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Table of Content

    12 June 2020, Volume 46 Issue 6
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Functional characteristics of TaPYR1, an abscisic acid receptor family gene in mediating wheat tolerance to drought stress
      HAN Le,DU Ping-Ping,XIAO Kai
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  809-818.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91067
      Abstract ( 705 )   HTML ( 106 )   PDF (2376KB) ( 595 )   Save
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      ABA receptors are involved in the mediation of ABA signaling transduction through interaction with abscisic acid (ABA) molecules induced by osmotic stresses and play critical roles in regulating the drought stress tolerance in plants. In this study, TaPYR1, an ABA family gene in wheat that was shown to be differentially expressed in our previous transcriptome analysis was used to analyze its molecular property, expression patterns under drought stress condition, and functions in mediating plant adaptation to drought stress. TaPYR1 shares high similarities to its plant counterparts at amino acid level. TaPYR1 protein contains the conserved domains specified by the plant PYR proteins and was targeted onto the plasma membrane after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assortment. The expression of TaPYR1 was induced in both roots and leaves under drought, with the highest expression levels at 48 h of drought treatment. Transgene analysis on TaPYR1 was performed to assess the gene function in mediating plant drought tolerance. Compared with wild type (WT), the tobacco lines overexpressing TaPYR1 enhanced growth vigor and increased fresh and dry weight under drought stress. In addition, the transgenic lines with TaPYR1 overexpression also increased photosynthetic function, enhanced activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes, and elevated the contents of osmolytes (i.e., proline and soluble sugar) under drought condition. Our investigation suggests that TaPYR1 transcriptively responds to drought stress signaling and plays an important role in regulating plant drought adaptation by improving the associated physiological processes.

      Genome-wide association studies of leaf orientation value in maize
      PENG Bo,ZHAO Xiao-Lei,WANG Yi,YUAN Wen-Ya,LI Chun-Hui,LI Yong-Xiang,ZHANG Deng-Feng,SHI Yun-Su,SONG Yan-Chun,WANG Tian-Yu,LI Yu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  819-831.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93063
      Abstract ( 777 )   HTML ( 57 )   PDF (2510KB) ( 467 )   Save
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      Leaf orientation value is a comprehensive index reflecting the two characteristics of “straight” and “vertical” of leaves. The varieties with high leaf orientation value have straight and not curved leaves, and small angle, which are conducive to the wind ventilation and light transmission for maize population. When the planting density is high, it is easier to obtain high yield than the expanded plant-type. It is of great significance for molecular design breeding of ideal plant type to clarify the genetic basis of leaf orientation value. In this study, 285 diverse lines genotyped by the MaizeSNP50 chip were evaluated for leaf orientation in 2017 and 2018. The genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) were used to identified the SNPs, which were significant association with leaf orientation values. The analysis of variance showed that the significant variations were observed for leaf orientation value of different inbred lines (P < 0.01). In the selection of the optimal model, it was found that the Q + K model was the most suitable for the leaf orientation association analysis in this study. A total of 15 loci (P < 4.05E-5) were detected by GWAS, including 27 SNPs, explaining 5.54%-8.73% of phenotypic variation, and 15 candidate genes were mined in two years. Among them, site 2 in 1.07 bin was an important site found in this study, and its candidate gene might be Zm00001d032050 encoding cyclin dependent protein kinase, which needed to be further confirmed by map-based cloning.

