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    12 June 2022, Volume 48 Issue 6
      Genetic diversity analysis of Chinese fresh corn hybrids using SNP Chips
      XIAO Ying-Ni, YU Yong-Tao, XIE Li-Hua, QI Xi-Tao, LI Chun-Yan, WEN Tian-Xiang, LI Gao-Ke, HU Jian-Guang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1301-1311.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13031
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      China is a major fresh corn production and consumption country in the world. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among fresh corn hybrids in China has great benefit for hybrid identification and breed cultivation. In this study, an Illumina Maize 6K chip was employed to perform genome-wide scanning for the population structure and genetic distance of 385 fresh corn hybrids nationwide. The results showed that the average genetic diversity of 5067 SNP markers in 385 fresh corn hybrids was 0.406, with a range of 0.097-0.500. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.319, with a range of 0.092-0.375. The results of PCA and population genetic structure analysis revealed that the hybrids were mainly divided into three groups, which were non-sweet corn group (185 varieties), temperate sweet corn group (123 varieties), and tropical sweet corn group (77 varieties). The genetic distance between any two hybrids ranged from 0.132 to 0.472, with an average of 0.37. A total of 160 genome regions indicated strong population differentiation among different groups following FST analysis. Four key genes (sh2, su1, su2, and wx1) of starch synthesis pathway in maize grains were detected. Two candidate genes (sh2 and DGAT1-2) demonstrated different selection patterns in fresh corn groups and were validated using molecular markers. These results provide important theoretical guidance for the breeding and improvement of fresh corn varieties in China.

      Molecular cloning of two maize (Zea mays) ZmCOP1 genes and their transcription abundances in response to different light treatments
      CUI Lian-Hua, ZHAN Wei-Min, YANG Lu-Hao, WANG Shao-Ci, MA Wen-Qi, JIANG Liang-Liang, ZHANG Yan-Pei, YANG Jian-Ping, YANG Qing-Hua
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1312-1324.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13040
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      As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) mediates ubiquitination and degradation of positive regulatory factors such as HY5, LAF1, HFR1, and CO of the light signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana, thus mediating seedling photomorphogenesis, anthocyanin synthesis, and flowering time. To explore functional differentiation of ZmCOP1 genes, we cloned two ZmCOP1 genes, designated as ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b, from maize inbred line B73 by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The physicochemical properties, domain prediction and phylogenetic tree of ZmCOP1 were analyzed by bioinformatics software and website. The transcription abundances of two ZmCOP1 genes in different tissues and their responses to different light treatments at seedling stage were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that the open reading frames (ORFs) of ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b possessed 2082 and 2061 nucleotides, encoding 693 and 686 amino acids, respectively. The COP1 proteins of maize, rice, sorghum, millet, and Arabidopsis shared the same structural domains and high amino acid sequence identity, indicating that they may have similar functions. The two ZmCOP1 genes were mainly expressed in the above-ground tissues. Both of them could rapidly respond to different light treatments, while the transcription abundances of ZmCOP1a were generally higher than those of ZmCOP1b. It might suggest that ZmCOP1a may play more important roles under different light conditions. Under long-day or short-day condition, the transcription abundances of both ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b during the dark phase were higher than those during the light phase. Another interesting case is that both genes kept similar expression patterns during the light phase, while, transcription abundances of ZmCOP1b were higher than those of ZmCOP1a during the dark phase. It might imply that ZmCOP1b may be more important than ZmCOP1a in response to long-day or short-day treatment. In conclusion, both ZmCOP1a and ZmCOP1b had got functional redundancy and differentiation. Both genes could participate in different light signal pathways, and regulate maize photomorphogenesis and flowering period. Our results also provide a research foundation for further exploration of two ZmCOP1 genes and application in molecular breeding in maize.

      Allelic variation and geographical distribution of TT8 for seed color in Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.
      ZHANG Yu-Kun, LU Ying, CUI Kan, XIA Shi-Tou, LIU Zhong-Song
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1325-1332.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14072
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      The gene TT8 regulates seed color in Brassica species. Two TT8 copies, designated as BjuA09.TT8 and BjuB08.TT8, were cloned from the chromosomes A09 and B08 of the allotetraploid B. juncea, which had 7 and 6 alleles in worldwide 749 B. juncea accessions, respectively. Compared with the wild type, BjuA09.TT8.a1-a5 and BjuB08.TT8.b1-b4 alleles carried large insertions, while BjuA09.TT8.a6 and BjuB08.TT8.b5 had a deletion and a base substitution at exon 7, respectively. Comparison of the allele sequences with the annotated library of swede rapeseed (B. napus) using the software Repeatmasker revealed that BjuA09.TT8.a1-a4 and BjuB08.TT8.b1-b4 alleles contained class I transposons, a few class II transposons, and Helitron-like transposon insertions. The haplotype analysis showed that BjuA09.TT8.a4-BjuB08.TT8.b5 was the major yellow seed haplotype, accounting for 89.49% (247/276) of the yellow seed accessions detected, followed by the haplotype BjuA09.TT8.a4- BjuB08.TT8.b3, amounting for 6.52%. Analysis of geographical origin of yellow seed accessions revealed that there were had a higher frequency of yellow seed mutation especially in Xinjiang region, China, than the other parts of the world, suggesting possible origin of yellow seed mustard in Xinjiang, China together with historical records. This study provides a basis for the selection of superior genetic resources for breeding yellow seed rapeseed.

