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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 975-987.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11033


Effects of sowing dates, sowing rates, and nitrogen rates on growth and spectral indices in winter wheat

LI Xin-Ge(), GAO Yang, LIU Xiao-Jun, TIAN Yong-Chao, ZHU Yan, CAO Wei-Xing, CAO Qiang*()   

  1. National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University / Engineering and Research Center for Smart Agriculture, Ministry of Education / Key Laboratory for Crop System Analysis and Decision Making, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs / Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture / Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production co-sponsored by Province and Ministry, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2021-03-25 Accepted:2021-07-12 Online:2022-04-12 Published:2021-08-04
  • Contact: CAO Qiang E-mail:2018101002@njau.edu.cn;qiangcao@njau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31601222);Earmarked Fund for Jiangsu Agricultural Industry Technology System(JATS[2020]135);Earmarked Fund for Jiangsu Agricultural Industry Technology System(JATS[2020]415);Independent Project of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Information Agriculture(KLIAKF1602)


To clarify the effects of sowing dates, sowing rates, and nitrogen rates on growth and spectral indices in winter wheat, a two-year winter wheat field experiment under different sowing dates, sowing rates, and nitrogen rates was conducted. We studied systematically the effects of three factors and their interactions on yield, leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference red edge (NDRE) of winter wheat at critical growth stages. Furthermore, to facilitate real-time monitoring of winter wheat growth dynamics, we also established the appropriate time-series curves of winter wheat canopy NDRE under different yield levels. The results indicated that the change patterns of NDRE and LAI at critical growth stages were very consistent, and the response of three factors to the two indices at critical growth stages was basically the same in winter wheat. In 2018 and 2019, the yield, LAI, and NDRE of winter wheat at each growth stages decreased with the delay of sowing date. In 2019 and 2020, the yield, peaks of LAI and NDRE under late sowing date were the largest except for the filling stage. The LAI and NDRE of winter wheat at different growth stages in the two years increased with the increase of nitrogen rates. However, there was basically no significant difference among sowing rates. Among the three factors, the sowing dates and nitrogen rates had a significant influence on the time-series curves of winter wheat canopy NDRE. The NDRE time series curves of winter wheat were stretched with the increase of nitrogen rates, the descending part of NDRE time series curve shifted to the left with the delay of the sowing date. In 2018 and 2019, the peak values of NDRE time series curves of winter wheat were declined with the delay of the sowing date. In 2019 and 2020, the peak values of the NDRE time series curves of late sowing and over-late sowing winter wheat were higher than that of suitable sowing wheat. The data of two years were merged to establish suitable time-series curves of winter wheat canopy NDRE under three yield levels, and the yield levels were less than 6.75 t hm-2, 6.75-8.25 t hm-2, and higher than 8.25 t hm-2, respectively. The peak values and width of the NDRE time-series curves increased with the increase of yield level. In summary, winter wheat should be sown early at an appropriate date, but if the accumulated temperature before winter was higher, the sowing date should be postponed appropriately. And the growth of late sowing winter wheat could be improved by increasing a certain amount of sowing rates and nitrogen rates. At the same time, these results could provide a technical support for monitoring the growth of winter wheat under different sowing dates and different yield levels.

Key words: sowing date, sowing rate, nitrogen rate, LAI, NDRE

Table 1

Variance analysis of winter wheat yield"

Source of variance
2018-2019 2019-2020
播期 S1 6.87 a 7.63 b
Sowing date S2 6.31 b 8.15 a
S3 5.71 c 7.73 b
播量 D1 6.09 b 7.83 a
Sowing rate D2 6.30 ab 7.76 a
D3 6.50 a 7.93 a
施氮量 N0 4.21 c 4.51 c
Nitrogen rate N1 6.15 b 8.02 b
N2 6.69 a 8.22 a
N3 6.75 a 8.39 a
因素互作 S×D ns *
Factor interactions S×N ** **
D×N *** ns
S×D×N ** ns

Table 2

Analysis of variance of LAI and canopy NDRE in winter wheat"

