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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (6): 924-936.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91060


Effects of water saving and nitrogen reduction on soil nitrate nitrogen distribution, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of winter wheat

LUO Wen-He,SHI Zu-Jiao,WANG Xu-Min,LI Jun(),WANG Rui   

  1. College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Tillage Science in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2019-10-06 Accepted:2020-01-15 Online:2020-06-12 Published:2020-01-23
  • Contact: Jun LI E-mail:junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Support Program of China(2015BAD22B02);the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31801300).(31801300)


In order to solve the problems of excessive nitrogen input and irrigation water resources scarcity in current winter wheat production in Guanzhong Plain, winter wheat grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, and nitrate nitrogen leaching were investigated to hopefully provide a theoretical basis for determining water-saving and nitrogen-reducing cultivation model. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2017-2019) was conducted in Yangling, Shaanxi province, China, where the nitrogen application rates of N300 (300 kg hm -2), N225 (225 kg hm -2), N150 (150 kg hm -2), N75 (75 kg hm -2), N0 (0 kg hm -2, no nitrogen application) were assigned to the main plots, and the irrigation amount of W2 (1200 m 3 hm -2), W1 (600 m 3 hm -2), W0 (0, no irrigation) were assigned to the subplots. The amount of irrigation and nitrogen application had significant effects on wheat yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, soil nitrate nitrogen content as well as its leaching loss. In the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 wheat seasons, the irrigation treatments (W1 and W2) significantly increased the wheat yield by 14.88%-15.01% and 4.11-4.16 times, respectively, but the difference between them was not significant, while the risk of soil nitrate nitrogen leaching under irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2 in overwintering period was significantly reduced. Under the irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period, the yield was the highest in N150 treatment in 2017-2018, and in N225 treatment in 2018-2019, the N150 treatment had higher nitrogen use efficiency, and soil nitrate nitrogen leaching was also reduced by 15.87% and 10.20% compared with that of N225 treatment in 2017-2019. Therefore, N150 treatment (with nitrogen application rate of 150 kg hm -2) combined with W1 treatment (irrigated 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period) can improve the water and nitrogen utilization efficiencies and reduce the risk of nitrate nitrogen leaching, realizing the water-saving and nitrogen reduction production of winter wheat in Guanzhong Plain.

Key words: winter wheat, water saving and nitrogen reduction, grain yield, water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrate nitrogen leaching

Table 1

Basic physicochemical properties of the experiment soil (0-60 cm) "

Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total N
(g kg-1)
Nitrate N
(mg kg-1)
Total P
(g kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Total K
(g kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
0-20 19.06 1.24 12.46 0.99 27.59 10.85 243.87
20-40 15.03 1.00 14.53 0.86 15.06 10.59 222.31
40-60 10.95 0.79 23.08 0.62 3.54 9.90 193.96

Fig. 1

Monthly average rainfall in the past 10 years"

Fig. 2

Daily rainfall during wheat growing season from 2017 to 2019"

Table 2

Effects of nitrogen application and irrigation on winter wheat yield and its components"

2017?2018 2018?2019
(×103 spikes hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
(×103 spikes hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
N0 558.07 c 37 a 37.51 a 6819 c 327.80 c 33 a 45.62 a 4860 d
N75 565.77 bc 39 a 37.64 a 7580 b 460.17 ab 29 b 42.11 bc 5959 c
N150 599.13 ab 37 a 37.73 a 8092 a 482.90 a 29 b 42.24 bc 6599 b
N225 596.57 ab 38 a 38.46 a 7578 b 467.50 ab 30 b 41.65 c 7172 a
N300 607.20 a 37 a 36.89 a 7467 b 434.87 b 30 b 43.44 b 6910 ab
W0 529.76 c 38 a 39.84 a 6827 b 392.70 b 21 b 37.72 c 1676 b
W1 589.38 b 38 a 37.29 b 7843 a 415.36 b 36 a 48.83 a 8656 a
W2 636.90 a 37 a 35.81 c 7852 a 495.88 a 34 a 42.94 b 8569 a
N 3.91* 1.21NS 1.13NS 15.17*** 17.66*** 3.79** 137.26*** 29.43***
W 39.11*** 1.52NS 24.69*** 42.43*** 22.37*** 150.77*** 110.84*** 922.80***
N×W 1.71NS 8.04*** 4.40** 5.94*** 7.56*** 9.96*** 2.196NS 2.14NS