      Genome wide association analysis of petiole angle based on 783 soybean resources (Glycine max L.)
      CHEN Ling-Ling, LI Zhan, LIU Ting-Xuan, GU Yong-Zhe, SONG Jian, WANG Jun, QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1333-1345.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14102
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      Petiole angle is one of the important factors that affects the high-efficiency light posture of plants. It is very important to improve soybean plant architecture by adjusting the leaf angle petioles. Soybean petiole angle is a quantitative trait, which is limited to QTLs mapping for most studies up to date. The reported gene GmILPA1controlling leaf petiole angle gene was cloned from mutants. Identification of more regulatory genes and elite alleles is urgent both for the clarification of genetic mechanism for petiole angle and its breeding utilization. In this study, 783 and 690 soybean germplasms were phenotypic for petiole angle in Hainan and Beijing in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and genome-wide associated study (GWAS) were performed using genome-wide distributed SNPs. Results showed that the petiole angle at different nodes (top, middle, and bottom nodes) were in normal distribution, suggesting that the trait of typical quantitative was inheritance. A total of 325 SNPs associated with petiole angle were identified by two-point GWAS analysis in two years, including 51, 230, 10, and 34 SNPs for petiole angles of the top, middle, bottom, and mean value of different nodes, respectively. Three candidate genes (Glyma.05G059700: auxin regulatory protein, Glyma.06G076900: AFR, and Glyma.06G076000: COP9) were obtained by LD block analysis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that all these three candidate genes had high expression level in shoot apical meristem (SAM), however, high expression level were also identified in leaf for Glyma.06G076900, leaf and stem for Glyma.06G076000.

      Molecular mapping and validation of quantitative trait loci for spike-related traits and plant height in wheat
      HU Wen-Jing, LI Dong-Sheng, YI Xin, ZHANG Chun-Mei, ZHANG Yong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1346-1356.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11055
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      Spike-related traits and plant height are important target traits in wheat breeding. In the present study, a population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between a CIMMYT wheat line C615 and Yangmai 13 (YM13) was constructed, followed by genotyping with Wheat 90K SNP array and phenotyping of spike-related traits and plant height in three environments to excavate QTLs (quantitative trait loci) for these traits. Using composite interval mapping method, we identified one QTL for total spikelet number per spike (TSS), two QTLs for spike length (SL), two QTLs for spikelet compactness (SC), and three QTLs for plant height (PH). QSN.yaas-3B and QPH.yaas-3B overlapped on the chromosome 3B. QSL.yaas-5A, QSC.yaas-5A and QPH.yaas-5A overlapped on the chromosome 5A. QSL.yaas-6A and QSC.yaas-6A overlapped on the chromosome 6A. QSN.yaas-3B/QPH.yaas-3B and QSL.yaas-6A/QSC.yaas-6A had not been reported yet, and were likely to be novel loci. The SNP marker closely linked to QSL.yaas-5A/QSC.yaas-5A/QPH.yaas-5A was then converted into one Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) marker (QC615-5A-KASP), and validated in a panel of 105 wheat lines. The results would be useful for improvement of yield related traits in wheat breeding.

      Genome-wide identification of BnCNGC and the gene expression analysis in Brassica napus challenged with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and PEG-simulated drought
      CHEN Song-Yu, DING Yi-Juan, SUN Jun-Ming, HUANG Deng-Wen, YANG Nan, DAI Yu-Han, WAN Hua-Fang, QIAN Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1357-1371.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14091
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      CNGCs are common cyclic nucleotide-gated channel proteins in plants, which play important roles in plant stress response. In order to elucidate the biological function of the BnCNGC genes in Brassica napus, we identified the BnCNGC family members in the genome and analyzed the distribution, structure, evolution, and the expression of candidate members in B. napus exposed to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum or PEG-simulated drought. In this study, employing CNGC amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea as references, the homologies were acquired using BLASTP software in Brassica napus Genome Browser, and the gene family members were identified according to the conserved domain and specific motif of BnCNGC in plants. The gene structure, chromosome distribution, protein physicochemical property, subcellular localization, phylogenetic evolution, and promoter cis-acting regulatory elements were analyzed. The relative expression profiles of the candidate BnCNGC genes, screened out based on the transcriptome data in B. napus challenged with S. sclerotiorum or PEG-simulated drought, were analyzed by qRT-PCR. As a result, a total of 49 BnCNGC genes were identified in B. napus genome. They were distributed at 17 pairs of chromosomes, except for A08 and C06, and generally had 5-10 introns. The 1500 bp region in the upstream sequence of BnCNGC contained lots of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in stress response. Most of the corresponding proteins were composed of 413-801 amino acids with molecular weight (MW) of 47.62-110.58 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 6.10-9.88. All the identified family members had specific motif of CNGC in the CNBD region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BnCNGC were divided into four categories, namely Group I, II, III, and IV. Transcriptome data analysis revealed that BnCNGC9, BnCNGC27, and BnCNGC48 were involved in stress response. The relative expression levels of the three genes were detected in B. napus leaves exposed to different stresses. All were down-regulated by 48.2%-99.1%, 79.4%-87.1%, and 39.7%-92.6% under inoculation with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, respectively. The relative expression levels of BnCNGC9 and BnCNGC48 were increased 3.34 times and 6.27 times at 24 and 48 hours after simulated drought stress, respectively, thus BnCNGC27 was not sensitive to drought stress.