      QTL mapping of seed germination-related traits in Brassica napus L. under aluminum toxicity stress
      WANG Rui-Li,WANG Liu-Yan,YE Sang,Gao Huan-Huan,LEI Wei,WU Jia-Yi,YUAN Fang,MENG Li-Jiao,TANG Zhang-Lin,LI Jia-Na,ZHOU Qing-Yuan,CUI Cui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  832-843.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94154
      Abstract ( 556 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF (1990KB) ( 190 )   Save
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      With the aggravation of soil acidification, aluminum toxicity has become one of the important stress factors that affect crop seed germination quality and crop yield. There have been many reports on QTL mapping and candidate gene screening for aluminum tolerance related traits in crops, but few reports on QTL mapping for aluminum tolerance during germination in Brassica napus L. The seed germination test was conducted on the recombinant inbred line population treated with 80 μg mL -1 aluminum solution and with distilled water as control. Germination potential was investigated at 3 d, germination rate was investigated at 7 d, root length, bud length and dry weight were measured, and the relative values of various characters were calculated. Based on 6K SNP chip and combined with high density genetic linkage map, we detected 23 QTLs for five traits in rape germination period. QTLs for relative germination potential, relative germination rate, relative root length, relative bud length and relative dry weight were 9, 1, 4, 5, and 4 respectively, covering A and C genomes, with LOD values from 3.00 to 5.26, and interpretable phenotypic variation from 7.70% to 13.10%. According to the confidence interval sequence of each QTL, 30 candidate genes related to aluminum stress were screened. ALMT1 gene and MATE gene are related to the synthesis and secretion of organic acids, which mainly enhance the aluminum tolerance of plants through the secretion of organic acids such as malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid. STOP1 gene, NAC gene and RAP2.4 gene all belong to transcription activation factors, which enhance the resistance of plants by inducing the expression of aluminum tolerance genes. ABC transporter, membrane protein transporter, GDSL lipase enhance aluminum tolerance of plants by reducing accumulation of toxic substances on plasma membrane or discharging toxic substances out of body. Peroxidase and cytochrome P450 are genes related to oxidative stress, which have the functions of preventing oxidative damage of plant cells and resisting stress. At the same time, many genes encoding stress proteins were found, which play an important role in various stress reactions. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the cultivation of aluminum-tolerant rape varieties and the functional research of subsequent genes.

      Cloning and expression analysis of sugarcane Fe/S precursor protein gene ScPetC
      ZHENG Qing-Lei,YU Chen-Jing,YAO Kun-Cun,HUANG Ning,QUE You-Xiong,LING Hui,XU Li-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  844-857.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94171
      Abstract ( 577 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (6020KB) ( 187 )   Save
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      Cytochrome b6f complex Rieske Fe/S precursor protein (PetC) is encoded by the nuclear PetC gene, and its mature protein involved in the formation of the cytochrome b6f complex, which is important for electron transfer. Based on our previous transcriptome data of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) infected by Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), a cytochrome b6f complex reduced iron-sulfur precursor protein gene was cloned from leaves of sugarcane superior elite cultivar ‘ROC22’, and named as ScPetC (GenBank accession number: MH333037.1). Bioinformatics analysis showed that the ScPetC gene was 824 bp in length, containing a 678 bp open reading frame (ORF), and encoding a peptide of 226 amino acids. ScPetC belongs to the PRK13473 superfamily and has a typical Rieske domain at its C-terminus of the amino acid chain. ScPetC is a stable and hydrophilic protein with pI 8.19. Most of the secondary structural elements in ScPetC were random coil. Compared to the PetC from the other plants, ScPetC contained one more fragment of helix in its third dimensional structure. The transient expression of YFP-fused protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that ScPetC was located in the chloroplast, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Although the previous study indicated that the expression of ScPetC was affected by SrMV infection in sugarcane, different to the interaction between Pinellia ternata PetC and SMV-P1, without interaction between ScPetC and the SrMV-P1, it did interact with SCYLV-P0, i.e. the P0 protein of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV). Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that ScPetC gene was expressed constitutively in different tissues of sugarcane, and the highest level of its expression was found in leaves. When sugarcane plant was exposed to abscisic acid stress for 3 h, the expression of ScPetC was significantly up-regulated, but the expression level was then inhibited with longer treatment time. Under the stress of methyl jasmine, salicylic acid, copper chloride, cadmium chloride and sodium chloride, the expression of ScPetC was significantly down-regulated. The study on biological function, expression pattern and interaction of ScPetC with the proteins of sugarcane pathogenic virus will improve the understanding of the happening of yellow leaf symptom, which caused by SCYLV.