Fig. 3

Relationship between nitrogen application rate and wheat yield under the same irrigation conditions W0: no irrigation; W1: irrigated 600 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period; W2: irrigated 1200 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period and jointing stage. "

Fig. 4

Soil water content of wheat season in 2017?2019 W0: no irrigation; W1: irrigated 600 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period; W2: irrigated 1200 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period and jointing stage. "

Table 3

Nitrogen uptake of 100 kg grain in winter wheat under different water and nitrogen treatments (kg) "

2017?2018 2018?2019
W0 W1 W2 平均Mean W0 W1 W2 平均Mean
N0 1.65 d 2.13 b 2.40 b 2.06 c 6.26 a 1.57 d 3.59 a 3.81 ab
N75 2.06 cd 2.19 b 2.48 b 2.24 bc 5.48 a 1.76 cd 3.25 a 3.50 b
N150 2.48 bc 2.26 b 2.55 b 2.43 b 5.89 a 2.02 bc 3.12 a 3.67 ab
N225 2.82 ab 2.48 ab 3.10 ab 2.80 a 5.69 a 2.24 b 3.13 a 3.68 ab
N300 3.01 a 2.75 a 3.38 a 3.05 a 6.37 a 2.68 a 3.49 a 4.18 a
平均Mean 2.41 b 2.36 b 2.78 a 5.94 a 2.05 c 3.31 b
N 16.87*** 2.11NS
W 9.31** 212.65***
N×W 1.26NS 0.97NS

Table 4

Effect of different treatments on water and nitrogen use efficiencies of wheat"

2017?2018 2018?2019
(kg kg-1)
(kg kg-1)
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
(kg kg-1)
(kg kg-1)
(g hm-2 mm-1)
W0N0 59.20 a 18.67 cd 15.98 f 4.91 h
W0N75 2.89 ef 48.62 b 20.11 bc 7.97 fg 18.28 f 6.04 gh
W0N150 0.99 f 40.43 de 22.65 a 5.36 gh 17.03 f 7.58 fg
W0N225 -1.76 g 35.69 fg 18.66 cd 5.31 gh 17.59 f 9.02 f
W0N300 -0.85 g 33.31 gh 20.41 bc 3.92 gh 15.90 f 8.02 f
W1N0 46.93 b 18.11 d 63.65 a 18.03 cd
W1N75 15.45 a 45.82 bc 20.13 bc 13.65 cd 56.87 b 18.33 cd
W1N150 14.29 a 44.91 bc 21.16 ab 11.44 de 49.52 c 20.01 bc
W1N225 8.42 c 40.53 de 20.38 bc 10.78 e 45.09 c 22.35 a
W1N300 5.66 d 36.50 efg 21.07 ab 6.93 fg 37.42 d 21.89 a
W2N0 41.90 cd 16.85 d 27.95 e 14.06 e
W2N75 12.32 b 40.73 de 17.59 d 22.36 a 30.82 e 17.04 d
W2N150 10.19 c 39.22 def 21.15 ab 17.98 b 32.98 de 19.89 bc
W2N225 3.47 e 32.54 gh 18.47 cd 14.72 c 32.85 de 21.21 ab
W2N300 1.67 ef 29.90 h 17.82 d 9.65 ef 28.83 e 19.88 bc
N 121.95*** 63.92*** 16.07*** 38.48*** 9.94*** 35.38***
W 310.08*** 33.89*** 14.42 *** 135.53*** 408.77*** 657.46***
N×W 8.83*** 8.07*** 1.90NS 4.81** 10.83*** 1.84NS

Fig. 5

Soil nitrate nitrogen content in 0-200 cm profile after wheat harvest in 2017-2019 W0: no irrigation; W1: irrigated 600 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period; W2: irrigated 1200 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period and jointing stage. * indicates significant at the 0.05 probability level; ** indicates significant at the 0.01 probability level; *** indicates significant at the 0.001 probability level. "

Fig. 6

Nitrate nitrogen leaching under different treatments N0: no nitrogen application; N75: N application rate was 75 kg hm-2; N150: N application rate was 150 kg hm-2; N225: N application rate was 225 kg hm-2; N300:N application rate was 300 kg hm-21; W0: no irrigation; W1: irrigated 600 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period; W2: irrigated 1200 m3 hm-2 in overwintering period and jointing stage. Different letters above the bar mean significant differences at the 0.05 probability level under the same irrigation condition. "

Fig. 7

Relationship of wheat yield with nitrogen use and nitrate leaching under different nitrogen application rates NAE: nitrogen agronomic efficiency; NUE: nitrogen use efficiency. "

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