      Identification of rice blast resistance candidate genes based on integrating Meta-QTL and RNA-seq analysis
      TIAN Tian, CHEN Li-Juan, HE Hua-Qin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1372-1388.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12031
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      Magnaporthe oryzae seriously devastates rice production, and resistant cultivars can lose resistance within a few years due to the pathogenic variability of M. oryzae. Therefore, it is essential to explore continuously novel blast-resistance genes for breeding broad-spectrum resistance cultivars. In this study, firstly, 50 Meta-QTLs (including at least 2 original QTLs) were identified on 12 chromosomes by meta-analysis of blast-resistance 783 QTLs from 43 literatures. The average interval distance was 0.87 Mb in these Meta-QTLs, which contained a total of 4718 interval genes. Subsequently, based on integrated analysis of blast-resistance Meta-QTLs and RNA-seq, the result identified 2193 common genes which were not only located on blast-resistance Meta-QTLs, but also significantly differentially expressed in response to the M. oryzae. Among them, 22 cloned genes had been reported to be involved in defense responses to M. oryzae and other stresses. Furthermore, 99 resistance gene analogues (RGA) and 112 transcription factors (TF) were screened out from the above common genes, which were utilized to construct gene co-expression networks (GCEN). Based on the Top 20 of the connection degrees, hub genes were identified in the GCEN. Among them, OsJAMyb, bsr-d1, and OsWRKY76 had been reported to be against rice blast, and OsSPL9 was related to resistance to rice stripe virus. The left hub genes were considered as important potential resistance genes which need further functional verification to prepare for breeding broad-spectrum resistance rice cultivars.

      Phenotypic characterization and gene mapping of an early senescence leaf H5(esl-H5) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      ZHENG Chong-Ke, ZHOU Guan-Hua, NIU Shu-Lin, HE Ya-Nan, SUN wei, XIE Xian-Zhi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1389-1400.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12035
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      A stable mutant esl-H5 (early senescence leaf H5) was identified from the mutant library of japonica rice Huaidao 5 population induced by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment. The mutant was normal at seedling stage. However, the lower leaves in esl-H5 mutant displayed premature senescence at about 50 days after sowing. Compared with the wild type (WT), the heading date of the esl-H5 mutant was delayed, while agronomical traits including plant height, panicle length, grain number per panicle, effective tiller numbers, and 1000-grain weight were significantly reduced. Moreover, chlorophyll content was also decreased in esl-H5 mutant. Genetic analysis indicated that the early senescence trait in esl-H5 mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene. ESL-H5 gene was localized on chromosome 1 using molecular marker. MutMap analysis further revealed that one nucleotide G to A replace occurred in the last exon of Os01g0533000 gene which encodes callose synthase. The G to A replace in the ESL-H5 introduced a premature stop codon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ESL-H5 was homology with Arabidopsis AtGSL7 (Glucan Synthase-Like 7). At tillering stage, the contents of soluble sugar and starch were significantly increased in the leaves of the esl-H5 mutant compared with those of the WT. These results implied that the mutation of ESL-H5 affected the transport of photosynthetic products, resulting in premature leaf senescence phenotypes. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of disease resistance-related genes PR1a, PR1b, PR2, PR4, PR5, and PR10 in esl-H5 mutant were higher than those in WT, which was consistent with the observation that esl-H5 mutant improved bacterial blight resistance. The present results lay the foundation for studying the roles of sugar signal in regulating rice senescence and disease resistance.

      Mechanism of drought and salt tolerance of OsLPL2/PIR gene in rice
      ZHOU Wen-Qi, QIANG Xiao-Xia, WANG Sen, JIANG Jing-Wen, WEI Wan-Rong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1401-1415.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12032
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      Drought threatens global agricultural production and limits the prospects for sustainable agricultural development. Plant leaf epidermis plays a vital role in the process of growth, development, and resistance to adversity stress, and water and gas exchange with the external environment. In this study, compared with the wild-type Zhonghua 11 (ZH11), we found that mutants less pronounced lobe epidermal cell 2-1 (lpl2-1) and less pronounced lobe epidermal cell 2-2 (lpl2-2) were more sensitive to drought and salt stress response, and the survival rate after rewatering was extremely significantly reduced, which was less than half of the control. Compared with ZH11, lpl2-1 and lpl2-2 had shorter plant height, shorter root length, significantly increased stomatal density and stomatal openings in the same phyllodes, and the serrated lobe of the epidermal cell margin becomes smoother, and the epidermal cell nesting was not tight, which might result in faster and more water loss of lpl2-1 and lpl2-2 than ZH11. The water loss experiment of separated leaves also proved that the water loss rate of lpl2-1 and lpl2-2 leaves was higher than that of the ZH11 in equal time. Overexpression of OsLPL2 was transferred into lpl2-1, and the OE-OsLPL2/lpl2-1 transgenic positive plants recovered the smooth epidermis of lpl2-1 and the sensitive phenotype to drought and salt stress. These results showed that OsLPL2 gene not only controlled the microfilament synthesis and morphogenesis of rice epidermal cells, but also played a key role in response to plant stress by regulating stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and root growth and development. This study provides a theoretical basis for revealing the molecular regulation mechanism of OsLPL2 in response to drought stress in rice.

