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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (2): 463-477.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14010


Effects of nitrogen rate on growth, grain yield, and nitrogen utilization of multiple cropping proso millet after spring-wheat in Irrigation Area of Ningxia

XIE Cheng-Hui1,2(), MA Hai-Zhao1,2, XU Hong-Wei1,2, XU Xi-Yang1,2, RUAN Guo-Bing1,2, GUO Zheng-Yan1,2, NING Yong-Pei1,2, FENG Yong-Zhong1,2, YANG Gai-He1,2, REN Guang-Xin1,2,*()   

  1. 1College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China;
    2Shaanxi Engineering Research Center of Circular Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2021-01-19 Accepted:2021-04-26 Online:2022-02-12 Published:2021-06-09
  • Contact: REN Guang-Xin E-mail:xiechenghui001@163.com;rengx@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the Major (Key) Program of Key Research and Development Plan in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region(2019BBF02007);the Shaanxi Engineering Research Center of Circular Agriculture(2019HBGC-13)


The objective of this study is to clarify the growth rule, yield, and nitrogen utilization efficiency of proso millet under different nitrogen rates, the relationship between morphological characteristics and grain yield and nitrogen utilization was explored, and the suitable nitrogen rate for multiple cropping proso millet after spring-wheat in Irrigation Area of Ningxia was determined. The field experiments were conducted by single factor randomized block design, with four nitrogen rates [0 (N0), 90 (N1), 120 (N2), and 150 kg hm -2 (N3)] were set in 2019, and six nitrogen rates [180 (N4) and 210 kg hm -2 (N5) were added] in 2020. The results showed that the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, root morphology, and dry matter accumulation at the key growth stages of proso millet were significantly promoted by nitrogen application, however, nitrogen application rate exceeded 150 kg hm -2, these indexes declined slightly except for the stem diameter and leaf area. With the increase of nitrogen rate, the root-shoot ratio decreased first and then increased and then decreased slightly, and it reached the minimum under N2 treatment at most growth stages. The root-shoot ratio at jointing, heading, grain-filling and maturity stage under N2 treatment were 0.119, 0.087, 0.054, and 0.052, respectively. The grain yield, 1000-grain weight, and grain number per plant were significantly increased by nitrogen application, and with the increase of nitrogen application rate, the yield increased initially then slightly decreased, and achieved the best effect in N2 and N3 treatments. The grain yields of N2 and N3 treatments were 2979.41 kg hm -2 and 3084.67 kg hm -2, respectively, which were 76.22% and 83.21% higher than those of N0 treatment. Nitrogen harvest index (NHI), nitrogen fertilizer apparent recovery rate (NRE), agronomic efficiency (NAE), and partial productivity (NPFP) under N2 treatment were 60.23%, 61.81%, 10.77 kg kg -1, and 24.83 kg kg -1, respectively. Furthermore, grain yield was significantly positively correlated with each growth index, and there was significant positive correlation between each growth index, and the root morphological characteristics were significantly positively correlated with nitrogen accumulation. These results revealed that nitrogen application could improve the root morphological characteristics of proso millet to promote the absorption of nitrogen, and further promote the growth of canopy, which was conductive to yield formation. In view of the growth, grain yield and nitrogen utilization, the reasonable nitrogen rate for multiple cropping proso millet in Irrigation Area of Ningxia was 120-150 kg hm -2.

Key words: nitrogen rate, proso millet, growth, grain yield, nitrogen utilization

Fig. 1

Daily average temperature and rainfall during the growing period of proso millet in 2019 and 2020"

Fig. 2

Effects of different N treatments on plant height, stem diameter, and leaf area at different growth stages of proso millet in 2019 and 2020 The values were means ± standard errors of nine repetitions. Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different N treatments at the same growth stage at P < 0.05. N: N treatment; Y: year; N × Y: the interaction between N treatment and year. **: P < 0.01; ns: P > 0.05. N0, N1, N2, N3, N4, and N5 represents nitrogen rate of 0, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 kg hm-2, respectively."

