing. In this study, a total of 76.94 Gb clean data was obtained, with Q30 base percentage exceeding 95.43%. The results showed that 7735 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened under Cd stress conditions, including 4833 up-regulated genes and 2902 down-regulated genes. The reliability of transcriptome data was verified by qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expression patterns of candidate gene. Gene ontology (GO) annotation as well as Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed on differentially expressed transcripts. GO functional enrichment revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly distributed in metabolic processes, response to stimulus, cellular anatomical entity, catalytic activity, and transcription regulator activity. Meanwhile, KEGG analysis showed that the up-regulated differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biosynthesis of amino acids, carbon metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and citrate cycle. Down-regulated differentially expressed genes were primarily enriched in photosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolic pathways, and plant hormone signal transduction. Further analysis of plant hormone signal transduction pathways revealed that there were eight plant hormone pathways involved in response to cadmium stress in tobacco, and the relative expression patterns of different hormone gene member were also different. Experimental results from plant hormone application on tobacco leaves demonstrated that the regulation of gibberellins, brassinosteroids, and jasmonic acid pathways played roles in tobacco’s response to cadmium stress. The experimental results of Arabidopsis hormone signal mutant showed that plants respond to cadmium stress by regulating ethylene, gibberellin, brassinosteroid, and jasmonic acid pathways. In conclusion, this study not only explores the regulatory network of tobacco resistance to Cd stress, but also lays a theoretical foundation for the genetic improvement of crop resistance.

      Transcriptome analysis of a stigma exsertion mutant in mungbean
      SONG Meng-Yuan, GUO Zhong-Xiao, SU Yu-Fei, DENG Kun-Peng, LAN Tian-Jiao, CHENG Yu-Xin, BAO Shu-Ying, WANG Gui-Fang, DOU Jin-Guang, JIANG Ze-Kai, WANG Ming-Hai, XU Ning
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  957-968.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34080
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      Stigma exsertion has been widely used in hybrid breeding as an excellent trait to improve crop outcrossing rate, seed purity, and seed production cost. As a closed-pollinated crop, few stigma exsertion mutants have been reported in mungbean. A stigma exsertion mutant se2 was discovered in mungbean variety Jilyu 7 after chemical mutagination. In order to clarify the molecular mechanism of stigma exsertion, transcription-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was conducted on the next day's opening buds of se2 and its wild type Jilyu 7. A total of 572 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained in se2, among which 262 DEGs were up-regulated and 310 DEGs were down-regulated, based on the screening criteria of difference multiplier |log2(Fold Change)| ≥1 and P ≤ 0.05. In GO database, differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in biological processes such as metabolism and biosynthesis, and localized in regions such as apoplast, cell walls, and membranes, and mainly associated with molecular functions such as binding and redox. In the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genome (KEGG) database, differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Functional annotation revealed many genes related to cell wall synthesis and metabolism, cell division and cell expansion, and plant hormones. Therefore, we hypothesized that cell division, cell expansion, and plant hormone signaling processes of the keel flap in se2 mutants were affected, leading to stigma exsertion. This study laid a foundation for future investigations into the molecular mechanism of stigma exsertion in mungbean and its application in heterosis.

