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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 1005-1016.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12006


Suitable varieties and high-yielding population characteristics of late season rice in the northern margin area of double-cropping rice along the Yangtze River

KE Jian1(), CHEN Ting-Ting1, WU Zhou2, ZHU Tie-Zhong1, SUN Jie1, HE Hai-Bing1, YOU Cui-Cui1, ZHU De-Quan1, WU Li-Quan1,3,*()   

  1. 1College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China
    2Lujiang Agricultural Technology Promotion Center, Hefei 231500, Anhui, China
    3Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2021-01-28 Accepted:2021-06-16 Online:2022-04-12 Published:2021-07-16
  • Contact: WU Li-Quan E-mail:Kej@ahau.edu.cn;Wlq-001@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFD0300904);Key Research Fund of the Education Department of Anhui Province(KJ2019A0176);Key Research Fund of the Education Department of Anhui Province(KJ2018A0158);National Natural Science Foundation of Anhui(1808085QC70);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801286);National Natural Science Foundation of China(32071946)


To clarify the suitable types of rice varieties and the mechanism of high yield formation, we mainly analyzed the yield difference between indica and japonica rice in late season in the northern margin of the double-cropping rice along the Yangtze River. The experiment was conducted from 2018 to 2019 in Lujiang, Anhui province. The differences of yield and yield components, dry matter accumulation, and growth period between indica and japonica rice were compared and analyzed through 17 indica rice and 17 japonica rice varieties (strains) which were cultivated in this local area. The results showed that the overall yield level of japonical rice was similar to that of indica rice. However, compared with indica rice, the japonica rice had the characteristics of fewer yield-limiting factors, superior safety of panicle fullness, higher yield stability, and ecological safety. High-yield japonica rice mainly increased the total dry matter accumulation from transplanting to heading stage so as to improve total spikelets and yield. The effects of dry matter accumulation at different stage with different panicle types on total spikelets were quite different. Among them, the dominance period of dry matter accumulation of medium-large panicle (102.3-112.0 grains per panicle) and small panicle japonica rice (52.0-99.7 grains per panicle) are transplanting to panicle differentiation and panicle differentiation to heading stage respectively and the correlation coefficients with total spikelets were 0.709 and 0.829, respectively. Further analysis revealed that dry matter accumulation during transplanting to panicle differentiation stage of large panicle japonica rice was significantly affected by the number of tillers at tillering stage, while the dry matter accumulation during panicle differentiation to heading stage of small panicle japonica rice was affected by the number of tillers and dry weight of single stem at heading stage. In summary, this study suggested that japonica rice was a suitable late season rice variety in the northern margin area of double-cropping rice along the Yangtze River. The number of spikelets in the high-yielding japonica rice was 33.8×103-41.0×103 m-2, the dry matter accumulation at maturity was 15.2-16.6 t hm-2, and the daily yield was 58.9-64.3 kg hm-2 d-1. Regarding the selection of varieties, high-yield large-panicle japonica rice, such as Jia 58, Wuyujing 6571, and Changyou 5, should have strong tillering ability; while small-panicle rice varieties, such as Ningjing 7, Wuyujing 5745 and Huxiangjing 151, should have a suitable number of tillers at heading stage and dry weight of single stem. In addition, it was necessary to study the optimized cultivation techniques for high-yielding japonica rice varieties with different panicle types in order to further develop the yield potential.

Key words: the northern margin area of Yangtze River, double-cropping late rice, variety types, grain yield, group characteristics

Fig. 1

Meteorological data during the late rice growing seasons in 2018 and 2019"

Table 1

Variances analysis of the effects of cultivar and year and the interaction of cultivar with year on grain yield in rice"

Cultivar type
Source of variation
Sum of square
Mean square
籼稻 年份 Year 1 1.76 1.76 43.27 0
Indica rice 品种 Cultivar 16 157.87 9.87 242.51 0
年份 × 品种 Year × Cultivar 16 0.30 0.02 0.46 0.96
粳稻 年份 Year 1 1.23 1.23 30.97 0
Japonica rice 品种 Cultivar 16 112.12 7.01 176.49 0
年份 × 品种 Year × Cultivar 16 0.50 0.03 0.79 0.69

