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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 667-681.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12018

• TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Nitrogen and density treatment to improve resource utilization and yield in late sowing japonica rice

YUAN Jia-Qi(), LIU Yan-Yang*(), XU Ke*(), LI Guo-Hui, CHEN Tian-Ye, ZHOU Hu-Yi, GUO Bao-Wei, HUO Zhong-Yang, DAI Qi-Gen, ZHANG Hong-Cheng   

  1. Innovation Center of Rice Cultivation Technology in Yangtze River Valley of Ministry of Agriculture/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops/Research Institute of Rice Industrial Engineering Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2021-03-03 Accepted:2021-06-16 Online:2021-07-30 Published:2021-07-30
  • Contact: LIU Yan-Yang,XU Ke E-mail:1065249601@qq.com;yyliu@yzu.edu.cn;xuke@yzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD030120102);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0300102);Key Research and Development Projects of Jiangsu(BE2017343);Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

Abstract:

Recently, the phenomenon of late sowing and late transplanting in rice is becoming more and more common in central Jiangsu, a rice and wheat double cropping system area, which is caused by climate change and the expanding of comprehensive rice-and-shrimp planting model. It will lead to the mismatch of rice growth period with light and temperature resources, restricting the stable high yield of rice. This study was conducted under the condition of late sowing and late transplanting (sowing date was June 12th, transplanting date was June 30th) and the seedling was transplanted by machine. Four nitrogen application rates (N0: 0 kg hm-2; N240: 240 kg hm-2; N300: 300 kg hm-2; N360: 360 kg hm-2) and three density treatments (D3: 3 seedlings per hole; D4: 4 seedlings per hole; D5: 5 seedlings per hole) were arranged, and the suitable sowing period (May 29), conventional nitrogen application rate, and the seedling number per hole (N300D4) were taken as the controls. Our goal is to explore the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and seedling number per hole on the growth and yield formation in late-sown japonica rice, and to provide theoretical basis for improving yield potential and resource use efficiency in late sowing and late transplanting japonica rice in central Jiangsu province. The results showed that compared with CK, the yield of each treatment decreased, mainly because of the significantly reduced spikelet number under the late sowing and late transplanting condition. The highest spikelet numbers were 11.94% and 8.12% lower than those of CK in the two years. In addition, the utilization rate of temperature and light resources, nitrogen uptake, and nitrogen utilization rate decreased under late sowing and late transplanting treatment, leading to a decrease in dry matter accumulation and yield. The yield increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate and seedling number per hole under the late sowing and late transplanting condition, while there was no consistent with the trend under N360D5 treatment. We assumed that it was mainly due to the increased spikelet number, larger leaf area index at heading stage, the larger proportion of efficient leaf, and the extended growth period. In summary, the utilization of temperature and light resources and the dry matter accumulation at maturity stage was improved, and the decline in yield was alleviated. Nitrogen use efficiency increased first and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen rate, and N300D5 treatment reached the maximum. In general, under the late sowing and late transplanting condition, in order to alleviate the yield loss and reduce nitrogen fertilizer waste, we should increase the seedling number per hole and then increase the amount of nitrogen fertilizer.

Key words: japonica rice, late sowing and late transplanting, nitrogen application rate, temperature and radiation resources, nitrogen use efficiency, yield

Fig. 1

Meteorological data of rice season in Xinghua in 2018 and 2019"

Table 1

Effects of different nitrogen levels on growth process in late sowing rice (d)"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
播种-拔节期
Seed-Jointing
拔节-抽穗期
Jointing-Heading
抽穗-成熟期
Heading-Maturity
全生育期
Growth stage
天数
Days
缩短天数
Shorten days
天数
Days
缩短天数
Shorten days
天数
Days
缩短天数
Shorten days
天数
Days
缩短天数
Shorten days
2018 CK 60 33 62 155
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 53 7 29 4 56 6 138 17
N240 53 7 30 3 57 5 140 15
N300 53 7 32 1 59 3 144 11
N360 53 7 33 0 59 3 145 10
2019 CK 61 33 62 156
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 54 7 29 4 56 6 139 17
N240 54 7 30 3 57 5 141 15
N300 54 7 32 1 59 3 145 11
N360 54 7 33 0 59 3 146 10

Table 2

Effects of nitrogen levels on accumulated temperature resources in late sowing rice"

