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Table of Content

    12 December 2020, Volume 46 Issue 12
    • REVIEW
      Physiological response of crop to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: a review
      Yan-Sheng LI, Jian JIN, Xiao-Bing LIU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1819-1830.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.02027
      Abstract ( 686 )   HTML ( 69 )   PDF (1292KB) ( 921 )   Save
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      The increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) has substantially had a huge impact on agricultural production. As the sole substrate for photosynthesis, the increase of atmospheric [CO2] stimulates the net photosynthetic rate, thus promoting the biomass accumulation and yield level in many crops. However, the ‘fertilization’ effect of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] on crop production is less than theoretical expectation, and elevated [CO2] increases the health risk due to the decline in grain quality. The relevant mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of elevated [CO2] on crop photosynthesis system, reviewed various responses of key photosynthesis indicators, such as the leaf net photosynthetic rate, the intercellular [CO2] of leaves, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vc, max), and the capacity of Rubp-regeneration (Jmax) in different crops, in response to the elevated atmospheric [CO2]. Based on the C-N metabolism of the whole plant, we summarized two prevailing hypotheses about the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity under elevated atmospheric [CO2], namely the source-sink regulation mechanism and N limitation mechanism, respectively. We summarized the influence of elevated [CO2] on the nutritional quality of the grain, such as the change in the protein, oil, mineral elements, and vitamin concentrations. Furthermore, we also reviewed the potential interactive effect of the elevated atmospheric temperature and [CO2] on crop growth. Finally, the main research directions of this field in the future are proposed. In summary, this review can provide theoretical reference for accurately assessing the changes in crop yield and quality under climate change conditions, maximizing the ‘fertilization’ effect of elevated [CO2], and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change on crop production.

      CROP GENETICS & BREEDING?GERMPLASM RESOURCES?MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Phenotypic analysis and fine mapping of dek101 in maize
      Xin-Ran SONG, Shu-Ting HU, Kai ZHANG, Ze-Jin CUI, Jian-Sheng LI, Xiao-Hong YANG, Guang-Hong BAI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1831-1838.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03017
      Abstract ( 492 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF (2166KB) ( 367 )   Save
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      As the storage organ of maize, kernel development and accumulation of storage production directly determines maize yield and quality. In this study, a stable defective kernel mutant, named as defective kernel 101 (dek101), was identified during the development of double haploid (DH) lines in maize. The dek101 kernels displayed severely shrunk kernel appearance, significantly reduced kernel weight, lethal embryo, defective endosperm and were incapable of germinating. The dek101 showed obvious developmental abnormalities at 12 days after pollination (DAP). The fresh weight, dry weight and volume of the kernels were no longer increased after 21 DAP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation revealed that the starch granules of dek101 were significantly smaller compared with wild-type kernels. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the mutant trait was controlled by a recessive single gene. Using 441 F2 individuals and 1648 F3 individuals, dek101 was narrowed down to a genomic region of about 300 kb between the InDel marker IDP2182 and IDP4600 on chromosome 1, which contains five predicted genes. These results laid the foundation for mining functional genes related to maize kernel development and deciphering the mechanism of grain development.

      Mapping of an incomplete dominant gene controlling multifoliolate leaf by BSA-Seq in soybean (Glycine max L.)
      ZHANG Zhi-Hao, WANG Jun, LIU Zhang-Xiong, QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1839-1849.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04075
      Abstract ( 425 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (3196KB) ( 462 )   Save
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      The leaves of cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) are comprising of three leaflets in general, but there are also individual varieties or mutants which have a high frequency of compound leaves with 4-7 leaflets, named multifoliolate leaves. Compound leaf formation enhances the plant's ability to adapt to the external environment. Study of related genes to multifoliolate leaves might contribute to the improvement yield level of and soybean agronomic traits. In this study, a multifoliolate leaf mutant Zhonghuang 622 was identified from the mutant library of soybean cultivar Zhongpin 661, which had 4-9 leaflets in each compound leaf. The compound leaf phenotypes of F2 and F2:3 population from a cross between Zhongpin 661 and Zhonghuang 622 were investigated in Beijing and Hainan, respectively. Analysis of phenotypic data from F2 and F2:3 population revealed that the multifoliolate leaf trait was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. BSA-Seq method was used for gene mapping. The two bulks of normal trifoliate and multifoliolate individuals in F2 population were constructed and sequenced for an average depth of 32.75×, which covered 99.22% genome compared to the reference genome. Through correlation analysis of mixed pool sequencing results by ED method, two regions were located on chromosome 11, with a total length of 5.29 Mb and a total length of 1103 genes. Three regions were identified on chromosome 11 at confidence of 0.99, with a total length of 3.42 Mb and a total of 701 genes by the association analysis of SNP-index method. There were 690 genes located simultaneously and six SNP genes between parents by the two association analysis methods. These results lay the foundation for map-based cloning of the genes related to compound leaf development.