      SEA v2.0: an R software package for mixed major genes plus polygenes inheritance analysis of quantitative traits
      WANG Jing-Tian, ZHANG Ya-Wen, DU Ying-Wen, REN Wen-Long, LI Hong-Fu, SUN Wen-Xian, GE Chao, ZHANG Yuan-Ming
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1416-1424.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14088
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      The phenotypic values for quantitative trait from bi-parental segregation populations can be used to identify its mixed major genes plus polygenes inheritance model, which provides important information for the genetic basis of quantitative traits and crop breeding. To comprehensively summarize the research results of methodological advances, add the new functions of the software and correct its shortcomings in previous versions, an R software package SEA v2.0 with interactive graphical user interface is developed under R studio-1.4.1103 platform and R environment. In this software, there were 14 types of bi-parental segregation populations, and each type included four modules: data input, data analysis, posterior probability calculation, and distribution curve drawing. To save running time, doParallel was used to conduct parallel computing, data.table was used to quickly read and write datasets, and MASS was used to estimate the parameters in component distributions. KScorrect, kolmim, and shiny packages were used to simplify the programs. As long as users uploaded the data file with *.csv format and set the related parameters, the results could be quickly displayed. The software was validated by real data analysis of soybean podding habit and Monte Carlo simulation studies, and can be downloaded from https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/SEA/index.html.

      Difference and molecular mechanism of soluble sugar metabolism and quality of different rice panicle in japonica rice
      ZHENG Xiao-Long, ZHOU Jing-Qing, BAI Yang, SHAO Ya-Fang, ZHANG Lin-Ping, HU Pei-Song, WEI Xiang-Jin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1425-1436.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12029
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      This study investigated the mechanism of starch and rice quality differences on different parts of spikelet in japonica rice. According to the internodes of the primary stem on main panicle, rice grains on the panicles were divided into top, middle, and the bottom spikelets. The dynamic changes of soluble carbohydrate and starch, starch biosynthesis related enzyme activity, gene expression on different parts of panicles at different filling stage and the starch content, chalkiness degree after harvest of six varieties were measured. The results showed that the amylose content of the five varieties was in an order as top > middle > bottom except Xiushui 134. The chalkiness degree of Jia 58 and Zhongjia 8 was higher than the other varieties, and the chalkiness degree of rice grains on the middle part of panicles was lower than that on the bottom part, and the rice grains on the top part had the highest chalkiness degree. Rice grains of high chalkiness degree had significant difference in starch granules size and shape. We found that the shape of starch granules was semi-ellipsoid or other spherical curved in rice grains with high chalkiness degree and mostly regular polyhedra in rice grains with low chalkiness degree. The contents of sucrose, glucose, and fructose in grains of different varieties and parts were different during grain filling period, but the dynamic changes of sucrose content were first decreased and then slightly increased, while glucose and fructose were basically increased first and then decreased. The contents of invertase and AGPase were significantly different among rice grains on top, middle, and bottom parts of panicles. However, the relative expression levels of AGPase were in an order as top > middle > bottom during the whole filling stage. The relative expression levels of invertase were in an order as top < middle < bottom during the early filling stage, and the rule was completely the opposite at late filling stage. The expression levels of OsCIN2 and OsCIN5 encoding sucrose invertase genes were in an order as middle > bottom > top, and the expression levels of OsAGPL1, OsAGPL2, and OsAGPS1a encoding AGPase genes were in an order as top > middle ≈ bottom. It concluded that the amylose content and chalkiness degree of grains in different panicles had significant difference and also affected by varieties. The content of soluble carbohydrate, starch biosynthesis related enzyme activity, and the gene expression of encoding related enzymes had an effect on starch biosynthesis. The genes of OsCIN2, OsCIN5, OsAGPL1, OsAGPL2, and OsAGPS1a played an important role in the difference of starch content and chalkiness degree in different panicles.

      Characteristics of the annual distribution and utilization of climate resource for double maize cropping system in the middle reaches of Yangtze River
      WANG Dan, ZHOU Bao-Yuan, MA Wei, GE Jun-Zhu, DING Zai-Song, LI Cong-Feng, ZHAO Ming
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1437-1450.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13022
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      Clarifying the characteristics of annual yield, distribution, and utilization of climatic resources, and establishing rational quantitative indexes of annual climatic resource distribution are helpful to provide theoretical basis for establishing the double maize cropping system. In this study, to analyze the annual grain yield, biomass, and distribution and utilization efficiency of climate resource of double maize cropping system with different variety collocation, the experiment was conducted from 2015 to 2017 at Wuxue, Hubei province. The distribution and utilization of climatic resource of different variety collocation was different. The accumulative temperature and radiation distribution rate of HM in the first season and annual were significantly higher than the other variety collocation, but on the contrary in the second season. The accumulative temperature and radiation distribution rate for the first season of HM was 49% and 52%, respectively. The accumulative temperature and radiation distribution rate for the second season of HM was 46% and 44%. The accumulative ratio of temperature and radiation between two seasons of HM was 1.1 and 1.2. The precipitation distribution rate of two seasons and annual among the four variety collocations were no significantly different. The difference of the accumulative temperature and radiation among different variety collocations resulted in the changes of grain yield and biomass. Because of a high matching degree between the distribution of climatic resource and the growth demand of maize in HM. The annual grain yield and total biomass of HM were significantly higher than those of the MM, MH, and LH, with an average increase of 8.4%-24.5% and 9.7%-29.6%, respectively. The annual accumulative temperature and radiation, radiation use efficiency of grain, and total biomass of HM were significantly higher than those of the MM, MH, and LH, with an average increase of 2.9%-14.3% in the annual accumulative temperature production efficiency, 5.5%-18.4% in the annual radiation production efficiency, 0.05%-0.16% and 0.16%-0.39% increase in the radiation use efficiency of grain and total biomass, respectively. Considering both yield and resource use efficiency, HM can be used as the best variety collocation for high yield and high efficiency of double maize system in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. Furthermore, this is helpful to extend double maize cropping system, optimize the layout of planting patterns, provide theoretical basis and important support the sustainable development of agricultural production.

