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    12 March 2022, Volume 48 Issue 3
    • REVIEW
      On the green and light-simplified and mechanized cultivation of cotton in a cotton-based double cropping system
      ZHENG Shu-Feng, LIU Xiao-Ling, WANG Wei, XU Dao-Qing, KAN Hua-Chun, CHEN Min, LI Shu-Ying
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  541-552.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14090
      Abstract ( 183 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (928KB) ( 147 )   Save
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      There are many prominent problems or challenges in the traditional cotton production under the cotton-based double cropping system, which include complex planting pattern and cumbersome cultivation technology, long growth period, low degree of mechanization, heavy inputs of labor, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and the resulted low economic benefits. After nearly 10 years of researches and practice, China has established and applied the green and light-simplified and mechanized cultivation technology of cotton in a cotton-based double cropping system, namely the green production with reduced chemical fertilizers and pesticides, light and simplified field management, and mechanized production by using mechanics instead of labors. Based on the author's research and relevant research progress at home and abroad, this paper summarizes and reviews the basic concept, the technical route, the key technologies and theoretical basis of the green, light and mechanized cultivation of cotton under the cotton-based double cropping system. The core contents of the technology are one-time sowing by machinery (direct one seed precision sowing by machinery under no-tillage instead of cotton seedling transplanting, simultaneous sowing of seed and fertilizer, no thinning and no seedling replenishment), no pruning (avoid removal of vegetative branches and manual topping through close planting and chemical regulation to shape reasonable plant type and maturity), and one-time mechanical harvesting (establish a centralized fruiting population structure through comprehensive regulation and control) to save labor by 70%; Using cotton varieties with early maturity or mid-early maturity, reasonably higher plant density, one-off deep-soil application of controlled-release fertilizer and spraying fertilizer by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with water-soluble fertilizer for foliage, which can save fertilizer by 50%; and by making use of the resistance of insect-resistant cotton varieties, sowing late at an appropriate time to shorten cotton growth period, and control pests and diseases by using food or sex induced inducers, biological pesticides, insecticidal lamps, and UAV, which can save pesticide by 40%. Compared with traditional technologies, this technology has greatly reduced the labor inputs in cotton production, the substitution rate of agricultural machinery for labor has reached 60%, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizer has increased by more than 11.2%, and the economic benefit has increased by 30%. It also alleviates the non-point source pollution caused by excessive use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, and provides technical support for promoting the fundamental reform of cotton production mode.

      Rapid identification of adult plant wheat stripe rust resistance gene YrC271 using high-throughput SNP array-based bulked segregant analysis
      LIU Dan, ZHOU Cai-E, WANG Xiao-Ting, WU Qi-Meng, ZHANG Xu, WANG Qi-Lin, ZENG Qing-Dong, KANG Zhen-Sheng, HAN De-Jun, WU Jian-Hui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  553-564.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11039
      Abstract ( 182 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (1507KB) ( 102 )   Save
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      Wheat cultivar C271 registered as PI 210904 in the USDA National Small Grains Collection was developed from Punjab Pakistan in 1953 and it confers adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust both in the United States and China for many years. In the present study, we dissected the genetic basis of stripe rust resistance on 229 F2:3 populations produced by crossing Jinmai 79 and C271 in the fields of Yangling and Jiangyou. Bulked segregant analysis coupled with wheat 660K SNP array placed the majority of SNPs differences on chromosome arm 3BS. After using allele-specific quantitative PCR based genotyping assay (AQP) to confirm the SNPs, a linkage map was constructed and a major locus was detected across all environments based on IciMapping v4.1 software. The QTL, designated as YrC271, was flanked by SNP markers AX-109001377 and AX-111087256 with a genetic interval of 1.9 cM corresponding to a physical distance of 1.9 Mb in RefSeq v.1.0 (positions 6.1-8.0 Mb). Comparative genomics analysis was performed to detect the collinear genomic regions of different hexaploid wheat accessions (Triticum aestivum), T. dicoccoides, and T. turgidum. More than 340 SNPs in the physical region were extracted for haplotype analysis in a panel of over 1484 worldwide common wheat accessions, and five major haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2, Hap3, Hap4, and Hap5) were identified. And the favorable haplotype Hap1 was highly associated with stripe rust resistance. YrC271 appeared to be similar to YrC271 based on comparison of relative distance, stripe rust responses, and pedigree analyses, but allelism tests, cloning or precise phenotypic comparisons would be needed for confirmation. The YrC271 region provided the opportunity for further map-based cloning and haplotypes analysis enabled pyramiding favorable alleles into commercial cultivars by marker-assisted selection.