      Molecular cloning and expression analysis of BoGSTL21 in self-incompatibility Brasscia oleracea
      Tong-Hong ZUO, He-Cui ZHANG, Qian-Ying LIU, Xiao-Ping LIAN, Qin-Qin XIE, Deng-Ke HU, Yi-Zhong ZHANG, Yu-Kui WANG, Xiao-Jing BAI, Li-Quan ZHU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1850-1861.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04004
      Abstract ( 369 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (2333KB) ( 209 )   Save
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      Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTs) plays an important role in plant resistance to stress, cytotoxic release and plant growth and development. In this study, we identified an up-regulated gene named BoGSTL21 based on the stigma transcriptome data in 0-60 min self-pollination. BoGSTL21 had an open reading frame (ORF) with the length of 900 bp, encoded a protein of 299 amino acid residues, which contained GST-N and GST-C domains without signal peptide and transmembrane domain, the theory isoelectric point of BoGSTL21 was 8.49. The promoter of BoGSTL21 gene contained many cis-acting elements such as light response, auxin response, abscisic acid response, low temperature and drought response. BoGSTL21 expresses in different tissues of Brassica oleracea. The expression level in stigma varies with developmental time, and was mainly overexpressed in mature stigma. The results of qRT-PCR revealed that BoGSTL21 mRNA expression level after self-and cross-pollinations for 0 min to 60 min was consistent with that of RNA-seq data. It was found through yeast two-hybrid that BoGSTL21 protein interacted with pollen development-related protein BoFAB1C, auxin-related protein BoPATL2, and aldolase-type TIM barrel family protein BoF9N12_9. BoGSTL21 gene was successfully induced and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with a purified protein size of 34 kD, which was consistent with the predicted results. According to the above results, BoGSTL21 may be a novel protein involved in the SI response process, which provides a new content for further research and utilization of self-incompatibility in Brasscia oleracea.

      Cloning of IbCAF1 and identification on tolerance to salt and drought stress in sweetpotato
      Shan-Bin CHEN, Si-Fan SUN, Nan NIE, Bing DU, Shao-Zhen HE, Qing-Chang LIU, Hong ZHAI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1862-1869.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04045
      Abstract ( 532 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (4676KB) ( 229 )   Save
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      CAF1 (CCR4-associated factor 1) gene plays an important role in plant development and disease resistance. In this study, the IbCAF1 gene of sweetpotato was cloned according to the EST sequence. The ORF of IbCAF1 was 846 bp, encoding 281 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 32.13 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.83. The results of amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that IbCAF1 had higher homology with ItlCAF1, a homologous protein of Ipomoea triloba (2x), and the homology was 96.8%. IbCAF1 gene was induced and expressed by NaCl, PEG, ABA, and H2O2. The IbCAF1 gene was transferred into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The overexpression of IbCAF1 gene significantly improved the salt and drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants. After 200 mmol L -1NaCl and 10% PEG-6000 treatments, the transgenic tobacco plants showed significant upregulation of the genes involved in ROS scavenging system and proline biosynthesis related genes, significant increase of SOD activity, POD activity and proline content and significant decrease of H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. These results demonstrate that the IbCAF1 gene could improve salt and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco. This study will lay a foundation on salt and drought tolerance gene engineering of IbCAF1 gene in sweetpotato for the following research.

      Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences between commercial wheat varieties Jimai 22 and Liangxing 99
      YANG Zheng-Zhao, WANG Zi-Hao, HU Zhao-Rong, XIN Ming-Ming, YAO Ying-Yin, PENG Hui-Ru, YOU Ming-Shan, SU Zhen-Qi, GUO Wei-Long
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1870-1883.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.01009
      Abstract ( 1049 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (2121KB) ( 374 )   Save
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      Jimai 22 and Liangxing 99 are high-yield wheat varieties widely planted in the North Huang-Huai Rivers Valley Winter Wheat Zone and Northern Winter Wheat Zone in China, and are currently used as important parents in wheat breeding programs. Although the origins and pedigrees of Jimai 22 and Liangxing 99 are different, they are highly similar in many important agronomic traits, yield-associated traits, and so on. To identify the genomic differences between the two varieties, we performed whole-genome sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform, with an average sequencing depth of 5.8×. We aligned the raw sequencing data against the Chinese Spring reference genome and identified the difference of copy-number variation (CNV) regions, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and InDels in sequence between the two varieties. Lengths of 466 Mb CNV intervals were shared by the two varieties. The lengths of cultivar-specific CNV intervals in Jimai 22 and Liangxing 99 were 91 Mb and 45 Mb, respectively, and these intervals are mainly located on chromosomes 2B and 4B. Beyond the CNV intervals, 1,547,371 SNPs and 137,817 InDels were different between the two cultivars. Based on the distribution of SNP densities in the intervals, we identified the polymorphic hotspot regions on chromosomes 1D, 2B, and 4B, making up 14.2% of the whole genome. The sequences of five previous cloned dwarf genes and spike length related genes were investigated, and two genes located in the polymorphic hotspot regions were detected with the frame shift variations. This study provides an important guidance for evaluating the genetic differences between two wheat varieties in the genomic level, and also identified both genetic similarity regions and polymorphic hotspot regions between Jimai 22 and Liangxing 99, which provided a valuable genetic information for future genetic improvement utilizing Jimai 22 and Liangxing 99 as parents.

      Analysis on the structures of polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins and the expression profile of its encoding genes in rice
      CHEN Xi-Jun, TANG Tao, LI Li-Li, CHEN Chen, CHEN Yu-Wen, ZHANG Ya-Fang, ZUO Shi-Min
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1884-1893.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.02011
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      Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein, the extracellular leucine-rich repeat protein, specially recognizing and inhibiting polygalacturonase (PG) from pathogenic organism, can improve the resistance of plant against the pathogen. In order to clarify the structures of OsPGIPs and the expression profile of its encoding genes in rice, seven OsPGIP (polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein) genes were amplified from rice cDNA by PCR. Bioinformatics analysis and structural prediction of OsPGIPs were performed and expression profile of its encoding genes under biotic and abiotic stresses was determined after these genes being cloned and sequenced. The results showed that PGIPs from the same or similar species had high similarity. Through multi-sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was found that most OsPGIPs had closer genetic relationship, but all of them could not be grouped in one group. All OsPGIPs had a signal peptide and 9 to11 LRR fragments included the typical PGIP’s motif of xxLxLxx. Secondary structure prediction indicated that all OsPGIPs consist of ɑ-helix (H), extended strand (ES) and random coil (RC), which construct repeated RC-H-RC-ES- and form a typical concave coinciding with the right-hand helix rule. The concave might be responsible for the interaction between OsPGIPs and PGs from different agents. Most of the seven OsPGIPs were stable, and they all were hydrophobic proteins, good lipid solubility, with transmembrane structure, extrcellular localization, one or more N-glycosylation sites, and basically insoluble after expression in E. coli. After being treated with biotic and abiotic stress factors, the expression levels of different OsPGIP genes in rice were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated, but the total expression levels were significantly up-regulated, which indicated that rice could improve its own ability against stresses by regulating the expression levels of OsPGIP genes under stress conditions.