Fig. 3

Effect of different N treatments on total root length, total root surface, total root volume, and root average diameter at different growth stages of proso millet in 2019 and 2020 The values were means ± standard errors of nine repetitions. Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different N treatments at the same growth stage at P < 0.05. **: P < 0.01; ns: P > 0.05. Treatments and abbreviations are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Fig. 4

Effect of different N treatments on dry matter accumulation and root-shoot ratio at different growth stages of proso millet in 2019 and 2020 The values were means ± standard errors of three repetitions. Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different N treatments at the same growth stage at P < 0.05. * and ** denote significant difference at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels respectively, ns denotes no significant difference. Treatments and abbreviations are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Table 1

Effects of different N treatments on grain yield and its components of proso millet in 2019 and 2020"

N treatment
Grain yield (kg hm-2)
1000-grain weight (g)
Grain number (No. per plant)
2019 N0 1584.81±243.51 b 7.7005±0.0670 c 395.11±45.35 b
N1 2293.33±82.21 ab 7.7431±0.0453 bc 516.33±65.76 ab
N2 2708.15±209.31 a 7.9327±0.0650 a 609.00±53.68 a
N3 3012.59±323.21 a 7.9124±0.0447 ab 638.78±68.11 a
2020 N0 1790.37±147.43 c 7.3548±0.0933 b 156.78±37.31 b
N1 2834.48±100.69 b 7.6680±0.0662 a 266.89±47.59 ab
N2 3250.67±73.71 a 7.7605±0.1116 a 329.44±31.85 a
N3 3156.74±129.61 ab 7.7532±0.0706 a 385.67±66.17 a
N4 3084.26±124.88 ab 7.7191±0.0427 a 338.44±26.45 a
N5 3094.93±85.29 ab 7.5624±0.1074 ab 309.56±31.49 a
方差分析 ANOVA
施氮 N treatment (N) 17.62** 5.08** 5.43**
年份 Year (Y) 8.81** 12.49** 52.82**
施氮×年份 N×Y 0.78ns 1.14ns 0.06ns

Fig. 5

Regression analysis of the responses of grain yield and its components to N rate in 2020 In the figures, the scatter points are measured values, the solid lines are regression lines. ** denotes that the regression is significantly difference at the 0.01 probability level."

Fig. 6

Regression analysis of the responses of grain yield to different growth parameters in 2019 and 2020 In the figures, the grain yield is measured values, each growth parameter is the average of four growth stages in the same plot, the solid lines are regression lines (n = 30). ** denotes that the regression is significantly difference at the 0.01 probability level."

Fig. 7

Effect of different N treatments on N accumulation in aboveground at different growth stages of proso millet in 2019 and 2020 The values were means ± standard errors of three repetitions. Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different N treatments at the same growth stage at P < 0.05. **: P < 0.01; ns: P > 0.05. Treatments and abbreviations are the same as those given in Fig. 2."

Table 2

Effects of different N treatments on nitrogen use efficiency of proso millet in 2019 and 2020"

N treatment
NHI (%)
NRE (%)
NAE (kg kg-1)
NPFP (kg kg-1)
2019 N0 60.27±1.09 a
N1 62.46±1.34 a 38.11±12.50 a 7.87±0.91 a 25.48±0.91 a
N2 60.45±1.93 a 60.00±1.96 a 9.36±1.75 a 22.57±1.75 a
N3 64.51±0.81 a 50.15±5.23 a 9.52±2.15 a 20.08±2.15 a
2020 N0 62.07±1.46 ab
N1 64.49±1.52 a 42.01±8.27 b 11.60±1.12 a 31.49±1.12 a
N2 60.02±0.20 abc 63.62±3.87 a 12.17±0.61 a 27.09±0.61 b
N3 59.42±0.95 bc 49.63±4.85 ab 9.11±0.86 b 21.04±0.86 c
N4 56.66±2.65 c 41.42±5.40 b 7.19±0.69 bc 17.13±0.69 d
N5 50.89±0.75 d 43.62±6.17 b 6.21±0.41 c 14.74±0.41 d
方差分析 ANOVA
施氮 N treatment (N) 10.59** 3.20* 4.23* 34.74**
年份 Year (Y) 0.17ns 0.18ns 4.33ns 15.24**
施氮×年份 N×Y 2.68ns 0.07ns 1.63ns 2.33ns

Table 3

Pearson’s correlation coefficients between N accumulation in aboveground and root growth parameters of proso millet at the key growth stages in 2019 and 2020 (n=30)"

地上部氮素积累量 N accumulation of above-ground part
拔节期 Jointing 抽穗期 Heading 灌浆期 Grain-filling 成熟期 Maturity
总根长 Total root length 0.671** 0.694** 0.701** 0.720**
总根表面积 Total root surface 0.730** 0.747** 0.707** 0.278ns
总根体积 Total root volume 0.745** 0.563** 0.661** 0.286ns
根平均直径 Root average diameter 0.640** 0.352ns 0.499** 0.319ns
根干物质 Root dry matter 0.712** 0.904** 0.791** 0.550**
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