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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (5): 1262-1272.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11034


Response of winter wheat yield, nitrogen use efficiency and soil nitrogen balance to rainfall types and nitrogen application rate in dryland

GUO Xing-Yu(), LIU Peng-Zhao, WANG Rui, WANG Xiao-Li, LI Jun*()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2021-03-29 Accepted:2021-06-16 Online:2022-05-12 Published:2021-07-15
  • Contact: LI Jun E-mail:1140652623@qq.com;junli@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Technology Support Program of China(2015BAD22B02);National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program)(2013AA102902);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801300)


To study the effects of nitrogen application rate on grain yield, nitrogen utilization, and soil nitrogen balance of dryland winter wheat fields under different rainfall types, we explored the optimal nitrogen input levels for stable yield and high efficiency of winter wheat in the Weibei highland of North China, which could provide a theoretical basis for efficient fertilization. Five nitrogen treatments including 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg hm-2 (designated as N0, N60, N120, N180, and N240, respectively) were arranged in Heyang County, Shaanxi Province from 2017 to 2020. The three-year in situ experiment were as follows: (1) Different rainfall types had significant impact on yield and economic profits of winter wheat. Compared with the normal and dry year, the yield of the humid year was increased by 33.6% and 113.3% and economic profits were increased by two to three times or more. Nitrogen fertilizer recycling and agronomic efficiency of winter wheat had similar change patterns with yield, and the nitrogen fertilizer recycling, and agronomic efficiency were increased by 4.7%, 0.6 kg kg-1 (normal year), and 11.9%, 2.5 kg kg-1 (dry year) in the humid year compared with the normal and dry year. (2) Regardless of the rainfall type, the yield and nitrogen fertilizer recycling and agronomic efficiency of winter wheat increase first and then decrease with the increase of N application. The highest values were found under N180 treatment in both humid and normal years, and the NO3--N accumulation in 0-100 cm layer after wheat harvest were 108.9 and 113.6 kg hm-2, respectively. In dry year, the NO3--N accumulation under N120 treatment in 0-100 cm layer after wheat harvest was 100.8 kg hm-2 reaching the highest value. (3) The threshold of nitrogen input was determined by the best economic benefit and the highest yield, the nitrogen application rates in humid year, dry year, and normal year were 158.9-166.5, 121.2-130.0, and 148.1-155.7 kg hm-2, respectively; The threshold of nitrogen input was determined by the balance of soil nitrogen pool and the maximum nitrogen uptake, the nitrogen application rates in humid year, dry year, and normal year were 166.5-190.3, 109.6-147.7, and 153.5-198.9 kg hm-2, respectively. Considering the high yield and high efficiency of winter wheat and low soil nitrogen loss, we concluded that when the nitrogen application rates in humid year, dry year, and normal year were 158.9-190.3, 109.6-147.7, and 148.1-198.9 kg hm-2, respectively. It was the suitable nitrogen application rate for both high yield and good environmental benefits, which could be benefit for reference in the production of this region.

Key words: rainfall type, Weibei dryland, nitrogen balance, winter wheat, nitrate nitrogen

Table 1

Soil basic chemical properties before the experiment in 2017"

Soil depth
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total N
(g kg-1)
Total P
(g kg-1)
Total K
(g kg-1)
Available N
(mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
0-20 11.38 0.8 0.5 7.2 35.7 9.2 177.2
20-40 8.53 0.6 0.4 7.7 33.6 8.4 103.3
40-60 8.41 0.5 0.3 7.6 40.9 3.6 98.8

Table 2

Rainfall types in winter wheat growth year from 2017 to 2020"

DI 降水年型
Rainfall type
2017-2018 528.4 264.2 264.2 0.6 H
2018-2019 352.2 214.4 137.8 -1.8 D
2019-2020 470.8 248.6 222.2 -0.2 N

Fig. 1

Rainfall distribution of winter wheat growth period under different rainfall types Abbreviations as in Table 2."