      Improving seed number per pod of soybean by molecular breeding based on Ln locus
      DU Hao, CHENG Yu-Han, LI Tai, HOU Zhi-Hong, LI Yong-Li, NAN Hai-Yang, DONG Li-Dong, LIU Bao-Hui, CHENG Qun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  565-571.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14011
      Abstract ( 111 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (884KB) ( 66 )   Save
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      Molecular design breeding is one of the important methods to combine molecular genetics with conventional breeding, and to breed a series soybean variety with excellent traits. Although this method can shorten the breeding process to a large extent, it is rarely used in the artificial breeding process. Increasing production is one of the most important goals in the process of soybean breeding. Soybean is a typical short-day bean plant, which provides more than a quarter of plant protein for human and animals in the world. In the process of soybean breeding, increasing the yield is one of the main breeding objectives, among which the number of seeds per pod is one of the key traits to determine the yield per plant. In soybean, the number of seeds per pod was positively correlated with leaf shape, which was controlled by an allele Ln/ln. The broad leaflet (Ln) usually linked with no 4-seed pod, and narrow leaflet (ln) associated with 4-seed pod. Although Ln was potentially important for soybean yield, whether this locus could be used in molecular breeding had not been reported. In this study, we found that the narrow leaflet variety was always in high latitude, and the broad leaflet variety in low latitude. To improve soybean yield in low latitude, we developed the molecular marker of Ln. ln was substituted into broad leaflet varieties Willams 82 and Huaxia 3 by backcrossing. Our data provide an important theoretical and practical basis for molecular design breeding to improve soybean yield.

      Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of a novel maize Bt2 gene mutant
      XU Ning-Kun, LI Bing, CHEN Xiao-Yan, WEI Ya-Kang, LIU Zi-Long, XUE Yong-Kang, CHEN Hong-Yu, WANG Gui-Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  572-579.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13005
      Abstract ( 158 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1297KB) ( 110 )   Save
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      The research of the molecular mechanism underlying maize kernel development is particularly important for the genetic improvement of maize yield and quality traits. In this study, we characterized a new shrunken kernel mutant 5601Q, which was generated by a random transposon insertion. Genetic analysis indicated that the kernel phenotype was stably controlled by a single recessive gene. F2 segregating population was constructed by crossing 5601Q into B73 inbred line, and the mutant gene was located in the genetic interval of 60.19-62.58 Mb on chromosome 4. Sequence annotation showed that the BRITTLE ENDOSPERM2 (Bt2) gene, previously reported to be involved in maize kernel development, was located in this region. Maize Bt2 gene encoded the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the starch biosynthetic pathway of higher plants. Compared with wild type, 100-grain weight and starch content of mutant 5601Q decreased significantly, but the soluble sugar content increased dramatically 4.67 times. We confirmed that 5601Q was a new allele mutant of Bt2 by allelic test of Bt2 mutant 1774 and 5601Q. Sequencing analysis revealed that Mutator 19 transposon was inserted in the 2nd exon of Bt2 gene. In summary, our results indicated that the shrunken kernel in 5601Q was caused by the loss-of-function of Bt2 gene, which provided a new germplasm resource to elucidate the mechanism of maize Bt2 gene in endosperm storage substance accumulation.

      Genetic analysis of wheat dwarf mutant je0098 and molecular mapping of dwarfing gene
      FU Mei-Yu, XIONG Hong-Chun, ZHOU Chun-Yun, GUO Hui-Jun, XIE Yong-Dun, ZHAO Lin-Shu, GU Jia-Yu, ZHAO Shi-Rong, DING Yu-Ping, XU Yan-Hao, LIU Lu-Xiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  580-589.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11015
      Abstract ( 191 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1240KB) ( 118 )   Save
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      Lodging easily causes severe decrease in wheat yields. Identification and utilization of favorable dwarfing genes is the key to develop new varieties with high yield and lodging resistance. In this study, a dwarf mutant je0098 as material was induced by EMS mutagenesis from Jing 411 (WT) and had fine characteristics in yield components. We mapped the dwarfing gene through genetic analysis of plant height, and combining with exon capture sequencing and genetic linkage analysis. Statistical analyses of plant height in three-year field experiment suggested that plant height of je0098 was 15 cm lower than that of WT. Histocytological analysis of je0098 and WT indicated that the internode cell length of je0098 was about 18% shorter than that of WT, suggesting that the shorter internode cell length caused the dwarfism of je0098. Gibberellic acid treatment showed that je0098 was a gibberellic acid-sensitive dwarf mutant. An F2 segregation population consisting of 344 individuals was constructed by crossing WT and je0098. Combining with the phenotypic data of F2:3 families, dwarf homozygous and tall individuals were selected to construct progeny pools. Exon capture sequencing was performed on the two parents and progeny pools, respectively. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) with effects on reduced height was identified on chromosome 2D. Based on SNPs detected by genome-wide sequencing, six KASP markers were developed on chromosome 2D to genotype F2 individuals. Genetic linkage map was constructed using QTL IciMapping. Combining with phenotype data of three-year field experiment, the dwarfing gene was mapped in the range of 20.77-28.84 Mb with genetic distance of 11.48 cM. These results will lay the foundation for further functional research of je0098 and its application in wheat breeding.

