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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 952-961.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12007


Effects of rice stalks mulching combined with green manure (Astragalus smicus L.) incorporated into soil and reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate on rice yield and soil fertility

WANG Lyu1(), CUI Yue-Zhen1, WU Yu-Hong1, HAO Xing-Shun1,*(), ZHANG Chun-Hui1, WANG Jun-Yi1, LIU Yi-Xin2, LI Xiao-Gang1, QIN Yu-Hang1   

  1. 1Hanzhong Agricultural Research Institute, Hanzhong 723000, Shaanxi, China
    2School of Mathematics and Statistics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650000, Yunnan, China
  • Received:2021-02-04 Accepted:2021-07-12 Online:2022-04-12 Published:2021-08-06
  • Contact: HAO Xing-Shun E-mail:wanglv060693@163.com;372770515@qq.com
  • Supported by:
    Shaanxi Agricultural Collaborative Innovation and Extension Alliance(LM202001);Shaanxi Provincial Key Research and Devel-opment Program(2019ZDLNY01-05-01)


Planting green manure and straw retention is an effective measure to improve soil fertility. Two-year field experiment were conducted to assess the effects of reduced nitrogen rate under the rice straw mulching combined with planting green manure (Astragalus sinicus L.) at full bloom stage on rice yield, yield components, and soil nutrient availability in Hantai district, Hanzhong city, Shaanxi province from 2018 to 2020. Five treatments were assigned: (1) CK, winter fallow, no straw mulching, no fertilization; (2) NPK, winter fallow, no straw mulching, conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate; (3) GRN1, planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with conventional N fertilizer rate; (4) GRN2, planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with 80% conventional N rate; (5) GRN3, green manure planting in winter, rice straw mulching with 70% conventional N rate. The results showed that: (I) rice yield (Quanxiangyou 1521) of GRN1 was 10,047 kg hm-2, which was higher 6.7% than that of NPK, and GRN2 and GRN3 had marginal effects in 2019. Moreover, the yield (Huanghuazhan) of GRN2 and GRN3 were significantly higher than that of NPK by 6.6% and 5.8% in 2020, respectively. Compared with CK and NPK, the rice straw mulching combined with planting green manure significantly enhanced the rice yield by 67.9%-83.0% and 2.8%-6.7%, respectively. (II) Planting green manure combined with rice straw mulching increased soil organic carbon content and available P content in 0-20 soil layer. Compared with NPK treatment, soil organic carbon and available P content of GRN2 increased 6.8%-13.2% and 9.9%-12.6%, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that rice yield was significantly correlated with plant height, fresh weight per plant, fresh root stubble weight, filled grain number per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. Compared with NPK, GRN2 significantly increased effective panicle, effective grain number per panicle by 13.0%-29.3% and 4.5%-14.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, GRN2 significantly increased plant height, fresh weight per plant, and root fresh weight by 10.4%, 23.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. In conclusion, rice stalks mulching combined planting green manure with 20% reduced nitrogen rate can improve rice yield and agronomic performance, enlarge soil carbon sequestration capacity, and increase soil nutrients availability, which is a green rice cultural practice adapted to Hanzhong area.

Key words: Chinese milk vetch-rice rotation system, rice straw returning, rice yield, yield components, soil nutrient

Fig. 1

Changes of rice yields under different treatments CK: rice winter fallow, no straw mulching, no fertilization; NPK: winter fallow, no straw mulching, conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate; GRN1: planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with conventional N fertilizer rate; GRN2: planting green manure in winter, rice straw mulching with 80% conventional N rate; GRN3: green manure planting in winter, rice straw mulching with 70% conventional N rate. Bars superscripted by different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05."

