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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (12): 1958-1969.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.03026


Effects of substitution of organic fertilizer on water consumption and yields under vertical rotary subsoiling on arid area in forage maize

Yan-Jie FANG(), Xu-Cheng ZHANG*(), Xian-Feng YU, Hui-Zhi HOU, Hong-Li WANG, Yi-Fan MA, Guo-Ping ZHANG, Kang-Ning LEI   

  1. Institute of Dry-Land Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of High-Water Utilization on Dryland of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
  • Received:2020-05-09 Accepted:2020-08-19 Online:2020-08-28 Published:2020-08-28
  • Contact: Xu-Cheng ZHANG E-mail:fangyj82@126.com;gszhangxuch@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Key Research and Development Program of Gansu Province(18YF1WA092);Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of GAAS(2019GAAS10);National Science and Technology Research Projects of China(2015BAD22B04)


To elucidate soil water consumption characteristics and provide scientific basis for forage maize, a reasonable fertilization model under vertical rotatory subsoiling was studied on semi-arid lands of Loess Plateau. Three patterns including traditional fertilization (F), 50% replacement of chemical fertilizers using organic fertilizers (FOF), and complete organic fertilization (OF) were designed in 2017 and 2019 in order to investigate their effects on crop evapotranspiartion (ETc), grain yields, and water use efficiency (WUE). The results showed that there was a significant relationship among soil water storage (SWS), ETc, precipitation, and distribution in 0-300 cm layers. During the dry year, compared to F, FOF and OF increased SWS in 0-300 cm at anthesis stage by 11.9% and 11.7%, respectively, significantly consuming SWS in 0-60 cm layers. ETc in 0-300 cm treated with FOF was increased by 1.4% and 10.3%, compared to OF and F, whereas ETc before anthesis was decreased by 13.0% compared to F, but increased by 0.3% compared to OF, while ETc after anthesis was increased by 20.7% and 23.9%. During the wet year of 2018, compared to F, FOF and OF increased ETc before anthesis by 13.5% and 31.6%, while decreased it by 21.9% and 36.1%. During 2019, FOF increased ETc before anthesis by 9.7% and 11.9%, compared to F and OF, while it decreased ETc after anthesis by 8.1% compared to F. Furthermore, each fertilization pattern had significant effects on SWS at each layer across 0-300 soil profile. Regardless of different precipitation years, ETc from 0-300 cm layers of FOF was higher than that of F, but the difference was not significant, and was lower than that of F during the wet years of 2018 and 2019, and it had no significant differences to OF. Compared to F and OF, FOF increased dry matter weight at harvest by 4.1%-10.4% and 2.7%-11.5%, improved grain yields by 3.8%-9.4% and 10.1%-12.0%, increased population biomass yields by 5.6%-8.9% and 3.1%-15.5%, and consequently improved WUE based grain yields by 7.9%-11.1% and 1.5%-14.6%, respectively. In conclusion, 50% substitute of chemical fertilizers by organic ones could optimize soil water characteristics, increase crop effective water consumption, boosts yields and WUE, and it can be an efficient fertilizer management model for the high-yield and high-efficiency of forage maize productions in semi-arid areas of Loess Plateau.

Key words: vertically rotary sub-soiling, substitution of organic fertilizer, yield, water use efficiency, forage maize

Fig. 1

Dynamic variation of precipitation and average air temperature during the growth stages of forage maize from 2017 to 2019"

Fig. 2

Soil water storage of 0-300 cm soil layer at different growth stages Error bars above data at each growth stage show the magnitude of LSD0.05; F: all of fertilizer; FOF: 50% of fertilizer + 50% of organic fertilizer; OF: all of organic fertilizer. In each growing season, values followed by different letters within a column are significantly different among treatments at P < 0.05."

Fig. 3

Consumptions of soil water storage in the 0-300 cm soil layer during the pre-flowering and post-flowering stage Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2. Error bars above data at each growth stage show the magnitude of LSD0.05."

Fig. 4

Soil water consumption of 0-300 cm soil layer during the pre-flowering and post-flowering stage Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2. Error bars above data at each growth stage show the magnitude of LSD0.05. In each growing season, values followed by different letters within a column are significantly different among treatments at P < 0.05."

