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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (6): 1451-1462.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14051


Adaptation of feed crops to saline-alkali soil stress and effect of improving saline-alkali soil

WANG Wang-Nian1,4(), GE Jun-Zhu2, YANG Hai-Chang3, YIN Fa-Ting3, HUANG Tai-Li5, KUAI Jie1, WANG Jing1, WANG Bo1,*(), ZHOU Guang-Sheng1, FU Ting-Dong1   

  1. 1College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
    2College of Agriculture and Resource Environment, Tianjin Agricultural College, Tianjin 300384, China
    3Agricultural College of Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, Xinjiang, China
    4Yulin Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Yulin Branch of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yulin 537000, Guangxi, China
    5Daye Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau, Daye 435100, Hubei, China
  • Received:2021-03-31 Accepted:2021-10-19 Online:2022-06-12 Published:2021-11-25
  • Contact: WANG Bo E-mail:1215646369@qq.com;wangbo@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China “Physiological Basis and Agronomic Management for High-quality and High-yield of Field Cash Crops”(2018YFD1000900);Key Science and Technology Project in the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps(2018AA005-1);Science and Technology Cooperation Project of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps(2020BC001);Key Research and Development Program in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region(2018BBF02003)


Saline-alkali land widely distributes with large area in China. It is of great significance to select forage crops and realize planting and breeding cycle in saline-alkali land to promote the development of herbivorous animal husbandry and the improvement of saline-alkali land in China. In this study, the plots with high salinity difference were selected from the coastal saline-alkali land in Tianjin (NaCl type) and the inland saline-alkali land in northwest Xinjiang (Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type), respectively, and six field crops such as corn, sorghum, wheat, millet, soybean, and rapeseed with feed value were planted to determine the biomass, crude protein content, sodium and potassium ion content, and other indicators. The results were as follows. When the salt content was less than 1.82 g kg-1 and 2.00 g kg-1 in saline-alkali land NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type, respectively. The biomass and crude protein yield of the crops were close to those of conventional cultivated land, suggesting that saline-alkali land in low salt content could be used as forage production base. When the salt content reached 2.49 g kg-1 in the Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type saline-alkali soil, the biomass and crude protein yield of rapeseed were significantly higher than other crops. Thus, in the Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type saline-alkali soil with salt content lower than 2.49 g kg-1, rapeseed could be planted for fodder development and utilization. When the salt content in saline-alkali land of NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type reached 3.63 g kg-1 and 4.42 g kg-1, respectively. The biomass and crude protein yield of each crop was lower than 51.72% of that in conventional cultivated land, which made the utilization value of the cultivated land low. Therefore, it was recommended to use these saline-alkali land of NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 with high content salt and alkali after improvement. In the different plots of the two experimental sites, the enrichment of Na+ in soil by rapeseed was significantly higher than the other crops at P < 0.05, and it also significantly reduced the total soil salt and Na + content. In this experiment, in plots with salinity of 1.82, 2.00, and 2.49 g kg-1, rapeseed had the most obvious Na+ enrichment effect. The enrichment of rapeseed on soil Na+ was 39.45, 102.24, and 57.19 kg hm-2 respectively, accounting for 13.02%, 15.99%, and 8.94% of the Na+ in the 0-20 cm cultivated layer soil, respectively. The improvement effect of rapeseed on saline-alkali land was significant. The above results provide a reference for the utilization of the saline-alkali land in China for the production of herbivorous feed raw materials, the promotion of the development of herbivorous animal husbandry, and the improvement of saline-alkali land.

Key words: forage crops, biomass, crude protein yield, soil salt content, Na+ content

Table 1

Ion composition of the experimental soil (g kg-1)"

地块Plot Na+ K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ $CO_{3}^{2-}$ $HCO_{3}^{-}$ Cl- $SO_{3}^{2-}$
X1 0.10 0.01 0.17 0.12 0.01 0.10 0.17 0.06
X2 0.22 0.03 0.36 0.09 0.02 0.27 0.07 0.33
X3 0.61 0.13 1.04 0.04 0.07 0.85 0.20 0.90
X4 0.11 0.02 0.24 0.13 0.01 0.17 0.20 0.11
X5 0.41 0.03 0.79 0.02 0.05 0.58 0.18 0.57
T1 0.22 0.02 0.32 0.14 0.01 0.22 0.45 0.15
T2 0.58 0.02 0.52 0.13 0.00 0.16 1.69 0.52