Source of variances
1 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Sowing date
2 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Sowing rate
2 *** *** *** * ns *** *** ** * **
Nitrogen rate
3 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Year×Sowing date
2 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Year×Sowing rate
2 ns * ** * ns * *** ** ns ns
Year×Nitrogen rate
3 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Sowing date×Sowing rate
4 *** ** ns ns ** *** ** *** ns ***
Sowing date×Nitrogen rate
6 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Sowing rate×Nitrogen rate
6 *** *** *** *** ns ** *** ** *** *
Year×Sowing date×Sowing rate
4 ns ns ** ns ns *** * *** *** ***
Year×Sowing date×Nitrogen rate
6 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *
Year×Sowing rate×Nitrogen rate
6 *** *** ns ** * * * ns ** *
Sowing date×Sowing rate×Nitrogen rate
12 ** *** *** ** ns * *** *** *** ***
Year×Sowing date×Sowing rate×Nitrogen rate
12 ** ** *** *** ** *** *** *** ** ***

Fig. 1

Effects of three factors on LAI and canopy NDRE of winter wheat at different growth stages The different lowercase letters (a, b, c, d) in the figure represent that there was significant difference among treatments at P < 0.05."

Fig. 2

Effects of interaction of factors on LAI of winter wheat at different growth stages"

Fig. 3

Effects of interaction of factors on NDRE of winter wheat at different growth stages"

Fig. 4

Time series dynamics of winter wheat canopy NDRE under different treatments"

Table 3

Effects of three factors on the characteristic parameters of winter wheat canopy NDRE time series curves"

2018-2019 2019-2020
Ymax kg (×10-3) tg ks (×10-3) ts Ymax kg (×10-3) tg ks (×10-3) ts
播期 S1 0.362 a 5.5 b 527.21 a 6.6 a 1817.94 a 0.377 a 7.6 a 797.85 a 7.0 a 1983.83 a
Sowing date S2 0.356 a 6.0 a 444.86 b 7.9 a 1700.68 b 0.399 a 6.1 a 498.71 b 7.8 a 1841.77 b
S3 0.355 a 4.2 c 514.14 a 7.8 a 1647.17 c 0.420 a 7.1 a 533.96 b 8.5 a 1730.53 c
Sig. ns <0.001 <0.001 ns <0.001 ns ns <0.001 ns <0.001
播量 D1 0.355 a 5.3 a 509.89 a 7.7 a 1729.11 a 0.397 a 6.8 a 616.12 a 7.8 a 1858.54 a
Sowing rate D2 0.356 a 5.3 a 498.26 a 7.3 a 1719.54 a 0.398 a 7.2 a 615.78 a 7.8 a 1849.84 a
D3 0.363 a 5.3 a 478.06 a 7.3 a 1717.15 a 0.401 a 6.8 a 598.63 a 7.8 a 1847.74 a
Sig. ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
施氮量 N0 0.256 c 5.1 a 445.11 b 5.1 b 1716.39 a 0.286 b 4.8 b 606.96 a 4.7 b 1790.57 a
Nitrogen rate N1 0.376 b 5.2 a 522.76 a 8.3 a 1711.95 a 0.426 a 7.6 a 627.80 a 8.7 a 1861.22 a
N2 0.394 a 5.3 a 514.32 a 8.2 a 1724.18 a 0.440 a 7.3 a 602.09 a 8.9 a 1873.56 a
N3 0.405 a 5.3 a 499.42 a 8.1 a 1735.19 a 0.444 a 8.0 a 603.84 a 8.8 a 1882.82 a
Sig. <0.001 ns 0.004 <0.001 ns <0.001 <0.001 ns <0.001 ns

Fig. 5

Suitable time series dynamics of winter wheat canopy NDRE under different treatments"

Table 4

Yield level division"

Yield level
Yield (t hm-2)
Sample number
Mean value
低产 Low yield <6.75 19 6.73 5.20 6.22
中产 Medium yield 6.75-8.25 21 8.24 6.95 7.69
高产 High yield ≥8.25 14 8.63 8.26 8.43

Fig. 6

Suitable time-series dynamics of winter wheat canopy NDRE under different yield levels"

Fig. 7

Relationship between simulated values of winter wheat canopy NDRE time-series curve and actual NDRE values under different yield levels"

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