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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 1149-1161.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01059


Effects of whole soil-plastic mulching system and fertilization rates on water consumption characteristics and yield of tartary buckwheat in arid land

FANG Yan-Jie, ZHANG Xu-Cheng*(), HOU Hui-Zhi, YU Xian-Feng, WANG Hong-Li, MA Yi-Fan, ZHANG Guo-Ping, LEI Kang-Ning   

  1. Institute of Dry-Land Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of High Water Utilization on Dryland of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
  • Received:2020-07-25 Accepted:2020-12-01 Online:2021-06-12 Published:2021-01-12
  • Contact: ZHANG Xu-Cheng E-mail:gszhangxuch@163.com
  • Supported by:
    The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31760367);The Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of GAAS(2019GAAS10)


In order to study the effects of whole soil-plastic mulching planting and different fertilization rates on soil water consumption characteristics and yields of tartary buckwheat, a three-year (2015-2017) located experiment was carried out in semi-arid region of east-central Gansu Province, China, under whole soil-plastic mulching planting system. Four fertilization treatments under soil-plastic mulching were accordingly designed, including high application rate (HF, N 120 kg hm-2+ P2O5 90 kg hm-2 + K2O 60 kg hm-2), medium rate (MF, N 80 kg hm-2+ P2O5 60 kg hm-2 + K2O 40 kg hm-2), low rate (LF, N 40 kg hm-2+ P2O5 30 kg hm-2 + K2O 20 kg hm-2), and zero fertilization rate (ZF), whereas ZF with traditional non-mulching planting was set as the control (CK) to illustrate the effects of soil-plastic mulching and fertilization on water consumption characteristics, yields and water use efficiency (WUE) of tartary buckwheat in semi-arid area of China. The results showed that the effects of rainwater collection and soil moisture conservation were obvious after planting tartary buckwheat with whole soil-plastic mulching, which also improved soil water environment and increased pre-anthesis soil water storage (SWS, mm). LF was able to regulate soil water consumption before and after anthesis stage according to different precipitation years and soil moisture conditions. Compared with ZF, MF, HF, and CK in dry years, LF improved post-anthesis SWS by 2.8-23.5 mm and increased crop pre-anthesis water consumption in the 0-100 mm soil profile by 26.3-32.4 mm in tartary buckwheat. As a result, LF increased total crop water consumption in the whole growth period by 44.5 mm, and boosted water consumption module coefficient and intensity. Moreover, compared with ZF, MF, HF and CK, LF treatment increased dry matter weight at maturity stage by 1.2%-58.8%, leaf area index (LAI) at filling stage by 4.1%-68.5%, grain weight per plant by 1.6%-61.6%, plumpness rate by 0.6%-29.2%, biomass yield by 1.1%-182.5%, grain yield by 1.1%-130.4%, and water use efficiency (WUE, kg hm-2 mm-1) by 0.3%-102.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the storage effect of low amount fertilizer treatment for tartary buckwheat planting with whole soil-plastic mulching in dry land was obvious, which could achieve the coupling effects of soil moisture and fertilizer and regulate crop water consumption according to the environmental conditions such as precipitation during crop growth period, and it could significantly improve the biomass yield, grain yield and WUE of tartary buckwheat. Therefore, it was a suitable cultivation mode for yield-increasing and efficiency-boosting of tartary buckwheat in semi-arid area.

Key words: tartary buckwheat, whole soil-plastic mulching planting, fertilization, water consumption, yield, water use efficiency

Fig. 1

Average precipitation and air temperature during growth stages in tartay buckwheat"

Fig. 2

Soil water storage of 0-300 cm soil depth at different growth stages In each growing season, mean values (n = 3) followed by different letters within a column are significantly different among treatments at P < 0.05; Error bars above data at each growth stage show the magnitude of LSD0.05; HF: soil-plastic mulching and high fertilization; MF: soil-plastic mulching and medium fertilization; LF: soil-plastic mulching and low fertilization; ZF: soil-plastic mulching and zero fertilization; CK: traditional non-mulching and zero fertilization."