      Adaptation of feed crops to saline-alkali soil stress and effect of improving saline-alkali soil
      WANG Wang-Nian, GE Jun-Zhu, YANG Hai-Chang, YIN Fa-Ting, HUANG Tai-Li, KUAI Jie, WANG Jing, WANG Bo, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, FU Ting-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1451-1462.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14051
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      Saline-alkali land widely distributes with large area in China. It is of great significance to select forage crops and realize planting and breeding cycle in saline-alkali land to promote the development of herbivorous animal husbandry and the improvement of saline-alkali land in China. In this study, the plots with high salinity difference were selected from the coastal saline-alkali land in Tianjin (NaCl type) and the inland saline-alkali land in northwest Xinjiang (Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type), respectively, and six field crops such as corn, sorghum, wheat, millet, soybean, and rapeseed with feed value were planted to determine the biomass, crude protein content, sodium and potassium ion content, and other indicators. The results were as follows. When the salt content was less than 1.82 g kg-1 and 2.00 g kg-1 in saline-alkali land NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type, respectively. The biomass and crude protein yield of the crops were close to those of conventional cultivated land, suggesting that saline-alkali land in low salt content could be used as forage production base. When the salt content reached 2.49 g kg-1 in the Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type saline-alkali soil, the biomass and crude protein yield of rapeseed were significantly higher than other crops. Thus, in the Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type saline-alkali soil with salt content lower than 2.49 g kg-1, rapeseed could be planted for fodder development and utilization. When the salt content in saline-alkali land of NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 type reached 3.63 g kg-1 and 4.42 g kg-1, respectively. The biomass and crude protein yield of each crop was lower than 51.72% of that in conventional cultivated land, which made the utilization value of the cultivated land low. Therefore, it was recommended to use these saline-alkali land of NaCl type and Na2SO4-NaHCO3 with high content salt and alkali after improvement. In the different plots of the two experimental sites, the enrichment of Na+ in soil by rapeseed was significantly higher than the other crops at P < 0.05, and it also significantly reduced the total soil salt and Na + content. In this experiment, in plots with salinity of 1.82, 2.00, and 2.49 g kg-1, rapeseed had the most obvious Na+ enrichment effect. The enrichment of rapeseed on soil Na+ was 39.45, 102.24, and 57.19 kg hm-2 respectively, accounting for 13.02%, 15.99%, and 8.94% of the Na+ in the 0-20 cm cultivated layer soil, respectively. The improvement effect of rapeseed on saline-alkali land was significant. The above results provide a reference for the utilization of the saline-alkali land in China for the production of herbivorous feed raw materials, the promotion of the development of herbivorous animal husbandry, and the improvement of saline-alkali land.

      Different responses of rice cultivars to salt stress and the underlying mechanisms
      YAN Jia-Qian, GU Yi-Biao, XUE Zhang-Yi, ZHOU Tian-Yang, GE Qian-Qian, ZHANG Hao, LIU Li-Jun, WANG Zhi-Qin, GU Jun-Fei, YANG Jian-Chang, ZHOU Zhen-Ling, XU Da-Yong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1463-1475.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12027
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      The objective of this study is to elucidate the responses of physiological traits and yield with different salt stress to salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible rice cultivars. Five salt-tolerant rice cultivars and two salt-susceptible rice cultivars were grown in pots with five different salt concentration levels including 0, 1, 2, 2.5, and 3 g kg-1 of per pot for two years. Results showed that the yields of salt-tolerant cultivars were less reduced than that of salt-susceptible cultivars, and salt-tolerant cultivars was able to tolerate higher salt concentration of 2.5 g kg-1. Salt-tolerant varieties produced higher grain yield mainly due to the greater total spikelets per area and higher filled grain percentage under salt stress. Salt-tolerant rice cultivars also had higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), higher contents of osmotic substances such as fructose, trehalose, and sorbitol, and higher K+/Na+ ratio from mid-tillering to heading. The crop growth rate from tillering to jointing and from heading to maturity, and photosynthetic rate at heading stage were higher in salt-tolerant cultivars than in salt-susceptible cultivars. The above results revealed that the differences in grain yields between salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible rice varieties were mainly due to the performances of physiological traits at mid-tillering, panicle initiation, and heading stages. These growth stages were the key stages that determined the number of panicles, spikelets per panicle, and the percentage of filled grains. The better physiological traits in the salt-tolerant rice varieties during key stages were the basis for higher grain yield. The results of this study could be helpful for the physiological researches and the breeding of salt-tolerant rice.