      Research on oil content screen with genomic selection and near infrared ray in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
      LU Qing, LIU Hao, LI Hai-Fen, WANG Run-Feng, HUANG Lu, LIANG Xuan-Qiang, CHEN Xiao-Ping, HONG Yan-Bin, LIU Hai-Yan, LI Shao-Xiong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  969-980.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34115
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      Oil content is a crucial trait for the yield of oil per unit area in peanut. This trait is controlled by multiple minor genes, and its avaliable tightly linked markers are very limited, resulting in low breeding accuracy in traditional molecular marker assisted selection. Genomic selection (GS), as a new breeding method, could achieve early prediction of quantitative traits. Near infrared ray (NIR) technology can non-destructively detect seed quality traits, such as oil content. By combining the advantages of the two breeding technologies, we have established a breeding technology that combined GS and NIR for breeding peanut oil content, and explored the factors that affected the accuracy of GS for peanut oil content. This study lays a theoretical foundation for peanut molecular breeding. Here, a total of 216 recombinant inbred lines were used as a training population. The F2 (139), F3 (464), and F4 (505) were used to construct the breeding populations. Genotyping was carried out using the self-developed “PeanutGBTS40K” liquid chip. The breeding application of oil content was conducted using a GS and NIR jointed breeding technology, and evaluated its breeding effects. The results showed that after genotyping the training population, a total of 30,355 high-quality SNPs were obtained, and used for 11 GS models selection analyses. The rrBLUP model showed the highest accuracy, followed by randomforest and svmrbf. The GS prediction accuracy of F2, F3, and F4 was 0.116, 0.128, and 0.119, respectively, using recombinant inbred lines as the training population. Accordingly, the prediction accuracy was 0.116, 0.131, and 0.160, respectively, using a superimposed training population. Compared with the GS, the GS-NIR can improve oil content by 1.8%, 2.7%, and 3.4% for each generation. Compared with the NIR, there was no significant difference (0.1%, 0.06%, and 0.07%). Compared with the GS, the NIR can significantly improve oil content by 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.3% for each generation. Through the combined technologies, compared to F2, the oil content of F3 and F4 increased by 1.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Finally, a total of 16 improved lines were obtained in F4, of which 10 lines had oil content ≥ 55.0%. Among them, two lines (SF4_201 and SF4_379) had a theoretical yield increase of 7.0% and 11.1%, respectively, compared to the control variety. This study suggested that oil content could be effectively improved through GS combined with NIR in peanut.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Effects of different sowing space on photosynthetic characteristics after anthesis and grain yield of wheat
      ZHANG Zhen, ZHAO Jun-Ye, SHI Yu, ZHANG Yong-Li, YU Zhen-Wen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  981-990.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31042
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      In order to clarify the influence of different sowing width on wheat grain yield and its physiological causes, in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 winter wheat growing seasons, two sowing treatments were set under field test conditions at Shijiawangzi Wheat Test Station, Xiaomeng Town, Yanzhou District, Jining City, Shandong Province. Treatment 1 was 8 cm (B1); Treatment 2 is broadcast at 3 cm (B2). The effects of different sowing plots on photosynthetic characteristics, canopy light interception characteristics, dry matter accumulation and transport, and grain yield of wheat were studied. The results showed that the leaf area index and photosynthetically active radiation interception rate of B1 treatment were significantly higher than those of B2 treatment, and the photosynthetically active radiation transmittance of B1 treatment was significantly lower than that of B2 treatment. The relative chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of flag leaves under B1 treatment were significantly higher than B2 treatment, and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration was significantly lower than B2 treatment. Dry matter accumulation at anthesis and maturity, dry matter distribution in seeds after anthesis and dry matter accumulation at maturity were significantly higher under B1 treatment than B2 treatment. The number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight of B1 treatment were significantly higher than those of B2 treatment. Compared with B2 treatment, the two-year average grain yield and light energy utilization rate of B1 treatment increased by 6.12% and 7.71%, respectively. In summary, B1 treatment with a sowing width of 8 cm can shape a reasonable canopy structure, improve the photosynthetic performance of leaves after anthesis, and facilitate the production of photosynthetic substances of plants after anthesis, thus obtaining the highest grain yield and light energy utilization rate, which is the optimal treatment under the conditions of this experiment. This research provides a theoretical basis for wide-sowing technology of wheat with water-saving, high-yield and high-efficiency.