      Cloning and functional analysis of the promoter of purple acid phosphatase gene GmPAP14 in soybean
      ZHOU Yue, ZHAO Zhi-Hua, ZHANG Hong-Ning, KONG You-Bin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  590-596.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14016
      Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (777KB) ( 87 )   Save
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      The expression of GmPAP14 was induced under low phosphorus condition, and its overexpression could significantly improve the utilization efficiency of organic phosphorus in Arabidopsis. In order to further explore its regulatory mechanism, the promoter sequence of GmPAP14 was cloned according to the sequence of soybean reference genome. The regulatory elements of GmPAP14 promoter were predicted by the database PLACE and PlantCARE, which showed that it contained enhancer regulatory elements, tissue-specific expression elements, root-specific expression elements, and P1BS elements (transcription factor PHR1 binding sites). PGmPAP14-2568-GUS, PGmPAP14-2238-GUS, and PGmPAP14-1635-GUS were constructed and transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana via Floral dip method. The expressional activities of three fragments of GmPAP14 promoter were analyzed through GUS staining and activity measurement. The results revealed that GmPAP14 promoter was mainly expressed in root tip under Pi condition, and GUS staining was extended to the elongation area, mature area, and root hair after low phosphorus treatment. Additionally, Arabidopsis plants with PGmPAP14-2238-GUS had the highest activity among them. These results lay an important foundation for the further study of gene regulation.

      Genome wide analysis of BnAPs gene family in Brassica napus
      HUANG Cheng, LIANG Xiao-Mei, DAI Cheng, WEN Jing, YI Bin, TU Jin-Xing, SHEN Jin-Xiong, FU Ting-Dong, MA Chao-Zhi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  597-607.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14023
      Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (1931KB) ( 158 )   Save
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      Aspartate protease (AP) is one of the four major proteolytic enzymes and plays an important role in protein processing, signal transduction, and stress response. Brassica napus is an important oil crop in China. We identified 154 APs coding genes in Brassica napu by protein homology analysis, which encoded typical, atypical, and nucellar aspartate proteases, respectively. Gene structure analysis showed that most BnAPs genes contained 1-4 exons and the motif distribution of the same type of aspartic protease was similar. Collinearity analysis revealed that there was a large number of homologous genes between Brassica napus and Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, and about 89% of BnAPs genes came from genome-wide replication events. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that BnAPs gene family was expressed in all tissues. The stigma of BnAP30.A05.1/ A05.2/C05.1/C05.2, BnAP36.A04/C08, and BnAP39.A06/C03 increased significantly after pollination. Cis-element analysis in the promoter region of BnAPs gene presented that stress-related cis regulatory elements were significantly enriched. We further verify that the relative expression levels of these genes rich in stress-related cis regulatory elements changed significantly after stress (ABA, NaCl, or 4℃), suggesting that these BnAPs genes may be involved in response to stress in Brassica napus. Compared with Arabidopsis homologous genes, about 24% of BnAPs had the same expression pattern as their homologous AtAPs. This study laid a foundation for further understanding the biological function of aspartic protease family in Brassica napus.

      Genome-wide characterization and expression analysis of Dof family genes in sweetpotato
      JIN Rong, JIANG Wei, LIU Ming, ZHAO Peng, ZHANG Qiang-Qiang, LI Tie-Xin, WANG Dan-Feng, FAN Wen-Jing, ZHANG Ai-Jun, TANG Zhong-Hou
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  608-623.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14004
      Abstract ( 188 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (4657KB) ( 183 )   Save
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      DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) transcription factors are widely involved in various life activities of plants. Forty-six IbDof genes from sweetpotato cv. Taizhong 6 with a highly conserved Dof domain structured as a C2C2-type zinc finger were identified and named from IbDof1 to IbDof46 according to their position on the chromosomes. IbDof family could be divided into four subgroups (A-D), which shared the similar motifs and gene structures. Motif 1 and Motf 2 occurred in all of the identified IbDofs, Motif 5 and Motif 9 only occurred in subgroup A, and Motif 6-Motif 8 and Motif 10 only occurred in subgroup D. Twelve segment duplicated gene pairs and five tandem duplicated gene pairs of IbDofs (IbDof2/IbDof3, IbDof12/IbDof13, IbDof9/IbDof10, IbDof28/IbDof29, and IbDof32/IbDof33) contributed to the expansion of IbDof family in sweetpotato. The average divergence times of segmental duplication gene pairs and tandem duplicated gene pairs seemed to have emerged 35.22 MYA and 1.86 MYA, and the Ka/Ks ratios of the paralogous IbDofs were range from 0.07 (IbDof12/IbDof13) to 0.68 (IbDof6/IbDof25). Tirty-eight orthologous IbDof gene pairs between sweetpotato and their wild relative species Ipomoea trifida were involved in duplicated genomic blocks based on synteny analysis. Transcriptome analysis indicated different subgroups expressed specifically in various tissues, and IbDofs in the same subgroup also revealed different expression tends. Various hormones and stresses response element were identified in the promoters of IbDof genes, and qRT-PCR demonstrated specific IbDof genes responded to various environmental stresses, including cold, drought, salt, and H2O2. Most IbDof genes were regulated by cold treatment; IbDof10 and IbDof14 were up-regulated by drought treatment; IbDof-2, -14, -37, -41, -43 were up regulated by high salt stress; and IbDof-8, -10, -25, -41 were up regulated by H2O2 treatment. In summary, our result indicated that IbDof family genes coordinately regulated the growth and development of sweetpotato and been involved in the various abiotic stresses process.