      Mechanism exploration on alkaloids accumulation and TAs metabolic pathways regulation in Atropa belladonna L. treated with exogenous methyl jasmonate under UV-B stress
      Yu-Si SHAN, Zheng-Qi XIN, Xiao HE, Huan-Huan DAI, Neng-Biao WU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1894-1904.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04050
      Abstract ( 419 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (482KB) ( 192 )   Save
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      In order to preliminarily explore the mechanism of TAs metabolic pathway in A. belladonna treated with exogenous methyl jasmone under UV-B stress, the effects on the contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine, the upstream products in alkaloid synthesis, signal molecule and the expression level of key enzyme genes of secondary metabolism were studied under different concentrations of exogenous MeJA and different treatment time under using A. belladonna as materials. UV-B stress treatment significantly reduced the contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine, inhibited the accumulation of precursors in the TAs synthesis pathway, which harmful to TAs synthesis. The content of TAs in A. belladonna increased to some extent, the contents of precursor amino acids (ornithine, arginine), polyamine content and key enzymes activities in the synthesis of putrescine in the secondary metabolic pathway all increased to some extent after treatment with the appropriate concentration of MeJA. The concentrations of signal molecule NO firstly increased and then decreased with the rising MeJA concentration, and reached the highest when MeJA concentration was 250 μmol L -1. The expression of key enzyme genes in TAs synthesis pathway showed that exogenous MeJA could increase the relative gene expression levels of TR I, PPAR, H6H to some extent. Those indicated that exogenous MeJA could induce the increase in the contents of upstream products in TAs synthesis by stimulating the burst of NO resulted in more precursor materials for the TAs synthesis pathway and affect the high expression of TR I, PPAR and H6H. It alleviated the inhibiton of UV-B stress on TAs of A. belladonna and increased the contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine effectively. The results provided a theoretical basis for further studying the mechanism of exogenous elicitors to regulate the TAs secondary metabolic pathway of A. belladonn under stress, and effectively improved the stress resistance of A. belladonn and the accumulation of medicinal ingredients in actual production.

      Correlation between SSR markers and fiber yield related traits in jute (Corchorus spp.)
      Li-Lan ZHANG, Lie-Mei ZHANG, Huan-Ying NIU, Yi XU, Yu LI, Jian-Min QI, Ai-Fen TAO, Ping-Ping FANG, Li-Wu ZHANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1905-1913.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04035
      Abstract ( 526 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (256KB) ( 191 )   Save
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      Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers correlated to fiber yield traits would be a beneficial tool for molecular marker-assisted breeding in jute. In this study, 397 SSR markers were screened from 311 jute germplasms by the phenotype identification from 2016 to 2018 and 116 pairs of primers. The correlation analysis between SSR markers and fiber yield related traits by SPSS revealed that the range of the coefficient of variation related to 9 fiber traits was from 13.05% to 76.78%, indicating a comprehensive genetic variation. The correlation analysis of the agronomic traits showed that there were significantly correlations among these traits. The average correlation coefficient between branch height and nodes of main stem was the highest (r = 0.931), followed by the correlation coefficients (r = 0.781) of fresh bark weight per plant and fresh stem weight per plant and the coefficients (r = 0.779) of dry bark weight and fresh bark weight per plant. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the traits of main stem nodes, number of branches, plant height and branch height were relatively stable in different years with the higher broad heritability capacity. Furthermore, the SSR markers associated with fiber yield related traits were identified by Pearson correlation method. Stepwise regression analysis among each trait associated SSR markers indicated that there were six markers associated significantly with fiber yield related traits, and phenotypic variation explained by each SSR marker varied from 3.9% to 22.5%. These results will accelerate the development of molecular design breeding in jute.

      Cloning of the key enzyme gene HcTPPJ in trehalose biosynthesis of kenaf and its expression in response to abiotic stress in kenaf
      Hui LI, De-Fang LI, Yong DENG, Gen PAN, An-Guo CHEN, Li-Ning ZHAO, Hui-Juan TANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1914-1922.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04006
      Abstract ( 352 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (797KB) ( 162 )   Save
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      Trehalose biosynthesis key enzyme gene TPP plays an important role in plant response to various abiotic stresses. In this study, in order to clarify the role of TPP gene in response to abiotic stress in kenaf, a specific primer was designed according to the sequence of CL541.contig2unigene, and the full-length cDNA sequence of TPP gene was obtained by PCR. Bioinformatics analysis showed that TPP had an open reading frame (ORF) length of 1128 bp, and encoded a protein containing 375 amino acids. The results of amino acid sequence consistency indicated that the agreement between the amino acid sequence of protein and that of TPPJ from other species was 71.18%, so the gene named as HcTPPJ. HcTPPJ was expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Under salt or drought stress, HcTPPJ was up-regulated significantly with the extension of stress treatment, indicating that the gene was involved in the response process of salt or drought stress in kenaf. Under the same conditions, HcNCED3 and HcAOC was significantly up-regulated, while the change of HcTPPJ expression was not obvious under ABA stress; HcTPPJ was significantly down-regulated, under the stress of MeJA for six hours. Therefore it was speculated that the HcTPPJ gene expression may be not regulated by the signal molecule of ABA, but negatively regulated by methyl jasmonate signal molecule. This study will lay a solid foundation for further elucidating the role of the gene in response to salt and drought stress in kenaf.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION?PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Productivity evaluation of crop rotation in cold and arid region of Northern China
      Zhao-Lei YAO, Ji-Zong ZHANG, Yu-Qiong DU, Yu-Hua LIU, Li-Feng ZHANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1923-1932.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04071
      Abstract ( 494 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (330KB) ( 268 )   Save
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      To understand mechanisms of crop adaptability to various previous crop croppings, evaluate crop performance on the croppings, and identify suitable crop combinations for rotation of major crops in the cold and arid region of Northern China. A five-year field experiment was conducted using five crops from 2015 to 2019, including potato (Solanum tuberosum), faba bean (Vicia faba), forage maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and beet (Beta vulgarwas). Yields of potato, oat, and beet in rotation were 1.30-1.68, 1.28-1.48, and 1.25-1.48 times of those in continuous cropping of single crops, respectively. Yield of faba bean on beet cropping was 10.58% lower than that of continuous faba bean while yield of forage maize on oat or beet stubble was 9.10%-15.42% lower than that of continuous forage maize. The LERr of 10 crop combinations was 1.09-1.68, indicating positive effects of rotation. Combinations of oat → potato, beet → potato, forage maize → potato and faba bean → potato had higher LERr, indicating faba bean and forage maize might be more durable of continuous cropping. In terms of productivity, suitable crop combinations for rotation in the area were oat → potato, beet → potato, forage maize → potato, faba bean → potato and oat → beet.

