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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (10): 1570-1576.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01570

• RESEARCH NOTES • Previous Articles    

Effects of Water and CO2 Concentration on Stomatal Traits, Leaf Gas Exchange, and Biomass of Winter Wheat

Hai-Xia WU1,Li-Li GUO1,Li-Hua HAO1,Hao ZHANG2,Qing-Tao WANG3,Dong-Juan CHENG1,Zheng-Ping PENG4,Fei LI1,Xi-Xi ZHANG1,Shu-Bin LI5,Ming XU6,7,*(),Yun-Pu ZHENG1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, Hebei, China
    2 School of Life Science and Engineering, Handan University, Handan 056005, Hebei, China
    3 School of Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, Hebei, China
    4 School of Resources and Environment Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, Hebei, China
    5 Office of Fu-Zhang River Irrigation and Water Supply Management, Handan 056002, Hebei, China
    6 Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    7 School of Environment and Resources, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2018-02-01 Accepted:2018-07-20 Online:2018-10-10 Published:2018-08-01
  • Contact: Ming XU,Yun-Pu ZHENG E-mail:mingxu@igsnrr.ac.cn;zhengyunpu_000@sina.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0300905)


The experiment was conducted in environmental growth chambers with accurately controlled CO2 concentrations. Water deficit resulted in the decrease of stomatal openness and more irregular stomatal distribution of winter wheat, and elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) mitigated the negative impacts on the morphological traits of individual stoma and spatial distribution of stomata. The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of winter wheat significantly decreased (P < 0.05) under water deficits than under full irrigation condition, while elevated [CO2] could mitigate the influence of mild water deficit on leaf gas exchange, and this mitigated effect declined with the increase of water deficit degree. In addition, the biomass of winter wheat was substantially decreased with water deficits but barely affected by elevated [CO2] under water deficits. These results suggested that winter wheat changes its leaf gas exchange by adjusting morphological traits of individual stoma and spatial distribution pattern of stomata under water deficit, and the “CO2 fertilization effect” on winter wheat may be modified by soil water conditions.

Key words: doubling CO2 concentration, water deficit, winter wheat, biomass, stomatal traits, gas exchange parameters


Fig. 1

Effects of e[CO2] on the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on the adaxial (A) and abaxial (B) leaf surface of winter wheat under different water conditions The 95% confidence envelope for complete spatial randomness is between the dark blue and brown dotted lines. Lhat (d) value is the nearest neighbor distance, and stomata would follow a regular distribution at the scale when the Lhat (d) value is lower than the 95% boundary. The minimum Lhat (d) value is smaller, the spatial distribution pattern of stomata is more regular."

Fig. 2

Effects of e[CO2] on leaf gas exchange of winter wheat under different water conditions A: net photosynthetic rate; B: stomatal conductance; C: transpiration rate; D: water use efficiency. Data are means ± SD (n = 5). Different letters above the error bars indicate significantly different (P < 0.05) among the eight water treatments under two [CO2] conditions."

Fig. 3

Effects of e[CO2] on biomass of winter wheat under different water conditions A: aboveground biomass; B: belowground biomass; C: total biomass; D: root-to-shoot ratio. Data are means ±SD (n = 5). Different letters above the error bars indicate significantly different (P < 0.05) among the eight water treatments under two [CO2] conditions."

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