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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (12): 1979-1990.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04023


Inversion of nitrogen accumulation in potato leaf with different spectral indices

HAN Kang(), YU Jing, SHI Xiao-Hua, CUI Shi-Xin, FAN Ming-Shou*()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010019, Inner Mongolia, China
  • Received:2020-02-05 Accepted:2020-08-19 Online:2020-09-02 Published:2020-09-02
  • Contact: FAN Ming-Shou E-mail:hankanghhht@163.com;fmswh@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31960637);Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia(2019BS03021)


As an important derivative parameter of optical spectrum, spectral index could reflect the leaf nitrogen accumulation of crops. However, the sensitive spectral index varies with different environments and crops. In order to obtain the sensitive spectral index for potato in Inner Mongolia, field experiments were conducted in Chayouzhongqi and Hangjinqi of Inner Mongolia from 2016 to 2018, and during the potato growth period, the canopy spectrum information of potato cultivars Kexin 1 and Shepody was obtained using a handheld spectrometer (SVC HR-1024i). Based on the previous spectral indices algorithm, the correlation coefficients between the leaves nitrogen accumulation of potato (LNA) and each of the 22 spectral indices were compared, and the nitrogen nutrition diagnosis models of potato at critical growth stages were established using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. The results were as follows: (1) the red edge area was the main spectral band for inverting the LNA of potato, and Vogelmann red edge index 2 (VOG2), Vogelmann red edge index 3 (VOG3) were the sensitive spectral indices for potato LNA in Inner Mongolia, which composed of 715, 720, 726, 734, and 747 nm of spectral bands. (2) At the seedling stage, tuber formation stage or whole growth stage, the quadratic regression models (R 2 > 0.75) between VOG3 and LNA could estimate better the LNA of potato under different nitrogen levels using VOG3. (3) The root mean square error (RMSE) of the models was 4.04-6.69, 9.45-10.89, 9.17-13.45 kg hm -2, indicating the accuracy of using the models to predict potato LNA varies with potato growth stage, and it was lower at late growth stages, while it is higher for whole growth duration. In summary, the staged modeling for potato early growth period and the unified modeling for potato later growth period could accurately estimate the potato LNA, which provides a theoretical basis and method for the application of spectral indices in the nitrogen nutrition diagnosis of potato.

Key words: potato, leaf nitrogen accumulation, spectral index, monitoring models

Table 1

Nitrogen application plan (kg N hm-2)"

Base fertilizer
追肥Top dressing
出苗后10 d
10 days after emergence
出苗后25 d
25 days after emergence
N0 0 0 0
N1 75 15 60
N2 75 45 180
N3 75 118.5 256.5
N4 75 150 375

Table 2

General information for the experiment"

Sowing date
Harvest date
Emergence date
Data collection date
Exp.1 2016 察右中旗
Kexin 1
5/27 9/24 6/18 7/8, 7/23, 8/7, 8/22
Exp.2 2016 察右中旗
5/27 9/24 6/18 7/8, 7/23, 8/7, 8/22
Exp.3 2016 杭锦旗
Kexin 1
5/27 9/24 6/20 7/10, 7/25, 8/9, 8/24
Exp.4 2017 察右中旗
Kexin 1
5/11 9/20 6/13 7/3, 7/18, 8/2, 8/17
Exp.5 2018 察右中旗
Kexin 1
5/3 9/28 6/10 6/30, 7/15, 7/30, 8/14

Table 3

SVC HR-1024i spectral resolution and sampling interval"

Wavelength range (nm)
Spectral resolution (nm)
Spectral sampling interval (nm)
350-1000 ≤3.3 ≤1.5
1000-1890 ≤9.5 ≤3.8
1890-2500 ≤6.5 ≤2.5

Table 4

Spectral index formula"