      Genetic analysis of plant height and its components for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Ningmai 9 and Yangmai 158
      JIANG Peng,HE Yi,ZHANG Xu,WU Lei,ZHANG Ping-Ping,MA Hong-Xiang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  858-868.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91063
      Abstract ( 616 )   HTML ( 31 )   PDF (1853KB) ( 239 )   Save
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      Ningmai 9 and Yangmai 158 are the main wheat cultivars and core parents in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. In the past three years, 80% of the released varieties in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River had the background of Ningmai 9 or Yangmai 158. To make better use of these two parents, the genetic mechanism of their traits need to be further clarified. A high-density genetic map was constructed by Illumina 90k chip using 282 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between Ningmai 9 and Yangmai 158. In this study, the traits including plant height, internode length, and spike length were determined in three consecutive growing seasons, and 14 stable QTLs were obtained by QTL mapping. By further position alignment, we focused on six chromosome intervals, which preliminarily revealed the genetic regulatory mechanism of the internode on plant height. KASP markers suitable for high-throughput analysis were developed based on the low-homology markers in the six chromosome intervals, and they were further validated in 101 wheat accessions. The polymerization of Qph-2D and Qph-5A.1 had high selection efficiency which might be decreased if further intruding Q2A. It suggests that the selection of Q2A and Q5A should mainly focus on the alleles reducing plant height, and Qd1-5D could be used in marker-assisted selection for internode length below spike (D1). The results in this study may provide assistance for wheat height genetic improvement in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

      Construction and characterization of a BAC library for flue-cured tobacco line with high resistance to blank shank
      DONG Qing-Yuan,MA De-Qing,YANG Xue,LIU Yong,HUANG Chang-Jun,YUAN Cheng,FANG Dun-Huang,YU Hai-Qin,TONG Zhi-Jun,SHEN Jun-Ru,XU Yin-Lian,LUO Mei-Zhong,LI Yong-Ping,ZENG Jian-Min
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  869-877.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94110
      Abstract ( 395 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (1916KB) ( 98 )   Save
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      Tobacco (N. tabacum) is an important model crop in molecular biology research. In this study, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of a flue-cured tobacco line 14-60 with high blank shank resistance and good quality was constructed. High molecular weight DNA was isolated using intact nuclei from tobacco, partially cleaved with Hind III and cloned into the pIndigoBAC536-S vector. The BAC library consisted of 414,720 clones arrayed in one thousand and eighty 384-microtite plates, with an average insert size of 123 kb ranging from 97.0-145.5 kb. No empty insert clone was found. Based on an estimated genome size of 4500 Mb for common tobacco, the BAC library was estimated to cover 11 times of genome equivalents. The utility of the library was further confirmed by screening the library with the primers of tobacco hemA, NtFT, and eIF4E-1 genes. The high capacity library will serve as a giant genomic resource for map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci or genes associated with important agronomic and smoking quality traits or resistance to blank shank, physical mapping and comparative genome analysis.