Table 2

Main characteristics of the experimental soil"

pH 容重
Bulk density
(g cm-3)
Alkaline N
(mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total nitrogen
(g kg-1)
Salt content
(g kg-1)
X1 7.78±0.21 1.44±0.02 89.36±13.29 19.74±6.91 142.62±18.14 13.66±3.25 2.34±0.28 1.39±0.23
X2 8.25±0.23 1.39±0.02 45.87±5.15 9.88±2.57 186.81±39.21 7.58±1.03 1.20±0.11 2.49±0.28
X3 8.41±0.09 1.50±0.02 20.16±2.92 11.02±2.20 139.71±13.08 8.32±1.20 0.53±0.06 6.20±1.22
X4 7.87±0.13 1.40±0.02 45.77±3.89 11.16±1.26 101.98±3.27 21.59±0.50 1.26±0.03 1.82±0.14
X5 8.12±0.48 1.47±0.01 20.28±1.84 16.32±1.07 159.28±10.09 10.51±1.03 0.54±0.05 4.46±0.44
T1 7.82±0.10 1.55±0.03 30.89±2.03 13.25±0.66 60.00±3.23 10.51±0.52 0.79±0.05 2.00±0.26
T2 8.36±0.05 1.49±0.01 33.19±1.91 7.11±1.42 47.00±7.78 11.67±1.53 0.77±0.05 3.63±0.76

Fig. 1

Differences in crude protein content of crops in different salt content plots Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant differences among crude protein content of crops in same salt content plots at the 0.05 probability level in same test point, and ** indicate significant differences at the 0.01 probability level. The soil salt content of the X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 plots in Xinjiang was 1.39, 2.49, 6.20, 1.82, and 4.46 g kg-1, respectively. The soil salt content of the T1 and T2 plots in Tianjin was 2.00 g kg-1 and 3.63 g kg-1, respectively."

Fig. 2

Differences in biomass and crude protein yield of crops in different salt content plots Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant differences among different crops yield potential in same salt content plots at the 0.05 probability level in same test point, and ** indicate significant differences at the 0.01 probability level. The soil salt content of the X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 plots in Xinjiang was 1.39, 2.49, 6.20, 1.82, and 4.46 g kg-1, respectively. The soil salt content of the T1 and T2 plots in Tianjin was 2.00 g kg-1 and 3.63 g kg-1, respectively."

Table 3

Biological yield and crude protein yield production potential of crops"

Soil salinity
(g kg-1)
作物产量潜力 Crop yield potential (%)
生物学产量 新疆 1.39 47.36 b 32.34 c 51.46 b 73.70 b 100.00 a
Biomass yield Xinjiang 1.82 50.10 a 36.20 bc 51.99 b 86.78 a 87.93 b 45.40 a
2.49 27.50 d 43.77 a 61.89 a 41.15 c 52.53 d
4.46 20.40 e 37.04 b 21.89 d 37.45 c 24.88 e 15.89 d
6.20 7.38 f 20.58 d 12.99 e 8.11 e 8.30 f
天津 2.00 35.42 c 34.57 bc 43.24 c 68.62 b 68.65 c 36.69 b
Tianjin 3.63 8.69 f 19.23 d 20.97 d 20.00 d 11.17 f 19.80 c
粗蛋白产量 新疆 1.39 55.87 b 48.84 b 100.00 c 96.61 a 99.23 a
Protein yield Xinjiang 1.82 78.15 a 46.71 b 116.76 b 98.18 a 59.98 c 103.10 a
2.49 36.53 d 61.36 a 128.18 a 61.89 b 50.23 d
4.46 31.73 e 38.10 c 37.46 d 51.72 c 20.52 e 31.52 c
6.20 12.14 f 24.32 d 19.45 e 11.66 d 6.98 f
天津 2.00 47.62 c 56.68 a 104.08 c 94.01 a 78.49 b 68.19 b
Tianjin 3.63 8.62 g 28.56 d 22.05 e 15.19 d 10.96 f 34.26 c

Fig. 3

Na+ and K+ contents and K+/Na+ content of above-ground parts of crops in plots with different salt contents Different lowercase letters above the bar indicate significant differences among ion content of aboveground parts of crops in same salt content plots at the 0.05 probability level in same test point, and Ns indicates no significant difference, ** indicates significant differences at the 0.01 probability level. The soil salt content of the X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 plots in Xinjiang was 1.39, 2.49, 6.20, 1.82, and 4.46 g kg-1, respectively. The soil salt content of the T1 and T2 plots in Tianjin was 2.00 g kg-1 and 3.63 g kg-1, respectively."

