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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (5): 1051-1058.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14116

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Mechanism and technology of stand establishment improvements through regulating the apical hook formation and hypocotyl growth during seed germination and emergence in cotton

ZHOU Jing-Yuan1,2(), KONG Xiang-Qiang2, ZHANG Yan-Jun2, LI Xue-Yuan3, ZHANG Dong-Mei2, DONG He-Zhong1,2,*()   

  1. 1College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, Shandong, China
    2Institute of Industrial Crops / Shandong Key Laboratory for Cotton Culture and Physiology, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, Shandong, China
    3Institute of Cash Crops, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2021-06-07 Accepted:2021-10-09 Online:2022-05-12 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: DONG He-Zhong E-mail:zhoujingyuan0107@163.com;donghezhong@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2020YFD1001002);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31771718);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31801307);China Agriculture Research System(CARS-15-15)


Realizing full and strong stand establishment of seedlings is the basis for achieving high yields and bump harvests in cotton. However, cotton is a dicotyledonous plant whose cotyledons are successfully all unearthed for standing. Seedling emergence is susceptible to environmental conditions and seeding techniques. Therefore, it is generally more difficult for cotton to get full and strong stand establishment than other major crops. The apical hook formation and the hypocotyl growth at seed germination and emergence stages play key roles in seedling emergence and stand establishment. Here we systemically reviewed the regulation mechanism of cotton seedling growth for the first time and put forward the key agronomic cultivation techniques to promote cotton seedling growth, focusing on the physiological and molecular mechanism of hook formation and hypocotyl growth and their influencing factors. Precision monoseeding can improve timely and moderate expression of the key genes HLS1 and COP1 related to hypocotyl elongation and hook formation, which assures better stand establishment by timely formation and expansion of the hooks and timely shedding of seed shells. The hypocotyl can grow steadily and form strong seedings by regulating the expression of key genes HY5 and ARF2 related to hypocotyl growth under precision monoseeding. In this paper, the key cultivation techniques of cotton precision monoseedling, combined with fine soil preparation, improving seed quality, plastic mulching, and drip irrigation under mulching were summarized and reviewed. This review provides important reference and guidance for the improvement and development of cotton sowing and cultivation technology in cotton.

Key words: cotton, emergence, strong seedling, regulation mechanism, curved hook formation, hypocotyl growth

Fig. 1

Mechanism of stand establishment improvements through regulating the apical hook formation and hypocotyl growth in cotton[3,10,27] Environmental signals such as mechanical pressure and light interact with hormone signals such as ethylene and gibberellin, which ultimately affects the synthesis and transport of auxin and regulates the asymmetric distribution of auxin during the apical hook formation and hypocotyl elongation. The normal arrow indicates positive regulation, the T-shaped arrow indicates negative regulation, and the dotted arrow indicates that the specific mechanism is unknown."

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