      Effects of full biodegradable film on soil water status and yield and water use efficiency of spring wheat in dryland
      Ming-Sheng MA, Xian-Shi GUO, Yan-Lan LIU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1933-1944.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.01040
      Abstract ( 377 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (646KB) ( 250 )   Save
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      The purpose of this study was to investigate the ecological effect of full biodegradable film mulching and its effect on the production of spring wheat, and to seek a green, efficient and sustainable coverage in the semi-arid area of the Northwest Loess Plateau. Taking the uncovered land as the control (CK), to systematically studied the effects of full biodegradable film mulching (BM) and the polyethylene film mulching (PM) with bunch planting on soil water status, rain fallow efficiency and its impact on yield and water use efficiency of dryland spring wheat from 2015 to 2018. The results showed that both BM and PM significantly increased the water storage of 0-200 cm soil layer and rain fallow efficiency in each growth period of spring wheat, but there was not significant differences between BM and PM. From 2015 to 2018, the water storage of BM increased by 9.5 mm, 14.2 mm, 25.0 mm, and 39.0 mm respectively compared with CK. In the fourth year of continuous cropping, the water storage of PM, BM and CK 0-200 cm soil layers were 347.5 mm, 345.5 mm and 320.0 mm, respectively. Compared with CK, the rain fallow efficiency of BM and PM increased by 39.63% and 43.98%, respectively, which effectively alleviated the risk of spring drought in the next season. BM was similar to PM in seedling rate, the number of productive ears and the percentage of productive spike, and significantly higher than CK. The number of BM seedlings increased by 15.87% compared with CK in dry year, the number of productive ears increased by 14.70% on average in other years except 2015, and the percentage of productive spike increased by 3.08% on average in four years. The total amount of dry matter accumulation of BM was basically the same as PM, and before anthesis was slightly lower than PM, but higher than PM after anthesis, which was more conducive to grain filling and yield formation, and the amount of dry matter accumulation of both BM and PM are significantly higher than CK in each growth period. The annual average water consumption of PM, BM and CK was 287.46 mm, 289.76 mm, and 276.06 mm, respectively, and compared with PM, BM increased the evaporation water consumption. Compared with CK, the grain yield of BM and PM increased 48.07% and 54.95% respectively, and water use efficiency increased 46.08% and 56.07% in four years, there was not significant differences between BM and PM. There was not significant differences in soil water effect and yield effect between the full biodegradable film and PE film, and the full biodegradable film can be applied to the whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting of spring wheat in dry land and provide technical support for the green and efficient production of wheat in dry land.