      Physicochemical properties and sequence analysis of Wx and OsSSIIa genes in japonica rice cultivars from Jiangsu province and northeast of China
      ZHAO Chun-Fang,YUE Hong-Liang,TIAN Zheng,GU Ming-Chao,ZHAO Ling,ZHAO Qing-Yong,ZHU Zhen,CHEN Tao,ZHOU Li-Hui,YAO Shu,LIANG Wen-Hua,LU Kai,ZHANG Ya-Dong,WANG Cai-Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  878-888.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92043
      Abstract ( 438 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (780KB) ( 238 )   Save
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      According to geographic origin and amylose content, 87 investigated japonica rice cultivars were divided into three types: Jiangsu common japonica rice, Northeast japonica rice and Jiangsu semi-waxy japonica rice. In order to explore the eating quality characteristics of the three types of japonica rice and their molecular basis, the physicochemical properties and the sequence of major genes Wx and OsSSIIa for starch synthesis were analyzed. Compared with Northeast japonica rice, Jiangsu common japonica rice had lower amylose content, higher protein content and gelatinization temperature, and similar gel consistency and RVA profiles. Compared with Northeast japonica rice and Jiangsu common japonica rice, Jiangsu semi-waxy japonica rice contained the lowest amylose content, the highest gel consistency and unique RVA profile. Variation coefficients of all characters except for setback value were small in three types of rice varieties, indicating that there was a great range of retrogradation within all the cultivars. The correlation coefficients among traits were different among three types of japonica rice, which indicated that the correlations were affected by the ecological conditions of different regions and properties of varieties. By cluster analysis, 87 japonica rice varieties (lines) were divided into four groups. Jiangsu common and Northeast japonica rice varieties (lines) were intersected in group I and group II. Group III was composed of two lines of Jiangsu common japonica rice and one semi-waxy variety (Xudao 9), and the most of their character values were ranged between those common japonica rice and semi-waxy japonica rice. The Jiangsu semi-waxy rice varieties (lines) with unique physicochemical characteristics were clustered into group IV. By sequence analysis, there was no difference in Wx b gene between Jiangsu common japonica rice and Northeast japonica rice, but in Jiangsu semi-waxy japonica rice G/A substitution occurred in Exon 4 of Wx b, which is the Wx mp allele. The higher gelatinization temperature in some of Jiangsu japonica rice varieties (lines) was controlled by the allele of OsSSIIa (G-GC).

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Responses of sorghum hybrids to germination temperatures and identification of low temperature resistance
      ZHANG Rui-Dong,XIAO Meng-Ying,XU Xiao-Xue,JIANG Bing,XING Yi-Fan,CHEN Xiao-Fei,LI Bang,AI Xue-Ying,ZHOU Yu-Fei,HUANG Rui-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  889-901.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94150
      Abstract ( 645 )   HTML ( 36 )   PDF (269KB) ( 332 )   Save
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      Low temperature during germination is an important abiotic stress factor limiting seed germination. Sorghum seeds with high germination capacity at low temperature are conducive to the emergence and establishment of a good population. Therefore, studying the response characteristics of sorghum hybrids to different germination temperatures is of great theoretical and practical value. Thirty sorghum hybrids from different regions of China were germinated in the artificial climate chamber, at 25°C, 20°C, 16°C, or 12°C to measure germination potential, germination percent, bud length, root length, bud weight and root weight. Sorghum hybrids were identified and classified according to low temperature resistance during the germination based on principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis. With a decrease in germination temperature, the growth of both buds and roots were inhibited, but the ratio of roots to buds in both weight and length increased, indicating that buds were more sensitive to low temperature during germination than roots. The relative values of six germination indicators of the thirty sorghum hybrids were correlated between each other. The PCA results showed that relative bud length, relative root length and relative germination percent could be used to evaluate the sorghum germination capacity under low temperatures because these indicators had the largest loads in the three principal components, respectively. According to the low temperature tolerance ability of the 30 sorghum hybrids were divided into four categories: Liaonian 3 was extremely sensitive to low temperature; eighteen hybrids, such as Jiliang 1, were sensitive to low temperature; five hybrids, such as Jiniang 1, were insensitive to low temperature, and six hybrids, such as Chiza 101 had a strong low temperature tolerance during the germination.