      Spectral characteristics of winter wheat canopy and estimation of aboveground biomass under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration
      HUANG Hong-Sheng, ZHANG Xin-Yue, JU Hui, HAN Xue
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  991-1003.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31041
      Abstract ( 135 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (871KB) ( 274 )   Save
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      The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the canopy spectral characteristics of winter wheat during the whole growth period and to establish quantitative relationships between above-ground biomass (AGB) and spectral parameters based on the screened sensitive bands. For this purpose, during the winter wheat growing season of 2021-2022, two treatment levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration (ACO2, (420±20) μL L-1) and elevated CO2 concentration (ECO2, (550±20) μL L-1) were set based on the Free Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment System (Mini-FACE), and the changes of spectral features were analyzed under elevated CO2 concentration. AGB sensitive bands were screened and the estimation models of AGB were constructed based on the successive projections algorithm (SPA), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), and partial least squares regression (PLSR). The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased AGB in winter wheat at jointing and anthesis stages. The red-edge reflectance, near red edge reflectance, and red-edge area increased at jointing stage and decreased at anthesis and maturity stages. The positions of the blue-edge, yellow-edge, and red-edge were shifted at different growth stages. The sensitive spectral bands of AGB are mainly distributed in the red-edge and near red-edge bands, and the elevated CO2 concentration narrows the range of the sensitive bands of AGB, but does not affect the estimation of AGB. The SMLR and PLSR models of AGB both achieved high estimation accuracy (R2 > 0.8), where the characteristic parameters such as R799', Dy, SDy, and PRI in the SMLR model were significantly correlated with AGB, with an R2 of 0.866. The PLSR model (R2 > 0.9) outperformed the SMLR model in terms of estimation accuracy and stability. This study can provide the theoretical basis and technical methods for the remote sensing monitoring of winter wheat growth and development under elevated CO2 concentration in the future.

      Assessment of the cultivation suitability and suitable regions of Gastrodia elata under climate change in China
      HAO Jia-Le, ZHAO Jiong-Chao, ZHAO Ming-Yu, WANG Yi-Xuan, LU Jie, SHI Xiao-Yu, GAO Zhen-Zhen, CHU Qing-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1004-1014.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34098
      Abstract ( 254 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (6360KB) ( 319 )   Save
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      Climate change affects species growth areas by altering the suitability of their habitats. As a rare and endangered medical plant in China, the evaluation of the suitable distribution area and the impact of climate change on the suitability of Gastrodia elata can provide important information for the production layout of Gastrodia elata. In this study, the MaxEnt model was used to simulate the spatial distribution and changes of the suitability and suitable area for Gastrodia elata cultivation from 1961 to 2020, based on geographic distribution and environmental data. Results showed that the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of Gastrodia elata were solar radiation from May to July, precipitation in October and November, the minimum temperature in the coldest month, and vegetation type. The high suitable areas for Gastrodia elata cultivation in China were mainly distributed in the southwestern region around the Sichuan Basin. 1961 to 2020, the suitability for Gastrodia elata cultivation had shown a fluctuating increasing trend, with the area of improved suitability accounting for 9.10% of the total land area of China, mainly concentrated in Southwest China, the parts of central and eastern China, and Shaanxi province. The overall decrease in solar radiation from May to July over the past 60 years was the main reason for the increased suitability of asparagus cultivation. This study provided a scientific basis for the production and artificial cultivation site selection of Gastrodia elata in China, which provided reference significance for formulating strategies to respond to future climate change.

      Physiological mechanisms in response to waterlogging during seedling stage of Brassica napus L.
      ZHOU Xiang-Yu, XU Jin-Song, XIE Ling-Li, XU Ben-Bo, ZHANG Xue-Kun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1015-1029.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34116
      Abstract ( 183 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (8172KB) ( 215 )   Save