年份Year 处理
Treatment
播种-拔节期
Seed-Jointing
拔节-抽穗期
Jointing-Heading
抽穗-成熟期
Heading-Maturity
全生育期
Growth stage
日均温
Daily mean temperature
(℃)
有效积温
Effective accumulated temperature (℃ d)
日均温
Daily mean temperature (℃)
有效积温
Effective accumulated temperature (℃ d)
日均温
Daily mean temperature (℃)
有效积温Effective
accumulated temperature
(℃ d)
日均温
Daily mean temperature (℃)
有效积温
Effective accumulated temperature (℃ d)
2018 CK 27.32 1056.60 28.66 615.90 19.61 595.90 25.20 2268.40
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 28.55 1001.80 27.68 495.10 19.93 566.10 25.39 2063.00
N240 28.55 1001.80 27.33 520.00 19.56 544.80 25.15 2066.60
N300 28.55 1001.80 27.03 544.90 18.99 530.70 24.86 2077.40
N360 28.55 1001.80 26.88 557.20 18.92 526.10 24.78 2085.10
2019 CK 25.73 975.50 27.62 581.40 20.18 631.10 24.51 2188.00
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 26.71 919.10 26.48 477.80 20.28 575.40 24.49 1972.30
N240 26.71 919.10 26.38 491.40 20.06 573.60 24.38 1984.10
N300 26.71 919.10 26.22 519.00 19.86 581.60 24.26 2019.70
N360 26.71 919.10 26.17 533.70 19.47 558.90 24.12 2011.70

Table 3

Effect of nitrogen level on radiation resources of late sowing rice"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
播种-拔节期
Seeding-Jointing
拔节-抽穗期
Jointing-Heading
抽穗-成熟期
Heading-Maturity
全生育期
Whole growth stage
日均辐射量
Daily mean radiation
(MJ m-2 d-1)
辐射量
Radiation
(MJ m-2)
日均辐射量
Daily mean radiation
(MJ m-2 d-1)
辐射量
Radiation
(MJ m-2)
日均辐射量
Daily mean radiation
(MJ m-2 d-1)
辐射量
Radiation
(MJ m-2)
日均辐射量
Daily mean radiation
(MJ m-2 d-1)
辐射量
Radiation
(MJ m-2)
2018 CK 21.45 1308.67 21.80 719.30 15.95 988.81 19.73 3016.77
迟播迟栽Late sowing N0 21.93 1184.04 20.67 578.67 15.99 911.19 19.53 2673.90
N240 21.93 1184.04 20.58 617.44 15.93 907.99 19.48 2709.47
N300 21.93 1184.04 20.54 657.41 15.64 922.88 19.37 2764.33
N360 21.93 1184.04 20.24 667.88 15.58 919.38 19.25 2771.30
2019 CK 19.41 1203.59 21.19 699.26 15.47 959.35 18.69 2862.19
迟播迟栽Late sowing N0 18.42 1013.00 19.58 567.71 15.67 877.77 17.89 2458.48
N240 18.42 1013.00 19.42 582.74 15.76 898.10 17.87 2493.83
N300 18.42 1013.00 19.05 609.50 15.81 932.61 17.76 2555.10
N360 18.42 1013.00 19.19 633.43 15.67 924.67 17.76 2571.10