      Molecular identification of a geminivirus CoYVV and screening of resistant germplasms in jute
      YANG Xin, LIN Wen-Zhong, CHEN Si-Yuan, DU Zhen-Guo, LIN Jie, QI Jian-Min, FANG Ping-Ping, TAO Ai-Fen, ZHANG Li-Wu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  624-634.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14017
      Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (920KB) ( 26 )   Save
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      Corchorus yellow vein Vietnam virus (CoYVV) is a geminivirus that affects yield and quality in jute. Its genome is consisted of two circular single-stranded DNAs, named DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively. Detection of CoYVV and screening of resistant germplasm will not only increase our understanding of geminivirus distribution and evolution but also lay the foundation for resistance gene cloning. Funong 5 (C. olitorius.) was suspected to be infected with leaf mosaic symptoms in jute germplasm resource nursery of Yangzhong Science and Education Base of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Sanming, Fujian, China) in 2018. The diseased samples were collected and subjected to total DNA extraction by CTAB. The virus in the sample was identified by PCR, RCA, and sequencing. Then the mixture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing two plasmids (infectious clone vector plasmids of CoYVV DNA-A and DNA-B) in 1:1 ratio was injected to 7 representative C. capsularis varieties and 7 representative C. olitorius ones. After inoculation, we investigated symptom development (disease incidence) and PCR was used to detect the rate of infection. The results showed that the symptomatic samples in the field were infected by an isolate of CoYVV (CoYVV-FS). The size of the DNA-A and DNA-B of CoYVV-FS were 2724 bp and 2691 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CoYVV-FS was more related to New World begomoviruses than to Old World begomoviruses. Moreover, the inoculation of 14 representative jute varieties showed that CoYVV was infectious to jute. The disease incidence was 0 in the 7 C. capsularis varieties and 0-60% in the 7 C. olitorius varieties. The infection rates for the 14 jute varieties was from 0 to 100%. Both disease incidence and infection rates of 807 yuanyinmali (C. olitorius) were 0, indicating that it was the resistant germplasm; while Bachang4 (C. olitorius) and Yindumolvzi (C. olitorius) produced yellow vein and curly-leaf phenotypes after 30 days of inoculation, showing that it was the sensitive germplasm. The CoYVV-FS in jute germplasm resource nursery belonged to the same isolate as the CoYVV previously reported, which could infect most jute varieties (lines) and cause serious symptoms in C. olitorius.

      Identification of QTLs and candidate genes for 100-seed weight trait using PyBSASeq algorithm in soybean
      WANG Juan, ZHANG Yan-Wei, JIAO Zhu-Jin, LIU Pan-Pan, CHANG Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  635-643.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14008
      Abstract ( 106 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (756KB) ( 50 )   Save
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      The PyBSASeq algorithm, based on quantifying the enrichment of likely trait-associated SNPs in a chromosomal interval, was proved more suitable for genetic analysis of complex quantitative traits in bulked segregant analysis. In this study, to identify the loci and candidate genes of 100-seed weight (SW) in soybean using the PyBSASeq algorithm, 149 RILs derived from the hybrid of ‘Huapidou’ and ‘Qihuang 26’ were used as materials. As a result, 11 candidate regions closely associated with SW were identified by mining the 100-grain weight related loci of soybean, which were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 14, and 16, respectively. Among these regions, qSW4-1, qSW9-1, qSW9-2, and qSW7-1 were consistent with the QTLs for 100-seed weight reported previously, and a total of 218 coding genes were included in the candidate regions. Among these genes, Glyma.02G075000 and Glyma.04G082500 were predicted to be candidate genes using gene expressional and haplotype analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the candidate genes were mainly involved in sugar transport and biosynthesis of Vitamin E. The results will be helpful to elucidate the genetic mechanism of seed weight regulation in soybean and provide a reference for the study of quantitative trait based on BSA-Seq method.

      Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of Elongator complex family genes in response to abiotic stresses in rice
      WU Yan-Fei, HU Qin, ZHOU Qi, DU Xue-Zhu, SHENG Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  644-655.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.02089
      Abstract ( 164 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1322KB) ( 168 )   Save
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      Elongator complex (ELP) is a class of protein complex that elongates RNA polymerase II in eukaryotic transcription, which plays an important role in plant growth and development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified the ELP family genes and explored the physical and chemical properties, subcellular location, chromosome location, promoter cis-acting elements prediction, and expression patterns under abiotic stresses in rice (Oryza sativa) ELP family genes by bioinformatics methods. A total of six OsELPs members were preliminarily identified, which randomly distributed on five chromosomes and encoded protein containing 250 to 1344 amino acid in rice. Their molecular weight and isoelectric point were 27.97-148.99 kD and 5.01-8.63, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ELPs proteins from rice (Oryza sativa), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and human (Homo sapiens) could be divided into four groups (Group I-Group IV). And subgroup I contained OsELP1, subgroup II contained OsELP2 and OsELP5, subgroup III contained OsELP4, subgroup IV contained OsELP3 and OsELP6. There were a variety of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of OsELPs, which mainly responded to light, phytohormone, drought, low temperature, defense, and stress stimulant signals. The induced expression patterns confirmed that all OsELPs genes were differentially expressed with different degrees under various abiotic stresses including PEG, low temperature, salt, and dehydration. Among them, OsELP6 was significantly up-regulated under the four kinds of abiotic stresses, which may mediate the comprehensive resistance to various abiotic stresses in rice.