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      The Yangtze River basin is the main producing area of rapeseeds in China, which is wet and rainy all the year round, and the rapeseed-rice rotation system is implemented in the producing area, resulting in frequent waterlogging. To explore the effects of waterlogging at seedling stage on phenotypic traits, physiological characteristics, photosynthesis, relative gene transcriptional levels, and the regulation of exogenous hormone inhibitors on rapeseed damage under waterlogging, a pot experiment was conducted, and the strong waterlogging tolerant line YZ12, medium waterlogging tolerant line YZ45, and weak waterlogging tolerant line YZ59 were used as the experimental materials. The results indicated that flooding stress severely inhibited the growth of rapeseed, and root activity could be used as an indicator to measure the impact of flooding stress on rapeseed growth. The observation of root cell ultrastructure showed that flooding stress led to plasmolysis and organelle fragmentation of rape root cells. The organelle of strong and medium waterlogging resistant rape was less damaged, and it could maintain a more normal cell morphology under flooding stress. The relative transcriptional levels of cytoskeletal genes Bnamicrotubule1.A3, Bnatubulin-α2.C3, Bnatubulin-β7.C6, and Bnalamin-like.A2 in rape roots were significantly decreased under flooding stress, which were 0.2-0.5 times that of the control (CK) samples. The relative expressional levels of BnaPDH.C9, BnaLDH.A1, and BnaADH.A7 associated to anaerobic respiration were significantly increased, which was 3-6 times higher than that of CK, and higher expression levels were observed in medium and strong waterlogging tolerant rapeseed seedlings than in weak waterlogging tolerant line YZ59. During waterlogging, the activities of POD and SOD increased first and then decreased, while the activity of CAT and the content of MDA increased. Among them, the enzyme activities of YZ12 line such as POD, SOD, CAT were relatively high, and the increase of MDA was small. The photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content of rapeseed leaves were seriously affected by flooding stress. The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of rapeseed decreased significantly, and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased significantly, and the change range of the weak waterlogging tolerant line YZ59 was larger than that of the other two lines. Under flooding stress, ET and ABA contents of rapeseed increased significantly. Among the three lines, YZ12 had higher ET content, while YZ59 had higher ABA content. The relative transcriptional levels of ET related genes BnaACO1.C8, BnaERF73.C6 were significantly up-regulated in the strong waterlogging tolerant line YZ12, while the relative transcriptional level of ABA-related gene BnaZEP.A7 was up-regulated in the weak waterlogging tolerant line YZ59. Exogenous application of hormone inhibitors could improve the damage of flooding stress to rapeseed, but the effects of different exogenous hormone inhibitors varied significantly. In conclusion, there were differences in physiological metabolism, photosynthesis, hormone, and gene transcriptional levels in response to flooding stress at seedling stage in B. napus with different waterlogging tolerance. B. napus responsed to flooding stress by regulating the relative transcription levels of genes related to cytoskeleton, anaerobic respiration, hormone metabolism, causing changes in antioxidant enzyme activity, hormone levels, photosynthetic efficiency, root ultrastructure and root vitality.

      Estimation of maize grain yield under drought stress based on continuous wavelet transform
      ZOU Jia-Qi, WANG Zhong-Lin, TAN Xian-Ming, CHEN Liao-Yuan, YANG Wen-Yu, YANG Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1030-1042.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33030
      Abstract ( 139 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (7923KB) ( 86 )   Save
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      The use of hyperspectral remote sensing technology to monitor crop water status and grain yield is important for regulating crop growth, optimizing water management and improving yield formation. Zhenghong 505 was selected as the maize variety in this study, to analyze the quantitative relationship between canopy water content (CWC) and grain yield of maize at jointing stage (V6), tasseling stage (VT), and filling stage (R2), four drought stress treatments (well-watered, mild, intermediate and severe drought) were conducted in the experimental fields of Ya’an and Renshou in Sichuan Province from 2018 to 2019. The spectral reflectance data were processed using vegetation indices and continuous wavelet transform, and a linear regression method was used to construct a quantitative CWC inversion model to explore the effectiveness of CWC as a bridge to establish a spectral inversion model for maize grain yield estimation. The results showed that the CWC estimation models using wavelet features was better than that of vegetation indices, and the linear regression models constructed with wavelet features gaus3770,64, rbio3.31635,2 and rbio3.3838,2 at the V6, VT, and R2 stages had high test accuracy with the R2 of 0.770, 0.291, and 0.233, respectively. The linear regression models established between CWC and maize grain yield all reached highly significant levels (P < 0.01), with R2 of 0.596, 0.366 and 0.439 at the V6, VT, and R2 stages, respectively. The yield prediction model based on the basis of spectral reflectance was the best validated with the wavelet feature gaus3770,64 (R2 = 0.577, RMSE = 1.625 t hm-2) at V6 stage, which can be used as the best period for predicting maize grain yield. Therefore, the “spectral reflectance-canopy water content-yield” modeling method proposed in this study can achieve an accurate estimation of maize grain yield and provide a theoretical basis for future large-scale monitoring of maize productivity.