Table 4

Effects of different treatments on yield and its constituent factors in late sowing rice"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
产量
Yield
(t hm-2)
穗数
Panicles
(×106 hm-2)
每穗颖花数
Spikelets per panicle
群体颖花量
Population
spikelets
(×106 hm-2)
结实率
Grain filling percentage
(%)
千粒重
1000-grain weight
(g)
收获指数
Harvest index
2018 CK 12.06 a 4.10 a 136.90 a 560.66 a 89.55 a 25.50 ab 0.515 a
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 7.06 g 2.65 f 124.20 de 329.09 j 88.69 a 25.65 a 0.467 i
D4 7.33 fg 2.81 f 120.75 ef 338.59 i 88.42 a 25.60 a 0.470 h
D5 7.66 f 3.02 e 117.40 f 353.35 h 88.21 a 25.35 bc 0.481 g
N240 D3 8.84 e 3.17 e 129.30 bcd 409.45 g 86.78 b 25.25 cd 0.501 e
D4 9.24 e 3.44 d 125.20 cde 430.22 f 86.05 bc 25.05 de 0.507 c
D5 9.80 d 3.53 d 124.85 cde 440.24 e 85.27 bc 24.95 e 0.514 a
N300 D3 9.90 d 3.63 cd 132.65 ab 480.60 d 85.99 bc 25.00 e 0.504 d
D4 10.54 c 3.81 bc 129.05 bcd 491.53 bc 85.67 bc 25.00 e 0.510 b
D5 11.03 b 3.87 b 127.85 bcd 493.72 b 85.16 c 24.90 e 0.511 b
N360 D3 10.36 c 3.76 bc 130.30 bc 489.68 c 85.05 c 25.00 e 0.499 e
D4 10.80 bc 3.84 b 128.40 bcd 492.64 b 84.55 c 24.85 ef 0.500 e
D5 10.61 bc 3.89 b 126.10 cd 489.89 c 84.50 c 24.65 f 0.495 f
2019 CK 11.39 a 3.79 a 135.96 a 514.60 a 89.69 c 25.58 b 0.521 ab
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 6.86 i 2.41 h 122.42 de 295.22 k 92.90 a 26.58 a 0.496 h
D4 7.19 h 2.65 g 120.17 e 318.01 j 91.27 b 26.63 a 0.499 g
D5 7.41 h 2.87 f 114.15 f 326.86 i 90.49 bc 26.45 a 0.502 f
N240 D3 8.44 g 3.09 e 127.73 bc 394.37 h 87.12 d 25.65 b 0.518 d
D4 8.84 f 3.24 de 125.18 cd 404.51 g 86.75 de 25.66 b 0.520 bcd
D5 9.29 e 3.38 cd 124.47 cde 420.38 f 86.52 de 25.54 b 0.521 ab
N300 D3 9.60 d 3.38 cd 130.58 b 440.51 e 86.30 def 25.45 b 0.519 cd
D4 10.00 c 3.55 bc 128.96 bc 468.74 c 86.17 def 25.38 b 0.520 abc
D5 10.38 b 3.73 ab 127.33 bcd 472.82 b 86.13 def 25.10 bc 0.521 a
N360 D3 9.87 c 3.53 bc 129.11 bc 455.32 d 85.75 def 25.33 bc 0.502 f
D4 10.28 b 3.68 ab 128.32 bc 472.12 b 85.40 ef 24.98 bc 0.509 e
D5 9.99 c 3.73 ab 126.05 bcd 469.75 c 84.90 f 24.67 c 0.491 i
方差分析
ANOVA
年度Year (Y) 43.652** 37.159** 3.52ns 47.742** 47.491** 98.552**
施氮水平Nitrogen (N) 513.011** 232.446** 67.05** 380.885** 138.705** 89.482**
穴栽苗数Density (D) 103.58** 60.174** 16.538** 13.407** 7.775** 10.631**
Y×N 1.521ns 0.227ns 0.374ns 0.225ns 10.881** 12.744**
Y×D 1.524ns 0.586ns 0.392ns 0.692ns 0.083ns 0.128ns
N×D 9.956** 4.384* 0.894ns 5.77* 0.422ns 0.766ns
Y×N×D 0.317ns 0.524ns 0.110ns 0.336ns 0.988ns 0.586ns

Table 5

Effects of different treatments on maximum number of seedlings and percentage of productive tiller in late sowing rice"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
高峰苗
Maximum seedling number
(×106 hm-2)
有效穗
Panicles
(×106 hm-2)
成穗率
Percentage of productive tiller
(%)
2018 CK 5.87 cd 4.01 a 69.85 a
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 4.09 i 2.65 f 64.72 bcd
D4 4.37 h 2.81 f 63.67 cde
D5 4.70 g 3.02 e 63.43 cde
N240 D3 4.77 g 3.17 e 66.34 b
D4 5.28 f 3.44 d 65.15 bc
D5 5.46 ef 3.53 d 64.62 bcd
N300 D3 5.65 de 3.63 cd 64.08 cde
D4 5.99 bc 3.81 bc 63.68 cde
D5 6.16 ab 3.87 b 62.72 def
N360 D3 5.98 bc 3.76 bc 62.87 cdef
D4 6.20 ab 3.84 b 61.92 ef
D5 6.35 a 3.89 b 61.15 f
2019 CK 5.33 c 3.79 a 71.00 a
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 3.77 g 2.41 h 64.12 cd
D4 4.13 f 2.65 g 64.36 bcd
D5 4.50 e 2.87 f 63.63 cd
N240 D3 4.69 e 3.09 e 65.92 b
D4 5.00 d 3.24 de 64.64 bc
D5 5.26 cd 3.38 cd 64.23 bcd
N300 D3 5.27 cd 3.38 cd 64.00 cd
D4 5.56 bc 3.55 bc 63.84 cd
D5 5.95 a 3.73 ab 62.76 de
N360 D3 5.56 bc 3.53 bc 63.38 cd
D4 5.82 ab 3.68 ab 63.29 cde
D5 6.05 a 3.73 ab 61.60 e