Fig. 3

Soil profile water consumptions of the 0-300 cm soil layer at pre-flowering and post-flowering stage Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2. "

Table 1

Water consumption, water consumption percentage, and daily water consumption at different growth stages in tartay buckwheat"

年份Year 处理Treatment 耗水量
Water consumption (mm)
花前Pre-flowering stage 花后Post-flowering stage
Water consumption (mm)
WCP (%)
(d mm-1)
Water consumption (mm)
WCP (%)
(d mm-1)
2015 CK 419.8 ab 244.6 c 58.3 b 4.6 b 175.2 a 41.7 b 3.0 a
ZF 402.5 b 240.9 c 59.9 b 4.5 b 161.6 b 40.1 b 2.7 b
LF 417.0 ab 273.1 b 65.5 a 5.0 a 143.9 c 34.5 c 2.4 c
MF 410.1 ab 222.4 d 54.2 c 4.0 c 187.7 a 45.8 a 3.2 a
HF 429.7 a 291.1 a 67.7 a 5.5 a 138.6 c 32.3 c 2.3 c
2016 CK 258.6 b 195.9 c 75.8 b 3.8 c 62.7 c 24.2 b 1.5 b
ZF 295.9 a 238.7 a 80.7 a 4.6 a 57.2 c 19.3 c 1.4 c
LF 303.1 a 222.1 b 73.3 b 4.3 b 81.0 a 26.7 a 1.9 a
MF 294.8 a 217.1 b 73.6 b 4.2 b 77.7 a 26.4 a 1.9 a
HF 288.9 a 217.9 b 75.4 b 4.2 b 71.0 b 24.6 b 1.7 b
2017 CK 247.1 c 114.8 c 46.4 d 2.4 c 132.3 b 53.6 a 2.2 b
ZF 287.6 b 121.1 c 42.1 d 2.5 c 166.5 a 57.9 a 2.8 a
LF 237.7 c 132.3 c 55.7 c 2.8 c 105.4 c 44.3 b 1.8 c
MF 336.9 a 249.0 a 73.9 a 5.2 a 87.9 d 26.1 d 1.5 d
HF 287.7 b 191.7 b 66.6 b 4.0 b 96.0 d 33.4 d 1.6 d

Table 2

Dry matter accumulation per plant at different growth stages in tartay buckwheat"

Seeding stage
Branching stage
Flowering stage
Filling stage
Maturity stage
2015 CK 0.4 c 1.5 b 3.7 c 8.8 c 11.6 c
ZF 0.7 a 2.7 a 6.1 b 12.3 a 19.2 a
LF 0.6 b 2.8 a 6.4 a 13.1 a 20.1 a
MF 0.6 b 2.8 a 6.6 a 12.3 a 17.8 b
HF 0.6 b 2.8 a 6.5 a 11.5 b 19.0 a
2016 CK 0.2 b 0.6 c 2.6 d 6.1 d 7.3 d
ZF 0.7 a 2.6 b 4.9 c 10.4 c 17.4 a
LF 0.7 a 2.9 b 6.4 a 11.5 a 17.7 a
MF 0.7 a 3.7 a 5.6 b 10.8 b 16.9 b
HF 0.7 a 3.8 a 6.4 a 11.1 a 15.2 c
2017 CK 0.4 d 0.8 c 3.6 c 7.4 c 10.4 c
ZF 0.6 c 2.2 b 5.5 b 10.5 b 17.5 b
LF 1.0 a 2.4 a 6.7 a 11.5 a 19.0 a
MF 0.9 b 2.5 a 5.6 b 11.2 a 18.8 a
HF 1.0 a 2.6 a 6.4 a 10.8 b 17.5 b

Table 3

Analysis of variance of year, whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level on dry matter accumulation per plant"

Source of variation
Dry matter at flowering stage
年份Year (A) 11.8 0.0002
Whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level (B)
102.1 0.0001
A×B 2.4 0.0387
Dry matter at maturity stage
年份Year (A) 75.6 0.0001
Whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level (B)
353.8 0.0001
A×B 6.2 0.0001