Fig. 2

Yield variation of different types of rice cultivars"

Fig. 3

System cluster analysis of grain yield with different types of rice cultivars"

Table 2

Yield and its components under different yield levels of different types in rice cultivars"

Cultivar type
Yield level
Spikelets per panicle
(×103 m-2)
Grain filling percentage (%)
1000-grain weight (g)
Grain yield
(t hm-2)
IR HY 440.8±47.2 a 107.8±13.1 a 47.0±1.8 a 81.8±4.0 a 24.5±0.8 a 9.4±0.1 a
MY 405.8±53.4 a 122.0±18.4 a 49.0±6.3 a 65.0±10.3 b 24.4±1.5 a 7.6±0.4 b
LY 401.7±47.7 a 81.7±12.8 b 33.0±7.4 b 75.1±6.3 ab 25.6±5.8 a 6.1±0.6 c
JR HY 373.2±33.0 a 100.8±10.5 ab 37.4±3.6 a 87.6±7.0 a 27.1±1.1 a 8.8±0.3 a
MY 317.5±17.8 a 102.2±4.2 a 32.6±2.6 b 87.0±5.6 a 27.6±1.5 a 7.8±0.3 b
LY 371.0±93.0 a 82.3±24.6 b 29.0±3.8 b 83.6±7.3 a 26.3±1.6 a 6.3±0.4 c
Cultivar type (C) ** ns ** ** * ns
Yield level (Y) ns ** ** * ns **
C×Y ns ns * * ns *

Fig. 5

Relationship between total spikelets amount and grain yield, and the relationship between dry matter accumulation at TP-HS and spikelets under different late japonica rice cultivars Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 3. **: P < 0.01."

Table 3

Dry matter accumulation (DMA) and harvest index of different rice cultivars under different yield levels"

Cultivar type
Yield level
干物质积累 DMA (t hm-2) 收获指数
Harvest index
IR HY 5.1±0.7 a 7.4±1.4 a 5.1±1.6 ab 17.6±0.6 a 0.53±0.02 a
MY 4.8±0.7 a 5.5±1.0 b 5.7±1.4 a 16.0±1.0 b 0.48±0.04 b
LY 5.0±0.4 a 7.4±1.3 a 3.5±1.2 b 15.8±1.7 b 0.39±0.04 c
JR HY 2.9±0.6 a 8.1±1.8 a 4.8±1.3 a 15.9±0.7 a 0.56±0.04 a
MY 2.1±0.3 a 6.2±1.1 b 5.5±2.8 a 13.8±2.3 ab 0.58±0.10 a
LY 2.7±0.8 a 4.5±1.1 b 4.6±1.9 a 11.8±1.7 b 0.54±0.10 a
Cultivar type (C) ** ns ns ** **
Yield level (Y) ns ** ns ** *
C×Y ns ** ns ns ns

Fig. 4

Growth duration and daily grain yield of different types of rice cultivars under different yield levels Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 2."

Fig. 6

Relationship between total spikelets amount and dry matter accumulation in late japonica rice with different panicle size type Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 3. **: P < 0.01."

Fig. 7

Tiller number and dry matter accumulation of per stem of late japonica rice with different panicle size under different yield levels Abbreviations are the same as those given in Tables 2 and 3."

Fig. 8

Relationship between tiller number and dry matter accumulation, and the relationship between dry matter accumulation of per stem and dry matter accumulation under different late japonica rice cultivar Abbreviations are the same as those given in Table 3. **: P < 0.01."

Table 4

Differences in safe heading period of indica rice during 1998-2007 and 2008-2017 around the Yangtze River in Anhui"

Beginning and ending years
Safe dates of full heading
The average of the safe dates of full heading (month/day)
deviation of
dates of full
heading (d)
50% of the safe dates of full heading (month/day)
80% of the safe dates of full heading (month/day)
90% of the safe dates of full heading (month/day)
The earliest year
The latest year
1998-2017 9/13 10/7 9/24 5.8 9/24 9/18 9/16
1998-2007 9/13 10/7 9/24 7.4 9/24 9/21 9/20
2008-2017 9/17 9/28 9/23 4.0 9/23 9/20 9/19
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