Table 4

Crop absorption of soil sodium ions"

Crops and soil
in 2018
Na+ absorption mass (kg hm-2)
Crops and soil
in 2019
Na+ absorption mass (kg hm-2)
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 T1 T2
谷子Millet 3.07 d 2.67 c 1.32 d 谷子Millet 4.97 bc 2.65 b 21.94 b 3.48 d
小麦Wheat 4.04 c 5.99 b 7.86 c 小麦Wheat 3.10 c 2.50 b 14.32 c 7.54 b
油菜Rapeseed 23.34 a 57.19 a 22.01 a 油菜Rapeseed 39.45 a 22.88 a 102.24 a 19.13 a
高粱Sorghum 5.69 b 3.89 bc 1.31 d 高粱Sorghum 7.29 b 3.12 b 9.92 d 2.65 d
玉米Maize 6.21 b 3.39 bc 9.70 b 玉米Maize 8.59 b 2.88 b 8.85 d 2.79 d
大豆Soybean 1.45 c 3.40 b 8.87 d 6.13 c
耕层Tillage 305.65 639.85 1766.99 耕层Tillage 302.98 1191.17 639.36 1671.55

Table 5

Changes of soil organic matter, total salt and sodium ion content after planting crops"

2018 处理Treatment 2019 处理Treatment
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 T1 T2
有机质 对照 CK 12.49 e 7.11 e 14.35 c 对照 CK 21.63 c 10.66 c 14.52 d 10.38 f
Organic 谷子Millet 20.87 b 8.51 d 18.23 a 谷子Millet 25.43 b 12.38 b 19.51 b 23.05 b
matter 小麦Wheat 22.08 a 7.75 e 16.32 b 小麦Wheat 27.30 a 14.80 a 23.22 a 18.58 e
(g kg-1) 油菜Rapeseed 15.95 d 13.19 a 18.10 a 油菜Rapeseed 22.47 c 14.39 a 22.63 a 22.56 bc
高粱Sorghum 19.27 c 11.37 b 16.09 b 高粱Sorghum 22.99 c 12.80 b 22.59 a 24.38 a
玉米Maize 13.49 e 9.79 c 19.15 a 玉米Maize 23.00 c 12.60 b 15.91 c 21.60 c
大豆Soybean 21.95 c 14.48 a 22.61 a 20.15 d
全盐 对照 CK 1.69 a 2.79 a 6.87 c 对照 CK 2.30 ab 4.24 b 2.41 a 3.18 a
Total salt 谷子Millet 1.36 c 2.57 b 7.24 b 谷子Millet 2.26 b 4.23 b 2.06 b 2.85 b
(g kg-1) 小麦Wheat 1.27 d 2.53 bc 6.73 c 小麦Wheat 2.43 a 4.04 b 2.10 b 2.67 bc
油菜Rapeseed 1.02 e 1.86 d 5.56 d 油菜Rapeseed 1.33 e 3.42 c 1.31 c 2.14 d
高粱Sorghum 1.46 b 2.47 bc 8.25 a 高粱Sorghum 1.99 c 5.58 a 2.06 b 2.93 ab
玉米Maize 1.33 c 2.46 c 6.95 c 玉米Maize 1.79 d 5.47 a 2.05 b 2.42 cd
大豆Soybean 1.67 d 4.21 b 1.99 b 2.63 bc
Na+ 对照 CK 137.49 a 253.51 a 684.64 c 对照 CK 286.00 a 468.50 bc 604.00 a 701.50 a
(mg kg-1) 谷子Millet 102.68 c 231.07 b 723.25 b 谷子Millet 140.25 bc 341.00 d 541.50 b 286.75 d
小麦Wheat 93.58 d 226.58 bc 669.45 c 小麦Wheat 143.50 bc 446.75 c 436.50 cd 435.17 b
油菜Rapeseed 67.25 e 155.67 d 546.38 d 油菜Rapeseed 129.00 c 251.25 e 276.25 f 235.00 e
高粱Sorghum 113.24 b 220.34 bc 829.79 a 高粱Sorghum 165.75 b 517.25 a 410.50 de 452.35 b
玉米Maize 99.27 cd 219.00 c 693.01 c 玉米Maize 155.50 bc 498.85 ab 448.50 c 375.75 c
大豆Soybean 148.50 bc 483.75 abc 390.00 e 379.50 c
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