Table 1

Water consumption percentage and daily water consumption during the pre-flowering and post-flowering stage"

2017 2018 2019
(d mm-1)
(d mm-1)
(d mm-1)
花前Pre-flowering F 60.0 a 2.2 a 38.7 c 1.6 c 37.4 b 1.7 b
FOF 52.4 b 2.0 b 46.2 b 1.8 b 41.4 a 1.8 a
OF 57.6 a 2.0 b 53.1 a 2.1 a 37.3 b 1.6 b
花后Post-flowering F 40.0 b 1.5 b 61.3 a 3.7 a 62.7 a 3.7 a
FOF 47.6 a 1.8 a 53.8 b 3.0 b 58.6 b 3.4 b
OF 42.4 b 1.5 b 46.9 c 2.7 c 62.6 a 3.6 a

Table 2

Correlation of soil water consumption index in forage maize"

耗水量ET 1.00 -0.49 0.96** -0.90** 0.90** 0.58 0.78**
花前耗水量Pre-ET 1.00 -0.72* 0.81** -0.81** -0.27 -0.55
花后耗水量Post-ET 1.00 -0.99** 0.99** 0.55 0.80**
花前耗水模系数Pre-WCP 1.00 -1.00** -0.47 -0.76*
花后耗水模系数Post-WCP 1.00 0.47 0.76*
花前耗水强度Pre-DWC 1.00 0.88**
花后耗水强度Post-DWC 1.00

Table 3

Dry matter accumulation per plant of forage maize (g plant-1)"

Seeding stage
Jointing stage
Belling stage
Flowering stage
Grain filling stage
Maturity stage
2017 F 16.5 a 80.2 b 116.7 b 167.7 b 300.7 b 413.3 a
FOF 16.0 a 84.7 a 132.0 a 184.7 a 336.8 a 430.0 a
OF 15.2 a 82.5 ab 113.2 b 167.6 b 312.2 b 418.8 a
2018 F 29.1 a 83.4 b 108.4 b 186.7 b 315.6 b 496.7 b
FOF 27.8 a 92.6 a 125.5 a 202.9 a 332.9 a 526.1 a
OF 26.9 a 89.8 a 113.1 b 184.7 b 310.4 b 489.7 b
2019 F 29.2 a 87.2 b 107.7 b 169.7 b 374.8 b 513.5 b
FOF 30.1 a 97.9 a 122.8 a 186.6 a 428.0 a 566.7 a
O 29.1 a 93.0 b 106.2 b 174.4 b 387.8 b 508.1 b

Table 4

Grain yield, biomass, soil water consumption and water use efficiency of forage maize"

Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
Biomass yield
(kg hm-2)
Water consumption (mm)
WUE of grain
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
WUE of biomass
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
2017 F 4505.8 b 78,637.5 b 341.0 a 13.2 b 230.6 c
FOF 4927.3 a 85,050.0 a 345.6 a 14.3 a 246.1 b
OF 4401.0 b 82,518.8 b 313.4 b 14.0 a 263.3 a
2018 F 10,632.6 a 150,076.6 b 412.0 a 25.8 b 364.3 b
FOF 11,038.2 a 158,537.9 a 384.9 b 28.7 a 411.9 a
OF 9893.1 b 148,295.3 b 395.4 b 25.0 b 375.0 b
2019 F 10,846.9 b 146,306.3 b 437.3 a 24.8 b 334.6 b
FOF 11,734.3 a 159,367.5 a 432.6 a 27.1 a 368.4 a
OF 10,654.0 b 138,037.5 c 427.1 a 24.9 b 323.2 b

Table 5

Correlation among yield, biomass, soil water consumption and water use efficiency of forage maize"

Grain yield
Biomass yield
Water consumption
WUE of grain
WUE of biomass
籽粒产量Grain yield 1 0.99** 0.93** 0.99** 0.91**
生物量Biomass yield 1 0.87** 0.99** 0.96**
耗水量Water consumption 1 -0.85** -0.69**
籽粒WUE of grain 1 0.96
生物量WUE of biomass 1
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