Table 3

Input of winter wheat production"

种子及肥料投入 Seed and fertilizers inputs (Yuan kg-1) 其他投入 Other inputs (Yuan hm-2)
Potassium sulfate
1.6 0.9 3.8 4.3 600 750 750 900 375

Table 4

Effects of nitrogen application rates on grain yield and net income in dryland winter wheat under different rainfall types"

(kg hm-2)
Spike number
(×104 hm-2)
Grains per spike
1000-grain weight (g)
Production input
(Yuan hm-2)
Yield income
(Yuan hm-2)
Net income
(Yuan hm-2)
Humid year
N0 3546 d 349.8 a 28.5 b 44.7 a 5900 c 7800 c 1900 c
N60 4036 c 341.6 a 28.5 b 44.9 b 5833 c 8879 b 3046 b
N120 4762 a 349.5 a 29.4 b 45.0 a 6040 bc 10,477 a 4437 a
N180 4876 a 348.0 a 37.1 a 45.6 a 6247 ab 10,728 a 4481 a
N240 4465 b 346.8 a 33.4 a 44.5 a 6454 a 9822 a 3368 b
Dry year
N0 1626 d 169.5 b 12.5 c 26.6 c 5900 c 3578 d -2322 c
N60 2126 bc 178.2 a 15.2 ab 28.6 b 5833 c 4677 b -1156 b
N120 2382 a 183.7 a 16.6 a 29.8 a 6040 bc 5239 a -801 a
N180 2183 ab 185.7 a 14.2 b 28.4 b 6247 ab 4803 ab -1444 b
N240 1851 c 193.0 a 10.1 d 28.1 b 6454 a 40,738 c -2076 c
Normal year
N0 2553 c 292.7 b 25.8 b 40.4 c 5900 c 5616 d -284 e
N60 3092 b 308.8 a 27.8 ab 41.3 c 5833 c 6802 c 969 c
N120 3551 ab 305.0 a 28.2 ab 42.4 b 6040 bc 7812 ab 1772 b
N180 3800 a 318.6 a 30.1 a 43.4 a 6247 ab 8360 a 2113 a
N240 3231 b 308.8 a 27.7 ab 39.4 e 6454 a 7109 bc 655 d

Table 5

Recovery efficiency of nitrogen and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter wheat under different rainfall types"

N output (kg hm-2)
Recovery efficiency of N (%)
Agronomic efficiency of N (kg kg-1)
Humid year
N0 124.6 c
N60 138.8 b 29.0 b 6.9 c
N120 163.9 a 32.7 ab 8.1 b
N180 169.9 a 39.8 a 9.1 a
N240 162.0 a 19.3 c 3.5 d
Dry year
N0 73.0 c
N60 92.4 b 13.3 c 3.1 c
N120 118.3 a 32.0 a 7.4 a
N180 106.2 a 16.8 b 6.3 b
N240 97.4 b 11.2 c 0.9 d
Normal year
N0 121.6 c
N60 134.7 bc 24.2 b 6.7 b
N120 148.5 ab 28.7 ab 7.5 ab
N180 159.9 a 32.3 a 8.3 a
N240 151.6 ab 16.8 c 2.8 c

Fig. 2

Distribution of NO3-N accumulation in 0-200 cm soil layer under different N application rates after winter wheat harvest from 2017 to 2020 H: humid year (2017-2018); D: dry year (2018-2019); N: normal year (2019-2020). Treatments as in Table 4."

Table 6

Effects of nitrogen application in different precipitation years on soil nitrogen apparent balance in winter wheat (kg hm-2)"

N input
Straw returning N
Initial N
N output
Accumulation N after harvest
Humid year
N0 0 60.0 56.9 124.6 c 25.4 e -33.1 e
N60 60 60.0 56.9 138.8 b 57.8 d -19.6 d
N120 120 60.0 56.9 163.9 a 72.6 c 0.4 c
N180 180 60.0 56.9 169.9 a 108.6 b 18.1 b
N240 240 60.0 56.9 162.0 a 157.2 a 37.7 a
Dry year
N0 0 36.5 38.4 73.0 c 31.7 e -29.8 e
N60 60 41.6 43.1 92.4 b 67.0 d -14.7 d
N120 120 47.9 66.1 118.3 a 100.8 c 14.9 c
N180 180 50.9 74.5 106.2 a 132.4 b 66.9 b
N240 240 48.6 122.5 97.4 b 200.5 a 113.2 a
Normal year
N0 0 36.5 45.1 121.6 c 33.5 e -73.5 d
N60 60 46.1 41.4 134.7 bc 64.1 d -51.2 c
N120 120 60.3 72.0 148.5 ab 92.2 c 11.6 b
N180 180 65.5 102.9 159.9 a 113.6 b 74.9 a
N240 240 59.6 152.7 151.6 ab 222.9 a 77.8 a

Fig. 3

Regression analysis of nitrogen rate and theoretical maximum yield and nitrogen uptake rate of winter wheat under different rainfall types H: humid year (2017-2018); D: dry year (2018-2019); N: normal year (2019-2020)."

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