Table 6

Effects of different treatments on LAI in late sowing rice"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
拔节期
Jointing
抽穗期
Heading
成熟期
Maturity
抽穗期高效叶占比
High-efficiency leaf ratio at heading stage (%)
2018 CK 4.33 a 8.18 a 4.26 a 70.13 a
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 3.23 h 6.01 g 2.60 f 66.55 cde
D4 3.41 g 6.10 g 2.68 f 67.95 bcd
D5 3.57 f 6.39 f 2.97 e 68.27 bc
N240 D3 4.03 e 7.00 e 3.50 d 62.71 f
D4 4.08 de 7.22 d 3.64 cd 64.76 e
D5 4.13 cde 7.37 d 3.75 c 65.30 e
N300 D3 4.16 bcde 7.69 c 3.98 b 65.19 e
D4 4.19 bcd 7.82 bc 4.08 ab 66.12 de
D5 4.26 ab 7.99 ab 4.25 a 68.96 ab
N360 D3 4.24 abc 7.87 bc 4.12 ab 59.17 g
D4 4.27 ab 7.89 bc 4.14 ab 58.09 g
D5 4.36 a 7.94 b 4.16 ab 55.52 h
2019 CK 4.22 ab 7.73 a 3.71 a 70.79 a
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 3.04 h 5.27 f 1.77 e 66.45 abc
D4 3.13 h 5.36 f 1.85 e 67.98 ab
D5 3.32 g 5.45 f 1.93 e 69.22 ab
N240 D3 3.76 f 5.94 e 2.34 d 57.08 de
D4 3.80 ef 6.14 de 2.54 d 57.74 de
D5 3.97 de 6.39 d 2.72 cd 58.62 cde
N300 D3 4.02 cd 6.99 c 3.10 bc 60.69 bcde
D4 4.11 abcd 7.27 bc 3.41 ab 63.04 abcd
D5 4.15 abcd 7.48 ab 3.62 a 66.32 abc
N360 D3 4.06 bcd 7.24 bc 3.31 ab 56.50 de
D4 4.19 abc 7.27 bc 3.45 ab 55.69 de
D5 4.27 a 7.36 abc 3.53 ab 53.47 e