      Effects of varieties collocation between crop seasons on the yield and resource use efficiency of maize-late rice cropping in Hubei province
      Zhi-Hui LIU, Gao-Feng PAN, Wen CHEN, Ming-Guang QIN, Cou-Gui CAO, Chang-Long CHANG, Ming ZHAN
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1945-1957.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03019
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      Maize-late rice cropping (M-R) is considered to coordinate the production of food and feed crop. In recent years, M-R has begun to develop in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. However, technologies have not been systematically studied and improved for its higher yield and higher resources use efficiency. Especially, a reasonable collocation of varieties between maize and late rice seasons is an important basis to realize the yield potential of M-R, and still is under evaluation. In this study, different maize and late rice varieties were selected and collocated to different M-R modes. Their yield performance and use efficiency of resources were detected in different regions of Hubei province in 2015 and 2017. The results showed that under different heat conditions, the varieties collocation modes had significant effects on the annual yield of M-R and the production efficiency of resources. The modes of medium maturity maize-late indica rice cropping had obviously higher annual yield and resource production efficiency under higher accumulated temperature (GDD≥10°C); on the contrary, the annual yield and resource production efficiency of the modes of early maturity maize-late indica rice cropping were higher under lower GDD≥10°C. The utilization percentage of the annual effective GDD≥10°C of each varieties combination mode could reach 95.6%-100.0%, and the distribution ratio of GDD≥10°c between previous and subsequent season (TR) had a significant non-linear relationship with the relative annual yield of M-R. When the utilization percentage of GDD≥10°C was 97.0%-98.5% and TR was 1.06-1.08, M-R could obtain highest annual yield. Therefore, suitable varieties of maize and late rice could be selected according to the local heat resource and reasonable TR. In summary, high-yield maize varieties with a growth period of 125 days and late rice varieties with a growth period of 140 days should be selected for the southern regions with higher GDD≥10°C, while high-yield maize varieties with a growth period of 120 days and late rice varieties with a growth period of 130 days should be selected for the middle and northern regions with relatively lower GDD≥10°C in Hubei province.

      Effects of substitution of organic fertilizer on water consumption and yields under vertical rotary subsoiling on arid area in forage maize
      Yan-Jie FANG, Xu-Cheng ZHANG, Xian-Feng YU, Hui-Zhi HOU, Hong-Li WANG, Yi-Fan MA, Guo-Ping ZHANG, Kang-Ning LEI
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1958-1969.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03026
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      To elucidate soil water consumption characteristics and provide scientific basis for forage maize, a reasonable fertilization model under vertical rotatory subsoiling was studied on semi-arid lands of Loess Plateau. Three patterns including traditional fertilization (F), 50% replacement of chemical fertilizers using organic fertilizers (FOF), and complete organic fertilization (OF) were designed in 2017 and 2019 in order to investigate their effects on crop evapotranspiartion (ETc), grain yields, and water use efficiency (WUE). The results showed that there was a significant relationship among soil water storage (SWS), ETc, precipitation, and distribution in 0-300 cm layers. During the dry year, compared to F, FOF and OF increased SWS in 0-300 cm at anthesis stage by 11.9% and 11.7%, respectively, significantly consuming SWS in 0-60 cm layers. ETc in 0-300 cm treated with FOF was increased by 1.4% and 10.3%, compared to OF and F, whereas ETc before anthesis was decreased by 13.0% compared to F, but increased by 0.3% compared to OF, while ETc after anthesis was increased by 20.7% and 23.9%. During the wet year of 2018, compared to F, FOF and OF increased ETc before anthesis by 13.5% and 31.6%, while decreased it by 21.9% and 36.1%. During 2019, FOF increased ETc before anthesis by 9.7% and 11.9%, compared to F and OF, while it decreased ETc after anthesis by 8.1% compared to F. Furthermore, each fertilization pattern had significant effects on SWS at each layer across 0-300 soil profile. Regardless of different precipitation years, ETc from 0-300 cm layers of FOF was higher than that of F, but the difference was not significant, and was lower than that of F during the wet years of 2018 and 2019, and it had no significant differences to OF. Compared to F and OF, FOF increased dry matter weight at harvest by 4.1%-10.4% and 2.7%-11.5%, improved grain yields by 3.8%-9.4% and 10.1%-12.0%, increased population biomass yields by 5.6%-8.9% and 3.1%-15.5%, and consequently improved WUE based grain yields by 7.9%-11.1% and 1.5%-14.6%, respectively. In conclusion, 50% substitute of chemical fertilizers by organic ones could optimize soil water characteristics, increase crop effective water consumption, boosts yields and WUE, and it can be an efficient fertilizer management model for the high-yield and high-efficiency of forage maize productions in semi-arid areas of Loess Plateau.