      Effects of nutrient uptake and utilization on yield of maize-legume strip intercropping system
      YANG Huan, ZHOU Ying, CHEN Ping, DU Qing, ZHENG Ben-Chuan, PU Tian, WEN Jing, YANG Wen-Yu, YONG Tai-Wen
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1476-1487.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13017
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      To clarify the difference of nutrient uptake and utilization to yield advantage between maize-soybean relay intercropping and maize-peanut intercropping, we conducted a field experiment for two consecutive years. The results were obtained by comparing nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) absorption efficiency and utilization in the intercropping with sole cropping. The results showed that land equivalent ratio (LER) of maize-soybean relay intercropping was 1.16-1.72, which had the advantage of intercropping yield, but the LER of maize-peanut intercropping was 0.89-1.13, which had no obvious yield disadvantage. In maize-soybean relay intercropping system, the amount of N, P, and K uptake was higher than that of the corresponding sole cropping by 32.60%-54.22%, 27.35%-34.64, and 17.74%-24.42%, respectively, but the N utilization efficiency was lower by 21.99%-42.07%. The contributions of the N, P, and K uptake efficiencies to LER were 0.34-0.62, 0.31-0.46, and 0.22-0.32, and the utilization efficiencies contributions were -0.11 to -0.35, -0.03 to -0.31, and -0.11 to 0.22, respectively. In maize-peanut intercropping system, the amount of N, P, and K uptake was higher than that of the corresponding sole cropping by -7.86% to 31.58%, 23.09%-46.52%, and 1.60%-55.48%, respectively, and the N utilization efficiency was higher by 7.55-26.60. The contributions of the N, P and K uptake efficiencies to LER were 0-0.22, 0.05-0.27, and -0.11-0.32, respectively, and the utilization efficiencies contributions were -0.25-0.19, -0.32-0.11, and -0.47-0.32, respectively. In conclusion, yield advantage of maize-soybean relay intercropping was mainly from enhanced nutrient uptake efficiency, but there was no obvious yield advantage in maize-peanut intercropping mainly due to relatively less contribution of nutrient uptake to yield advantage.

      Screening of rapeseed germplasms with low nitrogen tolerance and the evaluation of its potential application as green manure
      QIN Lu, HAN Pei-Pei, CHANG Hai-Bin, GU Chi-Ming, HUANG Wei, LI Yin-Shui, LIAO Xiang-Sheng, XIE Li-Hua, LIAO Xing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1488-1501.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14087
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      Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the major edible oil crop in China, and it is also a kind of crop for land use and maintenance, crop rotation, and fallow. With the promotion of green development in agriculture, rapeseed is highlighted with its high quality as green manure due to the characteristics of great biomass and adaptability. For the different industrial objectives of rapeseed cultivation, the nutrient demand characteristics of the existing rapeseed varieties determine the high recommended fertilization levels, whereas it cannot meet the needs of green manure with low fertilizer input. Therefore, the evaluation and screening of rapeseed germplasms with low nitrogen (N) tolerance can provide material support for breeding rapeseed cultivars as green manure. In this study, 73 rapeseed germplasms were planted at two N levels (low N and normal N) in the field experiment, the potential application as green manure of different rapeseed germplasms were evaluated by fresh weight, nutrient accumulation, and tolerance index at full flowering stage. Results showed that the change of fresh weight per plant for 73 rapeseed germplasms under low N conditions ranged from 29.33 g to 199.33 g, and the variation coefficient was 30.0%. Meanwhile, under low N stress, the change of N accumulation in shoot and root of 73 rapeseed germplasms were ranged from 48.67-360.43 mg and 4.21-67.46 mg per plant, and the variation coefficient were 31.0% and 53.0%, respectively. This mean that there were certain genetic variations biomass and nutrient absorption and accumulation ability among different rapeseed germplasms. Therefore, it was feasible to select the rapeseed germplasm with superior advantages as green manure. According to the comprehensive analysis of N efficiency and tolerance index of different rapeseed germplasms at full-bloom stage, 25 of 73 rapeseed germplasms had relatively strong tolerance to low N, while 17 germplasms had relatively poor tolerance to low N, belonging to low N sensitive type. Further analysis revealed that the fresh weight per plant, N accumulation, and N uptake efficiency of low N tolerance germplasms were significantly greater than those of low N sensitive germplasms under two N treatments, it could be used as potential green manure for further application. According to the calculation, the maximum amount of N returned to the field in the low N tolerance rapeseed germplasm was 80.2 kg hm-2. Above all, the selected germplasms with great low N tolerance could be used as potential green manure rapeseed resources to be reserved and applied. In actual production, to better realize the industrial application goal of “the few fertilizers convert into the more green manure”, the application of low N tolerant rapeseed as green fertilizer can reduce the input of chemical fertilizer.

      Regulation of leaf-spraying glycine betaine on yield formation and antioxidation of summer maize sowed in different dates
      CHEN Jing, REN Bai-Zhao, ZHAO Bin, LIU Peng, ZHANG Ji-Wang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1502-1515.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13021
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      In order to explore the regulation of leaf-spraying glycine betaine on yield formation and antioxidation in summer maize, Jingnongke 728 (JNK) and Denghai 618 (DH) were selected as experimental materials at three different sowing dates of June 5 (early sowing date, E), June 15 (normal sowing date, N), and June 25 (late sowing date, L) from 2019 to 2020. Besides, two leaf-spraying time treatments were conducted by using 10 mmol L-1 glycine betaine (GB) and clear water (CK) at V6 and V12 stages. The results showed that compared with CK, the yield of summer maize JNK and DH after spraying glycine betaine increased by 3.05%-12.81% and 2.08%-7.83%, respectively. The average total number of florets of JNK obtained in the different treatment of E, N, and L increased by 5.09%, 4.70%, and 2.27%, respectively, which was not notably changed among DH in 2019. In contrast, the average total number of florets of DH at the sowing dates of E, N, and L increased by 8.28%, 3.95%, 4.81%, respectively, which was not notably changed among JNK in 2020 after spraying betaine. The kernels per ear increased by 0.22%-6.45%, and the 100-kernel weight of E, N, and L increased by 0.88, 0.06, and -0.46 g, respectively. In addition, the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT increased by 1.23%, 3.36%, and 3.20%, respectively, while the content of MDA decreased by 11.73%. In conclusion, spraying betaine could reduce the yield difference at different sowing dates and was beneficial to improve the productivity of summer maize at different sowing dates.