      Effects of seeding rates and panicle nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars under direct sowing
      CHEN Yun, LI Si-Yu, ZHU An, LIU Kun, ZHANG Ya-Jun, ZHANG Hao, GU Jun-Fei, ZHANG Wei-Yang, LIU Li-Jun, YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  656-666.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12012
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      Seeding rate is one of the key factors affecting grain yield under direct sowing in rice, but there are fewer studies of its influence on grain yield and quality in good taste rice cultivars (GTRC). The application of panicle fertilizer is an important measure for high-yielding cultivation in rice production, however, the effects of panicle fertilizer rates on grain yield and quality in GTRC is still unclear. In this study, three representative GTRC (Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108) in Jiangsu province were used as materials, and the effects of seeding rates (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 kg hm-2) and the effect of nitrogen (N) application as panicle fertilizer on grain yield and quality were investigated under direct sowing when the rowing spacing was fixed at 25 cm. The main results were as follows: (1) The yields of Suxiangjing 3, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 9108 all increased first and then decreased with the increase of seeding rates. The optimum seeding rates for the high yield of the three rice cultivars were 130.2-136.5 kg hm-2, 118.3-119.3 kg hm-2, and 90.0-96.4 kg hm-2, respectively. Rice processing quality was negatively correlated with the seeding rates to different extents, while chalky grain rate, chalkiness, protein content, and setback was significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the seeding rates. Gel consistency, amylose content, taste value, and breakdown were significantly or extremely significantly negatively correlated with seeding rates. (2) Under the optimum seeding rates with the high yield, compared with conventional panicle N application rate, halving the panicle N application had no significant effects on the yields of Nanjing 5055 and Nanjing 9108, but it could significantly improve the appearance quality and taste value. The above results indicated that the optimum seeding rate in GTRC under direct sowing varied with cultivars. Excessive seeding rate would decrease the processing quality, appearance quality, and taste value. Appropriately reducing the amount of N application as panicle fertilizer was beneficial to further improve the appearance and taste quality in GTRC under direct sowing.

      Nitrogen and density treatment to improve resource utilization and yield in late sowing japonica rice
      YUAN Jia-Qi, LIU Yan-Yang, XU Ke, LI Guo-Hui, CHEN Tian-Ye, ZHOU Hu-Yi, GUO Bao-Wei, HUO Zhong-Yang, DAI Qi-Gen, ZHANG Hong-Cheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  667-681.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12018
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      Recently, the phenomenon of late sowing and late transplanting in rice is becoming more and more common in central Jiangsu, a rice and wheat double cropping system area, which is caused by climate change and the expanding of comprehensive rice-and-shrimp planting model. It will lead to the mismatch of rice growth period with light and temperature resources, restricting the stable high yield of rice. This study was conducted under the condition of late sowing and late transplanting (sowing date was June 12th, transplanting date was June 30th) and the seedling was transplanted by machine. Four nitrogen application rates (N0: 0 kg hm-2; N240: 240 kg hm-2; N300: 300 kg hm-2; N360: 360 kg hm-2) and three density treatments (D3: 3 seedlings per hole; D4: 4 seedlings per hole; D5: 5 seedlings per hole) were arranged, and the suitable sowing period (May 29), conventional nitrogen application rate, and the seedling number per hole (N300D4) were taken as the controls. Our goal is to explore the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and seedling number per hole on the growth and yield formation in late-sown japonica rice, and to provide theoretical basis for improving yield potential and resource use efficiency in late sowing and late transplanting japonica rice in central Jiangsu province. The results showed that compared with CK, the yield of each treatment decreased, mainly because of the significantly reduced spikelet number under the late sowing and late transplanting condition. The highest spikelet numbers were 11.94% and 8.12% lower than those of CK in the two years. In addition, the utilization rate of temperature and light resources, nitrogen uptake, and nitrogen utilization rate decreased under late sowing and late transplanting treatment, leading to a decrease in dry matter accumulation and yield. The yield increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate and seedling number per hole under the late sowing and late transplanting condition, while there was no consistent with the trend under N360D5 treatment. We assumed that it was mainly due to the increased spikelet number, larger leaf area index at heading stage, the larger proportion of efficient leaf, and the extended growth period. In summary, the utilization of temperature and light resources and the dry matter accumulation at maturity stage was improved, and the decline in yield was alleviated. Nitrogen use efficiency increased first and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen rate, and N300D5 treatment reached the maximum. In general, under the late sowing and late transplanting condition, in order to alleviate the yield loss and reduce nitrogen fertilizer waste, we should increase the seedling number per hole and then increase the amount of nitrogen fertilizer.