      Effects of nitrogen application rate on cotton yield and nitrogen utilization under long-term straw return to the field
      LIU Cheng-Min, MEN Ya-Qi, QIN Du-Lin, YAN Xiao-Yu, ZHANG Le, MENG Hao, SU Xun-Ya, SUN Xue-Zhen, SONG Xian-Liang, MAO Li-Li
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1043-1052.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.34118
      Abstract ( 145 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (477KB) ( 202 )   Save
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      Nitrogen application can increase the availability of nitrogen in the soil, thereby improving plant photosynthesis and promoting the absorption of nitrogen and the accumulation of dry matter, ultimately leading to an increase in crop yield. However, it is unclear whether the nitrogen application rate should be adjusted under long-term high nitrogen straw returning conditions. To investigate the effects of nitrogen application rate on cotton photosynthesis rate, dry matter and nutrient accumulation and distribution, yield, nitrogen utilization, and soil nitrogen changes under long-term straw return conditions, we set up seven nitrogen application rates of pure nitrogen 0 (N0), 150 (N150), 180 (N180), 210 (N210), 240 (N240), 270 (N270), and 300 (N300) kg hm-2. Compared with the commonly used nitrogen application rate (N300) in field agriculture, from 2020 to 2021, a 30% reduction in nitrogen (N210) achieved higher yields, 1853.62 kg hm-2 and 1872.43 kg hm-2 respectively, while a 40% reduction in nitrogen (N180) only maintained a high yield of 1743.68 kg hm-2 in the first year. In 2021, the net photosynthetic rate, dry matter and nutrient accumulation of N210 were higher than that of N180, and there was no significant difference between them in the dry matter and nutrient partition coefficient of reproductive organs and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, but the apparent nitrogen surplus of N180 soil was significantly reduced by 39.15%. In summary, under long-term stubble returning conditions, applying 210 kg hm-2 of nitrogen is more suitable for achieving the goal of reducing weight and promoting yield in the northwest cotton region of Shandong.

      Effects of organic fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer nitrogen on yield, quality, and nitrogen efficiency of waxy maize
      LOU Fei, ZUO Yi-Ping, LI Meng, DAI Xin-Meng, WANG Jian, HAN Jin-Ling, WU Shu, LI Xiang-Ling, DUAN Hui-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1053-1064.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33038
      Abstract ( 212 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (557KB) ( 374 )   Save
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      The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer substitution of some chemical fertilizers on ear yield, quality, and nitrogen utilization of fresh waxy maize, and to explore the optimum organic fertilizer substitution ratio for chemical fertilizer in waxy maize production, which can provide the theoretical basis for the high-quality cultivation of fresh waxy maize in Hebei Plain. The field trials were conducted in 2020 and 2021 using the waxy maize variety Sidanuo 41 as the experimental material. A randomized zonal experimental design was used to set up 6 treatments: no nitrogen application (T1), quantitative fertilizer nitrogen (T2), organic fertilizer substituting 20% chemical fertilizer nitrogen (T3), organic fertilizer substituting 40% chemical fertilizer nitrogen (T4), organic fertilizer substituting 60% chemical fertilizer nitrogen (T5), and organic fertilizer substituting 100% chemical fertilizer nitrogen (T6). The results showed that substituting of T3, T4, T5 treatments with commercial organic fertilizer increased fresh ears yield of waxy maize, increased by 3.08%, 13.61%, and 3.20%, respectively. Compared with T2 treatment, nitrogen use efficiency treatment with T3-T6 were decreased, the partial productivity and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer of T3-T5 treatments were significantly increased. The appearance and tasting quality scores of waxy maize under the substituting of commercial organic fertilizer were higher than T2 treatment, and the total score of T4 treatment was the highest, mainly because the substituting some chemical fertilizer by organic fertilizer increased the total starch and pullulan content of grain, reduced the content of grain protein and soluble sugar, and improved grain texture characteristics, increased grain hardness, elasticity and chewiness, and decreased cohesion. In conclusion, under the condition of a total nitrogen application rate of 180 kg hm-2, the substituting 40% chemical fertilizer nitrogen (T4) with organic fertilizer can improve the yield and quality of fresh ears of waxy maize.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Effect of reduced irrigation and combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on photosynthetic physiology, grain yield and quality of maize in northwestern irrigation areas
      WU Xia-Yu, LI Pan, WEI Jin-Gui, FAN Hong, HE Wei, FAN Zhi-Long, HU Fa-Long, CHAI Qiang, YIN Wen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1065-1079.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.33041