      Effects of different forms and application methods of selenium fertilizers on wheat selenium uptake and utilization and its residual availability
      HUANG Ting-Miao, YU Rong, WANG Zhao-Hui, HUANG Dong-Lin, WANG Sen, JIN Jing-Jing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1516-1526.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11038
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      A two-year positioning field experiment was conducted to determine the reasonable regulation measures of selenium (Se) fertilizer for improving wheat grain Se nutrition, and to explore the feasibilities of different Se application approaches in Se agronomic biofortification of wheat grown in the typical Se-deficient soils of Yongshou County, Shaanxi Province. To study the effects of different forms and application methods of Se fertilizers on wheat yield, Se concentration and its accumulation and utilization, with the goal of producing wheat grain with Se concentration of 100 μg kg -1, five Se application rates of 0, 15, 18, 700, and 45 g hm-2 were calculated for the treatments of no Se application (control), soil- and foliar-sodium selenate, and soil- and foliar-sodium selenite in the first year, respectively. In the following wheat season, for further investigating the residual Se availability, no Se fertilizer was applied and each plot was divided into straw removal and straw return. These results showed that the wheat grain yield and straw biomass were not influenced by Se forms and application methods. For the first wheat season, grain Se concentration reached the expected target value with a range of 109-397 μg kg -1, and the flour Se concentration varied from 101 μg kg -1 to 356 μg kg -1 for all the Se application treatments. In the next year, both grain and white flour Se concentrations were 100 μg kg -1 higher than under the treatment of soil-sodium selenite, and there was no significant difference of straw removal and straw return. Grain Se biofortification index was 4.7, 16, 0.3, 8.0 (μg kg-1) (g hm-2)-1 for soil- and foliar-sodium selenate, and soil- and foliar-sodium selenite, respectively. The Se use efficiency was the highest for foliar-sodium selenate (7.3%), whereas its cumulative use efficiency was only 0.3% in soil-sodium selenite treatment with the long-term residue effects. At wheat harvest, the highest soil available Se was observed for soil-sodium selenite, with 91 μg kg -1 and 107 μg kg -1 for the straw removal and straw return, respectively. In conclusion, both soil- and foliar-sodium selenate /selenite were beneficial for producing wheat grain with target Se concentration of 100 μg kg -1, and the sodium selenite requirement was the highest, and its residual availability should be taken into consideration for Se biofortification in wheat production in the Se-deficient area of Chinese Loess Plateau.

      Canopy structure, photosynthesis, grain filling, and dehydration characteristics of maize varieties suitable for grain mechanical harvesting
      XU Tian-Jun, ZHANG Yong, ZHAO Jiu-Ran, WANG Rong-Huan, LYU Tian-Fang, LIU Yue-E, CAI Wan-Tao, LIU Hong-Wei, CHEN Chuan-Yong, WANG Yuan-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1526-1536.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13036
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      To provide technical support for the selection and popularization of corn varieties suitable for mechanized grain harvest, the canopy structure, photosynthetic characteristics, and mechanical harvesting characteristics of different types of maize varieties were compared with 24 maize varieties including Jingnongke 728 produced and widely promoted in China. The results showed that: (1) The average yield, moisture content, broken rate and impurity content at harvest of the tested varieties were 11,658.78 kg hm-2, 24.66%, 3.90%, and 0.83%. The average yield of 18 suitable machine harvesting varieties such as Jingnongke 728 with Jing 2416 as male parent was 11,802.70 kg hm-2, which was significantly higher by 7.69% and 4.45% than those of Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335, respectively. The grain moisture content at harvest was lower than 28% (average 24.61%); The average broken rate was less than 5% (average 3.42%), reaching the national standard of machine harvested grain. (2) 18 maize varieties suitable for grain mechanical harvesting such as Jingnongke 728 with Jing 2416 as male parent had small angle between stem and leaf, compact plant type, high average light transmittance and more reasonable light distribution. (3) The average net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content of the tested maize varieties were 34.10 μmol CO2 m -2 s-1 and 8.91 mg m2. The average net photosynthetic rate of the 18 maize varieties suitable for machine harvesting with Jing 2416 as male parent was 35.21 μmol CO2 m -2 s-1, which was 19.60% and 6.73% higher than Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335. The average chlorophyll content was 9.87 mg m2, which was 61.54% and 68.43% higher than Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335. (4) The average grain filling rate and dehydration rate after physiological maturity of 18 varieties with Jing 2416 as male parent were 0.83 g 100 grain-1 d-1 and 0.55% d-1, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335, showing a lower grain moisture content at harvest. (5) Correlation analysis revealed that the yield of the tested varieties was significantly positively correlated with net photosynthetic rate and grain filling rate. The net photosynthetic rate was negatively correlated with the angle between stem and leaf, and positively correlated with light transmittance and chlorophyll content. Grain moisture content at harvest was significantly positively correlated with breakage rate, impurity content and grain moisture content after physiological maturity, negatively correlated with dehydration rate after physiological maturity, and negatively correlated with grain filling rate. In conclusion, maize varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting under the condition of high planting density should have compact plant type, high canopy light transmittance, strong photosynthetic capacity, high grain filling, and dehydration rate, which could lead to achieve lower grain moisture content and higher yield.