      Characteristics of microbial community in the rhizosphere soil of continuous potato cropping in arid regions of the Loess Plateau
      TAN Xue-Lian, GUO Tian-Wen, HU Xin-Yuan, ZHANG Ping-Liang, ZENG Jun, LIU Xiao-Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  682-694.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14015
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      The response of soil microorganisms to continuous cropping of potato was discussed in this study, aiming at revealing the microbial characteristics of continuous cropping soil degradation. Pot experiments and MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology were used to study the characteristics of microbial communities in the rhizosphere soil of potato continuous cropping for 1 year (1_rh), 3 years (3_rh), and 5 years (5_rh), with fallow (CK) and rotation (R_rh) as controls. The results showed that compared with CK and rotation, Ace index, Chao index, and Shannon index of 3_rh and 5_rh soil samples decreased significantly. Compared with rotation, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in soil bacteria of continuous potato cropping was higher, while the relative abundance of Ascomycota in soil fungi was lower. In the bacterial community, compared with rotation, the number of Aeromicrobium in 1_rh, 3_rh, 5_rh increased by 258.01%, 625.93%, 76.04%, Arthrobacter increased by 245.42%, 1258.12%, 58.89%, Streptomyces increased by 203.83%, 116.74%, and 311.61%, respectively. In the fungal community, compared with rotation, the number of Fusarium in 3_rh increased by 225.00%, the number of Chaetomium in 5_rh decreased by 31.58%, and the number of Guehomyces in 1_rh, 3_rh, and 5_rh decreased by 55.40%, 58.14%, and 78.37%, respectively. Spizellomyces had a large number in fallow and rotation soils, but a small number in continuous cropping soils for three years and five years, which was close to the detection limit. The results indicated that long-term continuous cropping of potato reduced the diversity of soil microorganisms, changed the dominant population of microorganisms, and unbalanced the structure of soil microbial community.

      Effects of drought at different growth stages and nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization in peanut
      DING Hong, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, QIN Fei-Fei, DAI Liang-Xiang, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  695-703.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14038
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      The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of drought at different growth stages and nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization of peanut. We investigated the effects of nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization efficiency under different water conditions in peanut by the 15N-label technique. The residue and loss rate of nitrogen in soil after peanut harvest were also studied. The soil water treatments were three levels of well-watered conditions (WW, 75%-80% of field capacity), slight water stress at flowering-pegging stage (FD, 55%-60% of field capacity), and slight water stress at pod-setting stage (PD, 55%-60% of field capacity). Nitrogen treatments were three levels of no nitrogen application (LN), moderate nitrogen (MN, 90 kg hm-2), and high nitrogen (HN, 180 kg hm-2). The results showed that peanut yield was decreased under drought stress at different growth stages and the reduction of drought stress at flowering-pegging stage was greater than that at pod-setting stage. Nitrogen accumulation of peanut kernel accounted for 68.42%-77.67% of the total nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant. Compared with the well-watered condition, nitrogen accumulation of peanut plants was decreased under drought stress at both flowering-pegging and pod-setting stages. Compared with WWMN treatment, FDMN treatment significantly increased the accumulation of Ndff and 15N in different organs and promoted the transport of nitrogen to seed kernel in peanut. However, 15N accumulation in kernel was significantly decreased under PDMN treatment. The recovery rate of 15N labeled nitrogen fertilizer was 30.20%-38.42%, the residue rate was 37.12%-48.83%, and the loss rate was 12.75%-32.68%. The recovery rate of nitrogen fertilizer was the highest and the loss rate was the lowest under FDMN treatment. In summary, nitrogen application level of 90 kg hm-2could promote the yield and nitrogen absorption and utilization under drought stress, and reduce the loss of fertilizer nitrogen in peanut.

      Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in layered grinding wheat flour and the regulation effect of nitrogen fertilizer application
      FENG Jian-Chao, XU Bei-Ming, JIANG Xue-Li, HU Hai-Zhou, MA Ying, WANG Chen-Yang, WANG Yong-Hua, MA Dong-Yun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  704-715.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11007
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      Clarifying the distribution of phenolic compounds in layered grinding wheat flour and its response to nitrogen fertilizer application would provide useful information for wheat quality improvement and high-quality cultivation. Two wheat cultivars, purple wheat (Jizi 439) and white wheat (Xinhuamai 818), were planted with two nitrogen application rate (HN, N 210 kg hm-2; LN, N 105 kg hm-2) in Zhengzhou and Yuanyang experimental sites during growing period in 2019 and 2020. The mature grains were ground into five milling fractionations (LY1, LY2 LY3, LY4, and LY5) from the bran layer to the endospermic layer by layered grinding, and the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoids content (TFC), and the anthocyanin content (AC), and their antioxidant activity were determined. The results showed that the TPC, TFC, AC, and antioxidant activity (TEAC, FRAP) in free phenols and conjugated phenols extracts decreased from the outer layer flour fractionation to the inner layer flour fractionation. The purple wheat, named as Jizi 439, had a higher antioxidant content and antioxidant activity than white wheat (Xinhuamai 818), but the difference between the two cultivars displayed a decreasing trend from the bran layer flour fractionation to endosperm layer flour fractionation. The TPC, TFC, and AC of LY1 to LY3 flour fractionation increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application except for TPC of LY1 in Yuanyang. However, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids of LY4 to LY5 flour fractionation had a weak response to nitrogen fertilizer application. The content of ferulic acid accounted for more than 93% of the TPC in wheat grains and had a higher value under low nitrogen condition. In conclusion, purple wheat had higher antioxidant substances such as phenolics than white wheat, and the difference between purple wheat and white wheat decreased with the deepening of grinding degree. The content and activity of antioxidants in the outer layer flour fractionation were significantly responsive to nitrogen regulation, and the content increased with the increase of nitrogen.