      Effects of strip-till with staggered planting on yield formation and shoot-root characteristics of spring maize in irrigation area of Xiliaohe plain
      ZHANG Yu-Qin,YANG Heng-Shan,LI Cong-Feng,ZHAO Ming,LUO Fang,ZHANG Rui-Fu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  902-913.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93053
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      A field research was conducted in the Agricultural High-tech Demonstration Park in Horqin District of Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, using the maize variety Nonghua 101 with two cropping modes, including strip-till with staggered planting (seeding strip tillage, 15 cm + 45 cm narrow-double row staggered sowing, TGCW) and conventional tillage with equal row space (rotary tillage with row space of 60 cm, CK), and three planting densities (67,500 plants hm -2, 82,500 plants hm -2, and 97,500 plants hm -2) in 2017 and 2018 to study the effect of strip-till with staggered planting on regulating spring maize yield formation and coordination characteristics of shoot-root in irrigation areas of Xiliao river plain. The model of that strip-till with staggered planting enhanced maize yield by 13.1% and 13.8% in 2017 and 2018, under the planting density 82,500 plants hm -2 compared with CK, respectively. The strip-till with staggered planting showed a distinct advantage on the amount and rate of dry matter accumulation after silking, which obviously delayed the senility of leaves in later growth stage, meanwhile, compared with CK, the light transmittance significantly increased in or above panicle layers. The leaf area index, net photosynthetic rate and population photosynthetic potential in the model of strip-till with staggered planting were higher than those in CK in late growth stage. At later growing stage, the strip-till with staggered planting had significantly higher root dry weight than CK in different soil layers, with the highest root ratio in 20-60 cm, especially under higher planting density. The grain yield against per unit of root weight at silking and root-shoot ratio at maturity had a distinct advantage. In conclusion the strip-till with staggered planting combined with high planting density can increase light transmission rate in above-spike layer in late growing stage, alleviate leaf area decline, increase production capacity, facilitate root growth and increase root ratio in deeper soil layers. Shoot-root coordination under dense planting is one of the main reasons facilitating yield increase of spring maize in irrigation areas of Xiliao river plain.

      Anatomy and microscopic observation of Ricinus communis seed structure
      GUO Xue-Min,ZHAO Xiao-Man,XU Ke,WANG Xin-Rui,ZHANG Chen-Yu,DONG-FANG Yang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  914-923.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94141
      Abstract ( 2725 )   HTML ( 44 )   PDF (15210KB) ( 394 )   Save
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      We systematically observed the structure and distribution of vascular bundles of castor (Ricinus communis) testa, endosperm and embryo with germination, separation, paraffin sectioning technique, and microscopic observation techniques, stained with safranine and fast green, along with schiff’s reagent, respectively. (1) Micropyle at the dorsal base of the seed was not covered by the caruncle. (2) The testa consisted of three parts: episperm, endopleura and the caruncle, in which the episperm was composed of the long columnar epidermal layer, sponge parenchma and palisade parenchma from outside to inside, while the endopleura was composed of Malpighian layer, sponge parenchma and the inner integument layer, with an air chamber surrounded by the inner layer and outer layer of endopleura at the end of the caruncle, similar to that of eggs. (3) Both the episperm and endopleura were distributed with vascular bundles, and the large ones of the episperm only distributed in the spongy parenchma of the ventral raphe of the seed, which extended from the hilum to the opposite end of the caruncle; while those of endopleura were also distributed in the spongy parenchtma, and they branched step by step through the bundle band, ending at the edge of the air chamber at the end of the caruncle; those of both the episperm and endopleura were continuous through the junction point of the chalazal end to form the vascular system of the testa. (4) The caruncle was composed of epidermis and parenchyma, in which parenchyma consisted of small parenchyma cells on the outside and large parenchyma cells on the inside. In the middle and ventral part of the caruncle, there were only two vascular bundles, which constituted the vascular system of the caruncle independently. In the caruncle, caruncle channel was also found, with the inner end opening in the air chamber of the endopleura and the outer end being blind. (5) No vascular bundles were found in the endosperm, which consisted of parenchymal cells containing a large number of aleurone grains. In the embryo, the vascular bundles were collateral, which differentiated in the hypocotyle and entered the main vein of two cotyledons from both sides of the top of the hypocotyle respectively, gradually reduced from 4 to 1 in the main veins, and the branches became thinner in the cotyledon, forming the vascular system of embryo. The cotyledon epidermis and mesophyll cells contained aleurone grains, but no aleurone grains were found in the plumule, hypocotyle and radicle. Two cotyledons separated from each other on the adaxial surface, while their abaxial surfaces were connected with the endosperm through the mucilaginous layers. The hypocotyle and radicle were spatially separated from the endosperm. These results provide an anatomical basis for comprehensively understanding the structure of the seeds and studying the seed development and germination and their material transportation.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Effects of water saving and nitrogen reduction on soil nitrate nitrogen distribution, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of winter wheat