      Phytoremediation potential of five industrial hemp varieties on five heavy metal polluted soils
      Yan-Ping XU, Ming YANG, Hong-Yan GUO, Qing-Hui YANG
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1970-1978.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04010
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      Uptake and translocation of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in industrial hemp genotypes were investigated at seedling and physiological maturity, in order to provide an insight for phytoremediation of mining soils in Yunnan. The experiment was conducted using five main varieties of industrial hemp viz., Yunma (ym)1, ym2, ym3, ym4, and ym5 under mining areas of Yunnan. Results showed that uptake and translocation of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in all hemp genotypes were high at the seedling stage. Accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As contents in hemp roots were higher at physiological maturity as compared to seedling stage. However, comparing to seedling stage, Pb, As, and Cd contents in stems and leaves were higher at physiological maturity stage. Translocation factor coefficients of hemp stem and leaf to all heavy metals were more than 1.0 at seedling stage. At physiological maturity stage, translocation of Pb, As and Cd in stems and leaves of all hemp varieties were higher compared with Cu and Zn. The accumulated contents of Pb, As, Cu, Cd, and Zn in plants were 31.65-644.29, 365.14-624.25, 180.65-194.06, 15.13-24.40, and 540.07-684.27 g hm -2, respectively. However, highest contents of Pb, As, Cd, and Zn were observed in hemp variety Yunma 1 and Yunma 5, which suggested that these two varieties had significantly higher metal accumulation and translocation compared to other varieties. In conclusion, the bioconcentration ratios, translocation factor and phytoremediation ability of hemp variety Yunma 1 and Yunma 5 were higher than those of Yunma 2, Yunma 3, and Yunma 4. These results showed that both Yunma 1 and Yunma 5 were potential candidates for remediation of heavy metal polluted areas in Yunnan.

      Inversion of nitrogen accumulation in potato leaf with different spectral indices
      HAN Kang, YU Jing, SHI Xiao-Hua, CUI Shi-Xin, FAN Ming-Shou
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1979-1990.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04023
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      As an important derivative parameter of optical spectrum, spectral index could reflect the leaf nitrogen accumulation of crops. However, the sensitive spectral index varies with different environments and crops. In order to obtain the sensitive spectral index for potato in Inner Mongolia, field experiments were conducted in Chayouzhongqi and Hangjinqi of Inner Mongolia from 2016 to 2018, and during the potato growth period, the canopy spectrum information of potato cultivars Kexin 1 and Shepody was obtained using a handheld spectrometer (SVC HR-1024i). Based on the previous spectral indices algorithm, the correlation coefficients between the leaves nitrogen accumulation of potato (LNA) and each of the 22 spectral indices were compared, and the nitrogen nutrition diagnosis models of potato at critical growth stages were established using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. The results were as follows: (1) the red edge area was the main spectral band for inverting the LNA of potato, and Vogelmann red edge index 2 (VOG2), Vogelmann red edge index 3 (VOG3) were the sensitive spectral indices for potato LNA in Inner Mongolia, which composed of 715, 720, 726, 734, and 747 nm of spectral bands. (2) At the seedling stage, tuber formation stage or whole growth stage, the quadratic regression models (R 2 > 0.75) between VOG3 and LNA could estimate better the LNA of potato under different nitrogen levels using VOG3. (3) The root mean square error (RMSE) of the models was 4.04-6.69, 9.45-10.89, 9.17-13.45 kg hm -2, indicating the accuracy of using the models to predict potato LNA varies with potato growth stage, and it was lower at late growth stages, while it is higher for whole growth duration. In summary, the staged modeling for potato early growth period and the unified modeling for potato later growth period could accurately estimate the potato LNA, which provides a theoretical basis and method for the application of spectral indices in the nitrogen nutrition diagnosis of potato.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Genetic analysis and characterization of male sterile mutant mi-ms-3 in maize
      TIAN Shi-Ke, QIN Xin-Er, ZHANG Wen-Liang, DONG Xue, DAI Ming-Qiu, YUE Bing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1991-1996.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03025
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      Maize is one of the best crops in the utilization of heterosis. Male sterile lines are important germplasms for the hybrids production. A male sterile mutant named mi-ms-3 was obtained by screening in a mutator insertion library. The number of male anthers in tassel decreased and not exserted. There were few anthers with only two pollen sacs in the mutant tassels, and some of the anthers were degenerated to membranous and formed filaments at their ends. Although pollens in the anthers could be stained by I2-KI, pollen shedding was abnormal and the number of pollen grains decreased. The number of silks in the ear of the mutant increased, and there was a sterile grain on both sides of the maturated kernel. Fertility of F1 plants, which were obtained by hybridization between mi-ms-3 and maize inbred Mo17, was normal. Genetic analysis of F2 population showed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a recessive gene. The candidate gene was preliminarily mapped on the long arm of chromosome 3 by BSA and it was located between a SSR marker and an Indel marker with a distance of 1.5 cM. There are 21 candidate genes in this region. It was finally found that the insertion mutation of Mu transposon occurred at 30 bp upstream of the coding region of zm00001d042618 (zmm16) by transponson tagging and sequencing analysis. The results showed that mi-ms-3 was a new allele of sts1, which caused by a single base mutation in the coding region. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of zmm16 in the mutant was decreased. The identification of the new allelic mutant of sts1 in this study would provide new materials for the study of flower development and hybrid seed production.