Table 7

Effects of different treatments on dry matter weight and dry matter accumulation in late sowing rice"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
拔节期
Jointing
(t hm-2)
抽穗期
Heading
(t hm-2)
成熟期
Maturity
(t hm-2)
阶段积累量Accumulation
播种-拔节期
Seeding- Jointing
(t hm-2)
占比
Ratio
(%)
拔节-抽穗期
Jointing- Heading
(t hm-2)
占比
Ratio
(%)
抽穗-成熟期
Heading- Maturity
(t hm-2)
占比
Ratio
(%)
2018 CK 4.95 a 14.42 a 23.39 a 4.95 a 21.19 9.46 a 40.44 8.98 a 38.37
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 2.47 i 8.80 i 15.12 g 2.47 i 16.30 6.34 e 41.92 6.32 j 41.77
D4 2.52 i 9.15 hi 15.59 g 2.52 i 16.80 6.53 e 41.89 6.44 ij 41.31
D5 2.69 hi 9.35 h 15.92 g 2.69 hi 16.91 6.66 e 41.82 6.57 i 41.27
N240 D3 2.92 ghi 10.59 g 17.66 f 2.92 ghi 16.54 7.67 d 43.40 7.08 h 40.06
D4 3.07 gh 10.93 g 18.22 f 3.07 gh 16.84 7.87 d 43.14 7.30 g 40.02
D5 3.23 fg 11.44 f 19.06 e 3.23 fg 16.91 8.22 cd 43.11 7.62 f 39.98
N300 D3 3.38 efg 12.02 e 19.66 e 3.38 efg 17.17 8.65 bc 43.99 7.64 f 38.84
D4 3.63 ef 12.65 d 20.67 d 3.63 ef 17.56 9.02 ab 43.63 8.02 cd 38.81
D5 3.81 de 13.21 bc 21.57 bc 3.81 de 17.66 9.39 ab 43.54 8.37 b 38.80
N360 D3 4.15 cd 12.89 cd 20.76 cd 4.15 cd 20.01 8.73 abc 42.08 7.87 de 37.91
D4 4.46 bc 13.55 b 21.62 b 4.46 bc 20.62 9.10 ab 42.05 8.07 c 37.33
D5 4.66 ab 13.64 b 21.41 bcd 4.66 ab 21.75 8.99 ab 41.97 7.77 ef 36.29
2019 CK 4.35 a 13.13 a 21.87 a 4.35 a 19.90 8.78 a 40.13 8.75 a 39.97
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 2.09 k 8.08 j 13.83 j 2.09 k 15.14 5.99 h 43.34 5.74 i 41.52
D4 2.22 j 8.43 i 14.39 i 2.22 j 15.43 6.20 g 43.12 5.97 h 41.45
D5 2.36 i 8.72 h 14.75 i 2.36 i 15.97 6.36 g 43.10 6.04 h 40.93
N240 D3 2.53 h 9.49 g 16.28 h 2.53 h 15.53 6.97 f 42.80 6.79 g 41.67
D4 2.73 g 9.93 f 17.01 g 2.73 g 16.01 7.21 e 42.36 7.08 f 41.63
D5 2.89 f 10.44 e 17.85 f 2.89 f 16.18 7.55 d 42.30 7.41 e 41.51
N300 D3 3.15 e 11.15 d 18.50 e 3.15 e 17.03 8.00 c 43.26 7.35 e 39.71
D4 3.36 d 11.88 c 19.66 c 3.36 d 17.09 8.52 b 43.33 7.79 c 39.58
D5 3.59 c 12.17 c 20.09 b 3.59 c 17.85 8.59 b 42.74 7.92 b 39.42
N360 D3 3.50 c 11.95 c 19.24 d 3.50 c 18.22 8.44 b 43.87 7.30 e 37.90
D4 4.01 b 12.52 b 20.18 b 4.01 b 19.87 8.51 b 42.17 7.66 d 37.96
D5 4.34 a 12.86 a 19.91 bc 4.34 a 21.79 8.52 b 42.80 7.05 f 35.41

Table 8

Effects of different treatment on nitrogen use efficiency in rice"

年份
Year
处理
Treatment
吸收利用
Recovery efficiency (%)
农学利用率
Agronomic efficiency (kg kg-1)
生理利用率
Physiological efficiency (kg kg-1)
偏生产力
Partial factor productivity (kg kg-1)
2018 CK 43.64 ab 11.95 a 28.52 a 38.24 c
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 47.24 b
D4 47.55 b
D5 49.21 a
N240 D3 39.19 fg 7.45 h 19.00 g 36.34 e
D4 40.65 def 7.97 g 19.59 f 36.71 e
D5 42.49 bc 8.92 f 20.99 e 38.04 cd
N300 D3 39.90 ef 9.48 de 23.77 d 36.80 e
D4 42.21 bcd 10.72 c 25.40 b 37.56 d
D5 44.61 a 11.25 b 25.21 b 38.12 cd
N360 D3 37.66 g 9.17 ef 24.34 c 36.35 e
D4 39.67 ef 9.67 d 24.37 c 36.40 e
D5 41.19 cde 8.20 g 19.92 f 34.92 f
2019 CK 41.10 a 10.10 a 26.33 a 38.55 g
迟播迟栽
Late sowing
N0 D3 55.06 a
D4 54.81 a
D5 52.38 b
N240 D3 36.86 de 6.59 f 17.88 h 39.62 cde
D4 37.85 cd 6.89 ef 18.21 h 39.84 cd
D5 39.62 abc 7.85 d 19.81 f 39.28 def
N300 D3 38.01 bcd 9.13 b 24.01 c 40.22 c
D4 39.72 ab 9.38 b 23.61 cd 39.96 cd
D5 40.38 a 9.89 a 24.50 b 39.51 cde
N360 D3 35.63 e 8.37 c 23.49 de 39.04 efg
D4 37.27 de 8.58 c 23.01 e 38.73 fg
D5 38.27 bcd 7.18 e 18.76 g 35.79 h

Fig. 2

Effects of different treatment on plant nitrogen absorption and its proportion to total nitrogen uptake in rice at maturity stage Treatments are the same as those given in Table 4. Data in the table are the average value (n = 3). Different lowercase letters indicate that there was significant difference at the 0.05 probability level among different treatments."

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