Spectral index
Calculation formula
1 Simple Ratio Index (SRI) R800 ? R680 Sim et al. [13]
2 Normalized Difference Vegetation (NDVI) (R800 - R680) ? (R800 + R680) Rouse et al. [14]
3 Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) R800 - R680 Richardson et al. [15]
4 Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) (R800 - R445) ? (R800 + R680) Penuelas et al. [16]
5 Modified Red Edge Normalized Difference
Vegetation (mND705)
(R750 - R705) ? (R750 + R705 - 2 × R445) Sims et al. [13]
6 Modified Simple Ratio Index (mSR705) (R750 - R445) ? (R705 - R445) Sims et al. [13]
7 Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) (R531 - R570) ? (R570 + R531) Gamon et al. [17]
8 Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI) (R680 - R500) ? R750 Merzlyak et al. [18]
9 The MERIS terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) (R750 - R710) ? (R710 - R680) Dash et al. [19]
10 Modified Chlorophyll Absorption in Refectance
Index (MCARI)
[(R700 - R670) - 0.2 × (R700 - R550)] × (R700 ? R670) Dash et al. [19]
11 Optimized Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI) (1 + 0.16) × (R800 - R670) ? (R800 + R670 + 0.16) Rondeaux et al. [20]
12 Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption In
Reflectance Index (TCARI)
3 × [(R700 - R670) - 0.2 × (R700 - R550)] × (R700 ? R670) Haboudane et al. [21]
13 Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) 2.5 × (R800 - R680) ? (R800 + 6 × R680 - 7.5 × R450 + 1) Huete et al. [22]
14 Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) (R800 - 2 × R680 + R450) ? (R800 + 2 × R680 - R450) Kaufman et al. [23]
15 705nm Normalized Difference Vegetation (NDVI705) (R750 - R705) ? (R750 + R705) Gitelson et al. [24]
16 Vogelmann Red Edge Index 1 (VOG1) R740 ? R720 Zarco-Tejada et al. [25]
17 Vogelmann Red Edge Index 2 (VOG2) (R734 - R747) ? (R715 + R726) Zarco-Tejada et al. [25]
18 Vogelmann Red Edge Index 3 (VOG3) (R734 - R747) ? (R715 + R720) Zarco-Tejada et al. [25]
19 Carotenoid Reflectance Index 1 (CRI1) 1 ? R510 - 1 ? R550 Gitelson et al. [26]
20 Carotenoid Reflectance Index 2 (CRI2) 1 ? R510 - 1 ? R700 Gitelson et al. [26]
21 Anthocyanin Reflectance Index 1 (ARI1) 1 ? R550 - 1 ? R700 Gitelson et al. [27]
22 Anthocyanin Reflectance Index 2 (ARI2) R800 × (1 ? R550 - 1 ? R700) Gitelson et al. [28]

Table 5

Number of samples in modeling set and validation set"

Growth stage
样本数量Number of samples
建模集Modeling set 验证集Validation set
苗期Seedling stage 45 30
块茎形成期Tuber formation stage 45 30
块茎膨大期Tuber expansion stage 45 30
淀粉积累期Starch accumulation stage 45 30
全生育时期Total growth stages 180 120

Fig. 2

Effects of different nitrogen application rates on leaf nitrogen accumulation of potato (Exp.1) LNA is the leaf nitrogen accumulation. Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. Different lowercase letters indicates significant difference at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 3

Effects of different nitrogen application rates on canopy reflectance a: full-wave band; b: visible light band; c: red edge band. Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1."

Table 6

Regression models of potato spectral indices and leaf nitrogen accumulation"

Growth stage
Monitoring model equation
苗期Seedling stage LNA = - 269.271 × VOG3 - 16.5 0.882**
LNA = 1976.733 × VOG32 + 211.143 × VOG3 + 11.236 0.913**
LNA = 1.712 × e-17.519 × VOG3 0.908**
块茎形成期Tuber formation stage LNA = - 323.22 × VOG3 - 21.257 0.771**
LNA = 1393.778 × VOG32 + 162.368×VOG3 + 17.484 0.790**
LNA = 4.841 × e-10.411 × VOG3 0.740**
块茎膨大期Tuber expansion stage LNA = - 403.678 × VOG3 - 34.233 0.723**
LNA = 1020.908 × VOG32 - 20.441 × VOG3 - 0.711 0.741**
LNA = 4.249 × e-11.184 × VOG3 0.741**
淀粉积累期Starch accumulation stage LNA = - 279.991 × VOG2 - 8.249 0.550**
LNA = - 654.51 × VOG22 - 464.961 × VOG2 - 20.102 0.555**
LNA = 4.894 × e-11.837 × VOG2 0.570**
全生育时期Total growth stages LNA = - 328.711 × VOG3 - 21.683 0.765**
LNA = 832.343 × VOG32 - 46.576 × VOG3 - 0.242 0.778**
LNA = 3.867 × e-11.534 × VOG3 0.773**

Fig. 5

Relationship between spectral index and leaf nitrogen accumulation LNA is the leaf nitrogen accumulation. a: seedling stage; b: tuber formation stage; c: total growth stages. ** indicates significant difference at the 0.01 probability level."

Table 7

Examination of monitoring model for nitrogen accumulation in potato leaves"

Growth stage
均方根误差RMSE (kg hm-2)
Exp.2 Exp.3
苗期Seedling stage 6.69 4.04
块茎形成期Tuber formation stage 9.45 10.89
块茎膨大期Tuber expansion stage 13.38 9.12
淀粉积累期Starch accumulation stage 16.18 14.13
全生育时期Total growth stages 13.45 9.17

Fig. 6

Relationship between estimated values and observed values of leaf nitrogen accumulation a: seedling stage; b: tuber formation stage; c: tuber bulking stage; d: starch accumulation stage; e: total growth stages."

Fig. 4

Correlation between spectral indices and leaf nitrogen accumulation a: seedling stage; b: tuber formation stage; c: tuber bulking stage; d: starch accumulation stage; e: total growth stages. Abbreviations are the same as in Table 4."

Fig. 1

Location and distribution of experimental plots N0-N4 represent 0, 150, 300, 450, 600 kg hm-2 nitrogen fertilizer levels, respectively; a, b, and c are three replications."

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