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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (1): 125-137.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04077


Effects of chemical fertilizer reduction with organic fertilizer application under water deficit on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of cotton

FENG Ke-Yun1(), WANG Ning1,*(), NAN Hong-Yu1, GAO Jian-Gang2   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
    2Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
  • Received:2020-03-26 Accepted:2020-08-19 Online:2021-01-12 Published:2020-09-15
  • Contact: WANG Ning E-mail:fengkymh@163.com;wangn2828@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Major Science and Technology Project of Gansu Province(17ZD2NA016-6);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0201905);Youth Foundation Project of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences(2019GAAS38)


Fixed position experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018, and split plot arrangement with the main treatment for full irrigation (W1) with irrigation amount was 4800 cubic meters per hectare and deficit irrigation (W2) was 2400 cubic meters per hectare, and the secondary treatment including treatments without fertilization (CK), single application of chemical fertilizer (CF), 75% chemical fertilizer with 25% organic fertilizer (M1), 50% chemical fertilizer with 50% organic fertilizer (M2), and 25% chemical fertilizer with 75% organic fertilizer (M3). The effects of chemical fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer application on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of cotton were studied to provide theoretical basis for rational utilization of organic fertilizer and reduction of chemical fertilizer input under water deficit. Under deficit irrigation, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), above-ground dry matter accumulation and seed yield of cotton were all lower than that under full irrigation, while irrigation water productivity (IWP) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were higher. The chemical fertilizer reduction combined with application of organic fertilizer could effectively improve the LAI after the full squaring stage, improve Pn and Gs of cotton in all stage, promote the accumulation of vegetative and reproductive organs dry matter, improve its transfer to the reproductive organs, improve the IWP and seed yield, and also increase the moisture content of soil surface in the period of full boll stage and boll opening stage. The effects among different organic fertilizer treatments on LAI, Pn and seed yield were all presented as M1 > M2 > M3, and under the treatment of M1, the average seed cotton yield of two years increased compared with CF and CK by 6.9% and 62.1% respectively. Whereas, the effects under deficit irrigation were presented as M2 > M1 > M3, and the two years’ average seed yield increased by 19.9% and 79.3% respectively compared with CF and CK under M2. Chemical fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer application were beneficial to increase the yield of seed cotton under water deficit, and alleviate the influence of water deficit on cotton growth and development, M2 (50% fertilizer +50% organic fertilizer) was the best treatment.

Key words: cotton, water deficit, organic fertilizer, photosynthetic characteristics, yield

Table 1

Nutrients content in 0-60 cm soil layer of the experimental field before sowing"

Soil layer
pH 有机质
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total nitrogen
(g kg-1)
Alkaline-hydrolytic N (mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
2017 0-20 7.26 12.81 0.62 59.62 28.35 191.27
20-40 7.31 9.78 0.51 46.84 21.38 125.34
40-60 7.38 6.54 0.45 36.97 15.63 82.61
2018 0-20 7.14 13.46 0.67 57.35 29.46 187.35
20-40 7.25 10.15 0.54 48.82 24.37 122.82
40-60 7.32 7.52 0.42 39.67 17.62 87.65

Fig. 1

Month average air temperature and rainfall in growth period of cotton in 2017 and 2018"

Fig. 2

Effects of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on leaf area index of cotton Different letters in the same stage mean significant difference among different fertilizer treatments at P < 0.05. FS: full squaring stage; FF: full flowering stage; EFB: early stage of full boll; FB: full boll stage; LFB: later full boll stage; BO: boll opening stage. CK: no fertilizer; CF: single application of chemical fertilizer; M1: 75% chemical fertilizer + 25% organic fertilizer; M2: 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% organic fertilizer; M3: 25% chemical fertilizer + 75% organic fertilizer. W1: full irrigation with irrigation amount was 4800 m3 hm-2; W2: deficit irrigation with irrigation amount was 2400 m3 hm-2."

Fig. 3

Effects of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on leaf photosynthetic characteristics of cotton Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Fig. 4

Effects of different treatments on cotton plant dry biomass Different letters in the same year mean significant difference among different treatments at P < 0.05. Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Table 2

Effects of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on cotton yield and its components"

Number of bolls
Boll mass (g)
Lint percentage (%)
Lint yield (kg hm-2)
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
W1 CK 3.9 d 4.5 e 5.6 b 5.9 b 41.2 a 41.4 a 2758.4 d 2939.7 d
CF 5.4 c 5.6 d 6.2 a 6.3 a 41.6 a 41.6 a 4285.3 c 4357.2 c
M1 6.2 a 6.7 a 6.3 a 6.5 a 41.5 a 41.9 a 4581.6 a 4662.5 a
M2 6.1 a 6.2 b 6.2 a 6.3 a 41.4 a 41.7 a 4417.3 b 4485.6 b
M3 5.7 b 5.9 c 6.2 a 6.2 a 41.5 a 41.5 a 4368.7 b 4405.7 b
W2 CK 3.5 e 3.7 d 5.5 b 5.6 b 42.7 a 42.6 a 2404.6 e 2513.5 e
CF 4.8 d 5.1 c 5.9 a 6.0 a 42.6 a 42.8 a 3625.3 d 3718.7 d
M1 5.5 b 5.7 b 6.1 a 6.1 a 42.5 a 42.5 a 4224.6 b 4273.8 b
M2 5.8 a 6.3 a 6.2 a 6.3 a 42.3 a 42.6 a 4396.8 a 4415.1 a
M3 5.3 c 5.6 b 6.1 a 6.0 a 42.5 a 42.4 a 4128.3 c 4187.4 c
灌水Irrigation (W) ** ** ns ns ** ** ** **
施肥Fertilizer (F) ** ** ** ** ns ns ** **
灌水×施肥W×F ** ** ns * ns ns ** **

Fig. 5

Effect of different treatments on irrigation water productivity of cotton Different letters in the same year mean significant difference among different treatments at P < 0.05. M: irrigation; F: fertilizer; W×F: interaction effects between irrigation and fertilizer. Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Fig. 6

Effect of different irrigation and fertilizer treatments on soil moisture Different letters in the same year mean significant difference among different treatments at P < 0.05. FS: full squaring stage; FF: full flowering stage; EFB: early stage of full boll; FB: full boll stage; BO: boll opening stage. Treatments are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

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