Table 4

Leaf area index of different growth stages in tartay buckwheat"

Branching stage
Flowering stage
Filling stage
Maturity stage
2015 CK 2.1 c 4.8 c 3.2 c 2.2 c
ZF 3.0 b 5.0 c 4.7 b 3.3 b
LF 3.3 a 5.5 b 5.3 a 3.7 a
MF 3.6 a 6.3 a 5.1 a 3.6 a
HF 3.2 a 6.2 a 4.7 b 3.3 b
2016 CK 1.0 c 1.5 c 1.8 c 1.1 c
ZF 1.8 b 4.2 b 3.2 a 1.9 a
LF 1.9 b 4.6 a 3.4 a 2.0 a
MF 2.3 a 4.6 a 3.3 a 1.6 b
HF 2.3 a 4.8 a 3.2 a 1.9 a
2017 CK 1.3 d 2.2 c 1.5 b 1.2 c
ZF 2.5 c 3.8 b 4.6 a 3.6 b
LF 3.2 b 5.6 a 4.8 a 3.9 a
MF 3.9 a 5.5 a 4.5 a 3.6 b
HF 3.0 b 5.5 a 4.6 a 3.6 b

Table 5

Effects of different treatments on yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index in tartay buckwheat"

处理Treatment 成穗数
Ear number
(plant hm-2)
Grain weight per plant (g)
Full grain yield
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
Harvesting index
2015 CK 185.4 a 3.3 d 78.1 b 2077.2 d 21,620.6 b 4.9 d 8.5 a
ZF 178.3 a 6.1 b 82.9 b 2687.1 a 34,251.1 a 6.7 a 7.9 b
LF 175.2 a 7.1 a 89.2 a 2774.7 a 35,193.8 a 6.7 a 7.9 b
MF 188.2 a 6.2 b 63.2 d 2487.0 b 33,518.4 a 6.1 b 7.4 c
HF 183.4 a 5.3 c 70.6 c 2367.9 c 34,801.0 a 5.5 c 6.8 d
2016 CK 161.6 b 2.2 b 49.9 b 936.7 c 11,788.1 c 3.6 c 8.0 a
ZF 176.3 a 5.2 a 56.9 a 2133.9 a 30,742.3 b 7.2 a 6.9 b
LF 188.2 a 5.3 a 57.3 a 2158.2 a 33,299.4 a 7.1 a 6.5 b
MF 173.7 a 5.0 a 49.2 b 2021.0 a 29,393.4 b 6.9 a 7.0 b
HF 183.4 a 5.2 a 45.4 b 1654.2 b 27,881.9 b 5.7 b 5.9 c
2017 CK 174.5 b 2.5 d 70.4 b 1391.2 d 18,154.2 c 5.6 c 7.7 a
ZF 190.4 a 5.5 b 76.9 a 2211.6 b 33,334.5 b 7.7 b 6.6 b
LF 203.3 a 6.4 a 80.6 a 2712.8 a 38,699.8 a 11.4 a 7.0 b
MF 187.6 a 5.6 b 61.8 c 2371.7 b 35,298.6 b 7.0 b 6.8 b
HF 198.1 a 4.7 c 63.8 c 2105.8 c 34,609.6 b 7.3 b 6.1 c

Table 6

Analysis of variance of years, whole soil-plastic mulching with planting, and fertilizer level on yield, biomass, water use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index"

Source of variation
年份Year (A) 119.2 0.0001
Whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level (B)
101.5 0.0001
A×B 5.5 0.0002
年份Year (A) 27.1 0.0001
Whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level (B)
93.6 0.0001
A×B 1.9 0.1024
年份Year (A) 51.2 0.0001
Whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level (B)
54.9 0.0001
A×B 9.1 0.0001
Harvesting index
年份Year (A) 7.9 0.0017
Whole soil-plastic mulching with planting and fertilizer level (B)
8.1 0.0001
A×B 0.4 0.9340
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