      Effect of agricultural meteorological disasters on the production corn in the Northeast China
      LI Yi-Jun, LYU Hou-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1537-1545.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03061
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      Agricultural meteorological disasters are the main natural disasters that threaten grain output. In recent years, with climate change, agricultural meteorological disasters are more and more frequent, and their impact on northeast China is also increasing. In this paper, to make better use of advantages and avoid disadvantages in actual production to ensure food production safety, spring corn in three provinces of northeast China was taken as the research object to discuss the impact of major agricultural meteorological disasters in this region on spring corn yield and its degree. The results showed that agricultural meteorological disasters could explain about 50% of the fluctuation of spring corn yield in Northeast China, and the main agricultural meteorological disasters that affected spring corn production had changed from cold damage in the traditional sense to drought. Under the background of climate warming, the main factor affecting spring corn production was changed from thermal condition to water condition, and drought had become the primary disaster threatening spring corn production. The agricultural meteorological disasters that affected the spring corn yield in Liaoning province were drought, flood, and wind in order of the degree of influence. The agricultural meteorological disaster that affected spring corn yield in Jilin province was only drought. The agricultural meteorological disasters affecting the yield of spring corn in Heilongjiang province were ranked as flood, drought, and cold damage according to the degree of impact. In conclusion, due to geographical differences, the main agro-meteorological disasters affecting the corn production in the three provinces of Northeast China were also different, and their complexity was not the same, which cannot be generalized in the specific study.

      Screening Streptomyces against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines and study of growth-promoting and biocontrol effect
      WANG Xuan-Dong, YANG Sun-Yu-Yue, GAO Run-Jie, YU Jun-Jie, ZHENG Dan-Pei, NI Feng, JIANG Dong-Hua
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1546-1557.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14108
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      Soybean bacterial pustule disease occurs globally, seriously affecting soybean production. To avoid the many shortcomings of chemical fungicides, the addition of biocontrol bacteria has gradually become an alternative strategy for the prevention and treatment of soybean bacterial pustule disease. However, there are few reports on the development and prevention of soybean bacterial pustule disease biocontrol agents. In this experiment, a total of 186 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from a variety of plant rhizosphere soil samples using the gradient dilution coating method. Eight strains of actinomycete with antagonistic resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) were screened by coculture and Oxford cup methods. Among them, the strain Sl-3 performed the strongest antibacterial activity and the inhibition zone diameter was (32.5±1.5) mm. According to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical experiments, 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the strain Sl-3 was identified as Streptromyces lilacinus. The crude ethyl acetate extract of Streptromyces lilacinus Sl-3 has a good inhibitory effect on the growth of Xag. The lowest inhibitory concentration of the crude extract was determined to be 64 μg mL -1 by 96-well plate method. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crude extract of strain Sl-3 had a certain damage effect on Xag cells, which affected cell division and cell membrane synthesis, thus inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The crude extract also inhibited the production of Xag exopolysaccharide, affected the formation of biofilm, and reduced the toxicity of Xag infection. The results of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the chemical and physiological indexes of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids on the surface of Xag cells were affected by crude extract treatment, leading to changes in the structure and composition of Xag cell surface substances. The growth promotion test indicated that the fermentation filtrate of the strain Sl-3 can significantly promote the growth of soybean plants. The pot incubation test revealed that the fermentation filtrate of Streptomyces lilacinus Sl-3 had a good control effect on soybean bacterial pustule disease with a relative control effect of 93.17%, and the early prevention effect was better than the treatment after the onset.

      Cloning and expression analysis of voltage dependent anion channel (AhVDAC) gene in the geotropism response of the peanut gynophores
      LI Hai-Fen, WEI Hao, WEN Shi-Jie, LU Qing, LIU Hao, LI Shao-Xiong, HONG Yan-Bin, CHEN Xiao-Ping, LIANG Xuan-Qiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(6):  1558-1565.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14093
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      Peanut is a plant that blooms above ground and bears fruit underground. In our earlier studies, the voltage dependent anion channel (AhVDAC) gene was detected to be involved in gravitropism of peanut gynophores. In this study, the full-length cDNA of peanut AhVDAC gene was cloned, and the prokaryotic expression, subcellular localization, and the relative expression level of AhVDAC gene in gravitropism were analyzed. The results showed that the open reading frame of AhVDAC gene was 831 bp encoding a protein containing 276 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 29.7 kD and pI 6.38. Subcellular localization showed that AhVDAC gene was mainly located in cytoplasm. The prokaryotic expression vector pPROEXHTa-AhVDAC was constructed, and the 37 kD AhVDAC protein was induced, isolated, and purified. The relative expression level of AhVDAC in gynophores at different developmental days was analyzed by RT-PCR, and the results showed that the relative expression level of AhVDAC gene was the highest at the 2nd day, and then decreased gradually and maintained at a lower level. The application of exogenous CaCl2 and LaCl3 to peanut gynophores in vitro revealed that CaCl2 treatment could significantly promote the relative expression of AhVDAC gene and the geotropic bending of gynophores, whereas LaCl3 treatment could decelerate the relative expression of AhVDAC gene and geotropic bending of gynophores. In conclusion, we speculated that Ca2+ accumulation may promote the expression of AhVDAC and Ca2+was asymmetrically distributed through the transport of AhVDAC on biological membrane, so that the growth direction of peanut gynophore was changed and geotropic bending occurs.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
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Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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