      Effects of wide range sowing on grain yield, quality, and nitrogen use of strong gluten wheat
      LIU Yun-Jing, ZHENG Fei-Na, ZHANG Xiu, CHU Jin-Peng, YU Hai-Tao, DAI Xing-Long, HE Ming-Rong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  716-725.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11012
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      It is well known that wide range sowing can simultaneously improve grain yield (GY) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, the effects of wide range sowing on grain quality have not been investigated while GY and NUE increased. In the present study, four winter wheat cultivars (Gaoyou 5766, Jimai 44, Taishan 27, and Zhouyuan 9369) were used as experimental materials and two sowing patterns (the wide range sowing and conventional drilling sowing) were designed during 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 growing seasons. Also, we investigated the effects of wide range sowing on GY, NUE, and grain quality. Under wide range sowing, grain number on unit land area were increased by an average of 13.16% across cultivars and growth seasons mainly due to the increase of spike number on unit land area, and in turn GY increased by an average of 13.39%. Meanwhile, nitrogen (N) uptake during whole growth season especially at post-anthesis stage were enhanced. The N accumulation during whole growth season increased by an average of 10.29% while that increased by an average of 36.83% at post-anthesis stage. Consequently, N uptake efficiency and NUE increased by 12.73% and 13.39%, respectively. Enhanced N uptake resulted in a sufficient N supply for grain and a significant increase in grain N accumulation on unit land area. A similar increase magnitude was observed between grain N accumulation (on average 13.38%), grain number (13.16%), and GY (13.39%). As a result, total quantity of N per grain and grain protein concentration remained unchanged, which led to a stable grain protein composition and grain quality. Conclusively, wide range sowing can maintain good grain quality with increased GY and NUE by optimizing coupling of GY formation process with the process of N uptake and translocation.

      Relationship between seed morphology, storage substance and chilling tolerance during germination of dominant maize hybrids in Northeast China
      SONG Shi-Qin, YANG Qing-Long, WANG Dan, LYU Yan-Jie, XU Wen-Hua, WEI Wen-Wen, LIU Xiao-Dan, YAO Fan-Yun, CAO Yu-Jun, WANG Yong-Jun, WANG Li-Chun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  726-738.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13016
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      Seed germination is the initial stage of crop morphology, which is determined by its own properties and environmental factors. Low temperature is one of the most important factors affecting seed germination. It is crucial to explore the relationship between seed properties and germination under low temperature environmental conditions for maize production in Northeast China. In the present study, 36 maize hybrids released in Northeast China were selected and the germination culture experiment was conducted under 6℃ (low temperature stress) and 15℃ (the control). The seedling vigor, seed germination rate, seed morphology and storage substances content were determined. The germination potential and germination rate of 36 maize hybrids were evaluated by the principal component analysis (PCA), the comprehensive evaluation value of cold tolerance (CL-value), and the membership function value (R-value). The relationship between the seed morphology (kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, kernel length/kernel width ratio, 100-kernel volume, and 100-kernel weight) and the seed storage substances (starch, protein, and fat) of 36 maize varieties were investigated. The results showed that the seedling vigor and germination rate of 36 maize hybrids were inhibited to some content, and the variation of relative seedling vigor cold injury rate and relative germination cold injury rate was the largest under low temperature stress. There was a significant correlation among the seven individual indicators that characterized cold tolerance. Principal component analysis could transform seven individual indicators into two independent comprehensive indicators. Among them, relative seedling vigor and relative germination rate had the largest positive contribution rate, which could be used as the key indicators for cold resistance evaluation at germination stage in maize. We classified 36 hybrids into four types of strong cold tolerance (19.4%), cold tolerance (30.6%), medium cold tolerance (33.3%), and cold sensitive (16.7%) by cluster analysis. Among them, Jidan 56, Kenji 267, Suiyu 23, Jidan 953, Kenji 268, Jidan 96, and Jidan 95 were strong cold-tolerant hybrids. The correlation analysis revealed that there was no significant correlation between seed morphology and cold tolerance. Starch content was significantly correlated with relative seedling vigor, relative germination rate, relative seedling vigor chilling injury rate, relative germination chilling injury rate, and relative germination time (r = 0.396**, r = 0.404 **, r = -0.401 **, r = -0.391 **, and r = 0.362 **). There was a significant negative correlation between protein content and relative seedling vigor (r = -0.379**). Regression analysis indicated that the types with high starch content had higher relative seedling vigor, relative germination rate, relative germination time, and lower relative seedling vigor, relative germination rate, and chilling injury rate. The regression model demonstrated that the seed starch content was 72.0%-74.0%, the relative seedling vigor was ≥70.0%, the relative germination rate was ≥80.5%, and the chilling injury rate of relative seedling vigor and relative germination rate was ≤50.0% under 6℃ stress. Under low temperature stress, the higher seed starch content was helpful to improve seed germination and reduce chilling injury. The varieties with starch content of 72.0%-74.0% were recommended to meet the requirements of seed germination in Northeast China.