      LUO Wen-He, SHI Zu-Jiao, WANG Xu-Min, LI Jun, WANG Rui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  924-936.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91060
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      In order to solve the problems of excessive nitrogen input and irrigation water resources scarcity in current winter wheat production in Guanzhong Plain, winter wheat grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, and nitrate nitrogen leaching were investigated to hopefully provide a theoretical basis for determining water-saving and nitrogen-reducing cultivation model. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2017-2019) was conducted in Yangling, Shaanxi province, China, where the nitrogen application rates of N300 (300 kg hm -2), N225 (225 kg hm -2), N150 (150 kg hm -2), N75 (75 kg hm -2), N0 (0 kg hm -2, no nitrogen application) were assigned to the main plots, and the irrigation amount of W2 (1200 m 3 hm -2), W1 (600 m 3 hm -2), W0 (0, no irrigation) were assigned to the subplots. The amount of irrigation and nitrogen application had significant effects on wheat yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, soil nitrate nitrogen content as well as its leaching loss. In the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 wheat seasons, the irrigation treatments (W1 and W2) significantly increased the wheat yield by 14.88%-15.01% and 4.11-4.16 times, respectively, but the difference between them was not significant, while the risk of soil nitrate nitrogen leaching under irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2 in overwintering period was significantly reduced. Under the irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period, the yield was the highest in N150 treatment in 2017-2018, and in N225 treatment in 2018-2019, the N150 treatment had higher nitrogen use efficiency, and soil nitrate nitrogen leaching was also reduced by 15.87% and 10.20% compared with that of N225 treatment in 2017-2019. Therefore, N150 treatment (with nitrogen application rate of 150 kg hm -2) combined with W1 treatment (irrigated 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period) can improve the water and nitrogen utilization efficiencies and reduce the risk of nitrate nitrogen leaching, realizing the water-saving and nitrogen reduction production of winter wheat in Guanzhong Plain.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Characteristics of annual climate resource distribution and utilization for different cropping systems in the south of Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain
      ZHOU Bao-Yuan,GE Jun-Zhu,HOU Hai-Peng,SUN Xue-Fang,DING Zai-Song,LI Cong-Feng,MA Wei,ZHAO Ming
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  937-949.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93049
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      Clarifying the characteristics of annual yield, distribution and utilization of climatic resources, and establishing rational quantitative indexes of annual climatic resources distribution for different cropping systems are helpful to provide theoretical basis for further improving annual yield and resource use efficiency in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain. In this study, the experiment was conducted from 2011 to 2015 at Xinxiang, Henan province to analyze the grain yield, biomass, dry matter production energy, and distribution and utilization efficiency of climatic resources under four cropping systems, namely winter wheat-summer maize, winter wheat-summer soybean, double maize and one-season spring maize. There were no differences in the annual grain yield, total biomass, and dry matter production energy between the winter wheat-summer maize and double maize cropping systems, but they were significantly higher than those of the winter wheat-summer soybean and one-season spring maize cropping systems, with an average increase of 45.4%-61.5%, 37.3%-71.3%, and 35.77%-70.7%, respectively. The annual radiation production efficiency, radiation use efficiency of grain and total biomass for double maize and one-season spring maize cropping systems were significantly higher than those of the winter wheat-summer maize and winter wheat-summer soybean cropping systems, with an average increase of 11.8%-66.7% in the annual radiation production efficiency, and 0.13-0.42 and 0.18-0.69 percentage points increase in the radiation use efficiency of grain and total biomass, respectively. The accumulative temperature distribution rate for two seasons of winter wheat-summer maize was 45.6% and 54.4%, respectively, while those of double maize was 51.4% and 48.6%, respectively. The accumulative temperature ratio between two seasons was of winter wheat-summer maize 0.8, while that of double maize was 1.1. Considering both yield and resource use efficiency, winter wheat-summer maize and double maize cropping systems can be used to optimize the layout of planting patterns and support the sustainable development of agricultural production in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain. Furthermore, clarifying the accumulated temperature distribution rate and the accumulated temperature ratio between two seasons is helpful to optimize climate resource distribution, and further improve the yield potential and the resources use efficiency of double cropping system in the Yellow- Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain.