Table 2

Changes of soil nutrients under different treatments"

pH 碱解氮
Alkali-resolving N (mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
(g kg-1)
2018-2019 CK 6.18±0.04 a 57.67±5.43 c 7.80±0.40 c 68.97±1.80 b 6.55±0.27 c
NPK 6.15±0.13 a 79.92±3.71 b 8.60±0.25 b 71.92±0.62 ab 7.37±0.86 b
GRN1 6.08±0.11 a 84.58±0.88 b 9.01±0.21 b 73.39±6.08 a 8.23±0.59 a
GRN2 6.07±0.09 a 95.08±2.67 a 11.42±0.62 a 75.82±3.62 a 8.34±0.53 a
GRN3 6.18±0.16 a 94.50±6.48 a 8.86±0.63 b 72.41±3.11 ab 7.71±0.78 ab
2019-2020 CK 6.31±0.02 ab 19.61±0.22 c 14.59±0.83 c 76.24±1.94 c 8.82±0.31 c
NPK 6.32±0.02 a 21.56±0.43 b 15.20±0.50 bc 76.37±1.54 c 9.14±0.11 bc
GRN1 6.23±0.05 c 21.97±0.09 ab 16.21±0.71 ab 81.66±1.39 b 9.24±0.31 bc
GRN2 6.26±0.04 bc 22.37±0.51 a 16.64±0.77 a 85.84±1.36 a 9.76±0.27 a
GRN3 6.34±0.01 a 22.25±0.21 a 15.94±0.69 ab 84.82±1.60 a 9.49±0.19 ab
年度Season (S) * ** * *
氮肥Nitrogen (N) NS ** ** **
年度×氮肥 S×N NS ** ** NS

Fig. 2

Correlation analysis of rice yield factors RY: rice yield; EP: effective panicle; FGPP: filled grain number per panicle; KGW: 1000-grain weight."

Table 1

Changes in rice yield components under different treatments"

Effective panicle
(×104 hm-2)
Filled grain number per panicle
1000-grain weight
Seed setting rate
2018-2019 CK 150.15±2.50 c 120.11±1.45 c 30.60±0.18 b 93.34±1.06 a
NPK 254.80±2.95 b 137.96±0.93 b 31.00±0.56 ab 92.53±2.68 a
GRN1 280.80±6.35 a 153.36±6.08 a 31.54±0.56 a 91.76±2.31 a
GRN2 287.95±5.00 a 157.77±4.34 a 31.92±0.66 a 91.85±0.11 a
GRN3 279.82±5.85 a 136.86±7.13 b 31.68±0.44 a 90.86±0.21 a
2019-2020 CK 122.85±5.84 d 133.92±1.56 c 20.69±0.43 c 96.07±0.14 a
NPK 222.41±5.74 c 141.29±1.12 b 21.51±0.41 b 95.83±0.45 ab
GRN1 264.98±5.82 b 146.14±0.80 ab 22.12±0.63 ab 94.88±0.26 ab
GRN2 287.62±3.47 a 147.71±3.17 a 22.93±0.45 a 94.84±0.46 b
GRN3 259.35±7.95 b 143.24±1.02 ab 22.52±0.21 a 95.41±0.26 ab
年度Season (S) * NS ** *
氮肥Nitrogen (N) ** ** ** NS
年度×氮肥 S×N ** ** NS NS

Fig. 3

Correlation analysis of soil nutrients contents RY: rice yield; AN: alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen; MN: mineral nitrogen; AK: available kalium; AP: available potassium; TOC: total organic carbon."

Table 3

Changes of agronomic traits under different treatments in 2019"

Plant height
Plant fresh weight
Root fresh weight
Root length
Aboveground/ underground
CK 112.30±0.90 c 106.97±0.77 c 52.93±1.59 c 20.45±0.35 bc 1.02±0.07 ab 2.00±0.09 a
NPK 119.55±0.25 b 220.84±10.40 b 96.90±0.71 b 23.30±0.50 a 1.19±0.12 ab 2.15±0.26 a
GRN1 126.21±3.60 a 209.21±15.86 b 108.90±7.56 ab 17.95±1.15 c 0.92±0.01 b 1.94±0.01 a
GRN2 132.01±1.60 a 281.87±16.07 a 125.97±7.58 a 22.75±1.05 ab 1.25±0.01 a 2.04±0.06 a
GRN3 129.31±0.10 a 230.57±11.80 b 102.37±2.26 b 19.85±0.45 c 1.24±0.13 ab 1.97±0.01 a

Fig. 4

Correlation analysis of rice agronomic traits in 2019 RY: rice yield; PH: plant height; PFW: plant fresh weight; RFW: root fresh weight; RL: root length; A/U: aboveground/underground; S/G: straw/grain."

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