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      Aiming at the problems of high water and fertilizer inputs and low utilization efficiency for maize production in the Oasis irrigation areas, the effects of different irrigation levels and equal nitrogen application ratios of organic-inorganic fertilizer on photosynthesis physiology, grain yield and quality of maize were investigated to obtain the optimal irrigation levels and nitrogen (N) application ratios of organic-inorganic fertilizer. A filed experiment was conducted with the two-factor split-plot, two irrigation levels (conventional irrigation and 20% reduced irrigation) were used in the main plot and five organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer ratios (all inorganic N fertilizer, 75% inorganic N fertilizer and 25% organic fertilizer, 50% inorganic N fertilizer and 50% organic fertilizer, 25% inorganic N fertilizer and 75% organic fertilizer, and all organic fertilizer) were used in the split-plot in order to investigate the response of maize photosynthetic physiology, grain yield, and quality to different water and nitrogen fertilizer management patterns. Compared with the conventional irrigation (I2), 20% reduction irrigation (I1) reduced maize leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic potential (LAD), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), and stomatal conductance (Gs), and increased intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), grain protein content, and grain threonine content; organic and inorganic fertilizers have a significant effect on maize photosynthetic physiological indicators, grain yield and quality, with the increase in the proportion of organic fertilizers, the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on maize will gradually change from a positive effect to a negative effect; compared with traditional irrigation combined with the full application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (I2F1), 20% reduction of irrigation combined with 75% inorganic nitrogen fertilizer and 25% organic fertilizer (I1F2) increased the maize mean leaf area index (MLAI) by 6.9%-7.1%, and there was no significant change in total photosynthetic potential (TLAD), and the LAI of I1F2 was increased by 5.0%-11.4% from silking to doughing in maize, and LAD was increased by 7.5%-9.1% from silking to doughing. I1F2 increased chlorophyll content (SPAD), Pn, Tr, and Gs, and decreased Ci in maize from tasseling to doughing compared with I2F1. Compared with I2F1, I1F2 increased grain yield by 12.0%-12.5% in maize, increased grain protein content by 6.9%-18.9%, and Phe, Lys, Thr, Trp, Leu, Ile, and Val contents of grain in maize were increased by 29.6%-43.3%, 77.7%-93.3%, 49.7%-51.5%, 18.4%-28.6%, 39.5%-46.0%, 57.4%-78.1%, and 35.1%-41.3%, respectively. Other treatments also had some effects on maize photosynthetic physiology, seed yield and quality indexes, but the combined two-year results showed that the effects of I1F2 were more significant. Therefore, the 20% reduction in irrigation (3240 m3 hm-2) combined with 75% inorganic chemical N fertilizer (270 kg hm-2) and 25% organic fertilizer (90 kg hm-2) treatment was an appropriate water and N management model to achieve high yield and quality of maize production in the northwestern irrigation areas.

      Alleviative effect of salicylic acid on wheat seedlings with stripe rust based on transcriptome and differentially expressed genes
      QI Xue-Li, LI Ying, LI Chun-Ying, HAN Liu-Peng, ZHAO Ming-Zhong, ZHANG Jian-Zhou
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2024, 50(4):  1080-1090.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2024.31053
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      In order to explore the mechanism of exogenous salicylic acid in improving the resistance of wheat stripe rust, using, the untreated wheat seedlings (control), stripe rust wheat seedlings (SR), and salicylic acid treated stripe rust wheat seedlings (SA-SR) as the experimental materials were investigated using Zhoumai 18. After 15 days of treatment, the wheat seedlings were identified for disease resistance, amino acid detection, transcriptome sequencing, and fluorescence quantification. The results indicated that the exogenous salicylic acid could significantly reduce the pathogenicity of stripe rust in wheat seedlings. The content of amino acids in leaves in the SR group was generally reduced, while there was no significant difference between the SA-SR group and the control group pretreated with salicylic acid, indicating that the content of amino acids in leaves was significantly reduced due to wheat stripe rust. GO enrichment indicated that the differentially expressed genes of SR and SA-SR groups were enriched in biological processes related to photosynthesis involving cell components such as chloroplasts and thylakoids. KEGG pathway enrichment showed that both SR and SA-SR subgroups were significantly enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites played an important role in plant disease resistance or stress resistance.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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