      Effects of enhancing leaf nitrogen output on tiller growth and carbon metabolism in rice
      WANG Yan, CHEN Zhi-Xiong, JIANG Da-Gang, ZHANG Can-Kui, ZHA Man-Rong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  739-746.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12011
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      Nitrogen fertilizer application is one of the main cultivation measures to raise the yield, and high nitrogen level has limited contribution to grain yield due to limited nitrogen translocation in rice. To clarify the effects of nitrogen allocation on rice growth, we constructed pOsSUT1::AtAMT1.2 transgenic rice, the ammonium transporter gene AtAMT1.2 specific expression in phloem to promote leaf nitrogen output. The growth and yield of transgenic plants were measured under HN (high nitrogen) and LN (low nitrogen) conditions. Compared to WT plants, more tillers and higher grain yield were detected in transgenic plants in response to HN condition. The sugar output in leaves was increased, and the relative expression levels of the strigolactone pathway related genes OsTB1 and OsD14 in tiller buds were down-regulated. Our results indicated that the increase of leaf nitrogen export by overexpressing AtAMT1.2 gene could promote sugar translocation from leaves to tillering buds, which improved the growth of tiller, increased the effective tiller number and nitrogen use efficiency.

      Application of Fhb1 gene in wheat breeding programs for the Yellow-Huai Rivers valley winter wheat zone of China
      MA Hong-Bo, LIU Dong-Tao, FENG Guo-Hua, WANG Jing, ZHU Xue-Cheng, ZHANG Hui-Yun, LIU Jing, LIU Li-Wei, YI Yuan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  747-758.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11019
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      Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is an important disease that seriously threatens the safety of wheat production. Breeding progress of resistant cultivars has been limited due to absence of the resistant sources with facultative growth habit and poor screening environment in the Huang-Huai region, the main wheat producing area of China. Fhb1, as the most effective and stable gene, is the only gene widely used in the global breeding programs for improving FHB resistance of wheat. However, utilization of Fhb1 in the Yellow-Huai River Valleys Winter Wheat Zone is limited so far. In this study, several excellent advanced lines with Fhb1 were developed by limited backcrossing and molecular marker-assisted selection in the BC2F1 progenies of the susceptible variety Aikang 58 (the recurrent parent) and H35 (the donor parent of Fhb1 gene). Then, the individuals were used to cross with Xumai 36 and Xumai 2023 (with high yield but susceptible to FHB), and a series of elite lines with Fhb1 were developed using the doubled haploid and the traditional pedigree selection methods. Xumai DH9 and Xumai 17252 were moderate resistance to FHB in different screening environments for several years. The average resistance level of the lines with Fhb1 gene was significantly higher than that of the susceptible control. The introduction of Fhb1 significantly improved the resistance to FHB, but some lines were still highly susceptible, indicating that the resistance to FHB was affected by other genetic factors. This study provides an example for the use of Fhb1 gene in improving FHB resistance in the Yellow-Huai River Valleys Winter Wheat Zone of China.

      Development of linkage InDel markers of the white petal gene based on whole-genome re-sequencing data in Brassica napus L.
      WANG Rui, CHEN Xue, GUO Qing-Qing, ZHOU Rong, CHEN Lei, LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  759-769.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14025
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      InDel is widely distributed across the genome and occurs in a high density and large numbers in a genome. To date, the researches about linkage InDel markers of the white petal gene in B. napus L are very less yet. In this study, we constructed the F2 mapping population from the cross between DH Y05 (yellow petal) and DH W01 (white petal). Two bulks with 30 yellow petal lines and 30 white petal lines of F2 population were constructed by mixing an equal amount of DNA. Then two bulks and parents were performed 30× whole-genome re-sequencing. Darmor-bzh as the reference genome was aligned to sequence data from the two bulks and parents. QTL-seq and PoPoolation2 workflow were applied to identify the candidate region of the white petal gene. A major candidate region was identified on chromosome C03 (52-54 Mb) of Darmor-bzh. The insertion-deletion (InDel) sites can be visualized in candidate interval by Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV). Based on these Indel variations, we used Vector and Blast to design InDel primers. Eight InDel markers closely linked to the white petal gene were screened by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In summary, these results provide a basis for fine mapping white petal gene and InDel molecular marker located on functional genes as well as molecular marker assisted selection breeding.

      Identification and phylogenetic analysis of the pathogen of jute anthracnose in China
      GUO Yan-Chun, YAO Jia-Yu, ZHANG Rong-Bin, CHEN Si-Yuan, HE Qing-Yao, TAO Ai-Fen, FANG Ping-Ping, QI Jian-Min, ZHANG Lie-Mei, ZHANG Li-Wu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(3):  770-777.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14035
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      Anthracnose is a major fungal disease that seriously affects the yield and quality in jute fiber. Identifying the types of anthracnose pathogens and determining their pathogenicity will help jute disease-resistant breeding and develop elite disease-resistant gene resources. The 92 strains were isolated and purified from samples of diseased jute, which were collected from 7 jute production areas including Fuzhou and Zhangzhou in Fujian Province, Xinyang City in Henan Province, Liu’an City in Anhui Province, Hangzhou City in Zhejiang Province, Nanning City in Guangxi Province, and Changsha City in Hunan Province. The sequence analysis of the rDNA-ITS region showed that 11 out of the 92 strains were typical anthracnose pathogens. Further identification of the phylogenetic tree of the LSU region and morphological characteristics revealed that 10 strains, including ZZ4 and GX19, were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, while the strain of CS3 was Colletotrichum dematium. The pathogenicity test of artificial inoculation indicated that there was a significant difference in pathogenicity between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium. These results laid a basis for identification of resistance gene loci and effective controlling of anthracnose in jute.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548