      Genetic diversity analysis of winter wheat landraces and modern bred varieties in Xinjiang based on agronomic traits
      MA Yan-Ming, FENG Zhi-Yu, WANG Wei, ZHANG Sheng-Jun, GUO Ying, NI Zhong-Fu, LIU Jie
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  1997-2007.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.01034
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      Grain yield is one of the most important goals in wheat breeding, and agronomic or yield-related traits can directly reflect the characteristics of varieties. In order to determine the evolution of genetic diversity in agronomic traits of Xinjiang winter wheat varieties and their adaptabilities to different ecological environments, 134 winter wheat landraces and 54 moderns bred varieties from Xinjiang were selected for agronomic trait investigation. They were planted in three different ecological environments (Urumqi and Yining in Xinjiang province, and Tai’an in Shandong province) for two consecutive growth seasons, and nine agronomic and yield-related traits were surveyed and analyzed. The estimated broad sense heritability of nine agronomic and yield traits was in descending order: plant height > grain width > grain length/width ratio > spike length > spikelet number > thousand- kernel weight > grain number per spike > grain length > fertile spikelet number. Correlation analyses of nine agronomic and yield traits showed that these traits were correlated with each other. It was found that the plant height, spike length and grain length/width ratio of landraces were higher than that in modern bred varieties, but the grain number per spike, thousand kernel weight, grain length and grain width in landraces were less than that in modern bred varieties. However, the correlation coefficient of these nine traits was higher in modern bred varieties than that in landraces. These variations reflected the evolution of Xinjiang winter wheat varieties in agronomic traits in recent years. This study may provide important information for breeders to select the breeding parents in different winter wheat regions.

      Cloning and functional analysis of ZmbHLH161 gene in maize
      Meng-Ting YANG, Chun ZHANG, Zuo-Ping WANG, Hua-Wen ZOU, Zhong-Yi WU
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(12):  2008-2016.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03022
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      bHLH transcription factors are the second largest family of transcription factors in plants and play an important role in regulating plant growth and development, signal transduction, and stress response. In order to study the function of maize bHLH family genes in response to stress, ZmbHLH161 (AC: NC_AQK75074) gene from maize root tissue was cloned in this study. Bioinformatic analysis showed that this gene contains 3 exons, the full-length of its cDNA is 1460 bp, coding sequence is 1059 bp in length, encoding 352 amino acids. It exists as a single copy in the maize genome and its function is unknown. The molecular weight of ZmbHLH161 protein is 37.1 kD, and its theoretical isoelectric point is 6.10, with a conserved domain unique to the bHLH transcription factor family, but does not have a transmembrane structure or signal peptide. It is a hydrophilic protein, and the secondary structure of the protein has a maximum proportion of 42.05%. Transient expression experiments in maize protoplasts showed that ZmbHLH161 was localized in the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that under normal growth conditions, ZmbHLH161 was mainly expressed in roots and immature embryos, while under dehydration and drought treatment, ZmbHLH161 was up-regulated in maize seedling leaves. After treated with different concentrations of NaCl, the root length of ZmbHLH161 transgenic heterologous Arabidopsis strains was not significantly different from that of wild type, and their root was longer than that of wild type after being treated with different concentrations of mannitol. It is speculated that ZmbHLH161 gene may be involved in the response of maize to osmotic stress.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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