      Effect of variety and growth period on NDVI estimation of nitrogen concentration in potato plants
      YANG Hai-Bo,ZHANG Jia-Kang,YANG Liu,JIA Yu-Ze, ,LI Fei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  950-959.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94121
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      The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is an important parameter to reflect relative chlorophyll content and nitrogen level of crops, but NDVI’s ability to estimate nitrogen nutrition is affected by varieties and growth period. The field experiments using several varieties were conducted in the main potato producing areas at the north foot of Yinshan mountain, Inner Mongolia. From early July to mid-august in 2014 to 2016, the canopy spectral index NDVI was measured by using the pocket active crop sensor GreenSeeker during potato critical growth period. The effects of cultivars and growth stages on NDVI estimation of nitrogen concentration in potato plants were compared. The linear correlation between NDVI and plant nitrogen concentration (PNC) was poor in tuber initiation, but increased in process of growth period. The combination of tuber bulking period and starch accumulation period significantly improved the linear modeling effect of NDVI and PNC. Variety combination reduced the sensitivity of NDVI and increased the discreteness of data, which could be offset by NDVI time series normalization (TNDVI), especially the fitting coefficient of determination (R 2) of TNDVI and PNC increased from 0.13 to 0.47 in the tuber bulking period. The R 2of linear estimation model of TNDVI for the combination of tuber initiation, tuber bulking and starch accumulation period was 0.76, which was significantly higher than that of NDVI. Plant-expanded varieties had a more linear fitting trend during tuber bulking and starch accumulation. The growth period and potato varieties had significant effects on NDVI estimation of PNC, and growth period had a greater effect. The established TNDVI spectral index overcame the data differentiation and saturation phenomenon during tuber bulking and starch accumulation caused by variety difference, which provides a theoretical basis and method for the application of NDVI in the diagnosis of nitrogen concentration in potato plants.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Effect of integrated agronomic managements on leaf growth and endogenous hormone content of summer maize
      YU Ning-Ning,ZHANG Ji-Wang,REN Bai-Zhao,ZHAO Bin,LIU Peng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2020, 46(6):  960-967.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93050
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      The leaves are the main place of photosynthesis directly related to the nutritional status, dry matter accumulation and yield formation of maize plants. The experiment was conducted using summer maize hybrid Zhengdan 958 with treatments of T1: local conventional cultivation practices; T2: based on T1, increasing planting density, delaying harvesting time, decreasing fertilizer application, and changing fertilization time; T3: based on T2, further increasing planting density, and further increasing fertilizer rate; T4: based on T3, decreasing planting density and the amount of fertilizer; and nitrogen treatments of N0, N1, N2, and N3, with 0, 129.0, 184.5, and 300.0 kg N hm -2, respectively. The contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 decreased and the content of ABA increased, resulting in the decreases of SPAD, leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf mass, when nitrogen application was not enough. And the contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 increased, and ABA content decreased, and LAI, SPAD and dry matter accumulation per plant increased significantly with increasing nitrogen application. Integrated agronomic management practices could regulate the content of endogenous hormones in leaves. In T4 treatment, IAA, ZR, and GA3 contents increased by 23.1%, 9.8%, and 14.7%, the ABA content decreased by 12.4%, resulting in a suitable LAI; SPAD and final dry matter accumulation per plant were by 4.2% and 12.6% higher, respectively, than those in T1 treatment. Integrated agronomic managements could coordinate endogenous hormone contents, increase leaf SPAD and specific leaf mass, and be beneficial to dry matter accumulation per plant under the condition of reducing nitrogen application combining with optimal agronomic managements, which might be one of the important reasons for increasing summer maize yield.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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