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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (7): 1360-1371.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02053


Effects of sowing date on eating quality of indica hybrid rice in Sichuan Basin

LI Bo, ZHANG Chi, ZENG Yu-Ling, LI Qiu-Ping, REN Hong-Chao, LU Hui, YANG Fan, CEHN Hong, WANG Li, CHEN Yong, REN Wan-Jun*(), DENG Fei*()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology, and Cultivation in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rual Affairs / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology, and Cultivation in Sichuan Province, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2020-08-11 Accepted:2020-12-01 Online:2021-07-12 Published:2021-01-04
  • Contact: REN Wan-Jun,DENG Fei E-mail:rwjun@126.com;ddf273634096@163.com
  • Supported by:
    The study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD03000105);The study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300506);The study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0301702);The study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFD030141-04);the Sichuan Breeding Breakthrough Project(2016NYZ0051)


In order to clarify the effects of sowing date on the eating quality of indica hybrid rice, field experiments were conducted in Dayi, Nanbu, and Shehong, Sichuan province, using indica hybrid rice Yixiangyou 2115, F you 498, and Chuanyou 6203 as experimental materials. The effects of sowing dates in different locations on the appearance, taste, comprehensive score, hardness and viscosity of indica hybrid rice were investigated using the rice taste analyzer and the hardness and viscosity analyzer. The results showed as follows: (1) Location, variety, sowing date, and their interaction had significant influences on eating quality of indica hybrid rice. (2) The appearance, taste, and comprehensive score of rice were ranked as Yixiangyou 2115 > Chuanyou 6203 > F you 498 at each sowing date, while F you 498 possessed the highest hardness value, which indicated that the eating quality of Yixiangyou 2115 was obviously greater than others. The appearance, taste and comprehensive score of rice could be improved with appropriate delaying of sowing date at different locations, and then the quality of rice can be improved. (3) The correlation analysis showed that the comprehensive score was significantly and positively associated with the accumulated temperature, but negatively related to the rainfall from sowing stage to heading stage. Comprehensive score also significantly and negatively correlated to the accumulated temperature, sunshine hours from heading stage to maturity stage, as well as the rainfall during the whole growth period. (4) According to GGE model, a higher comprehensive score and stability was observed in Dayi by ten days postponing at sowing date; Whereas, 10 to 20 days delay at sowing date could improve both comprehensive score and stability in Nanbu and Shehong. In conclusion, the delayed sowing date of 10-20 days leaded to a more reasonable temperature and light condition during the grain filling stage of rice in Sichuan basin, thus contributed to the improvement in eating quality of indica hybrid rice by increasing both comprehensive score and stability.

Key words: sowing date, Sichuan basin, rice, eating quality, taste analyzer

Table 1

Physical and chemical properties of the soil in the three ecological sites"

pH 有机质
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total N content
(g kg-1)
Total P content
(g kg-1)
Total K content
(g kg-1)
碱解氮 Available N (mg kg-1) 速效磷 Available P
(mg kg-1)
速效钾 Available K (mg kg-1)
大邑Dayi 6.04 32.97 2.94 0.77 13.81 97.74 32.11 112.67
南部Nanbu 7.39 31.95 1.28 0.36 10.62 55.97 50.88 96.32
射洪Shehong 7.52 26.69 1.40 0.60 12.20 62.04 85.83 128.52

Fig. 1

Meteorological data of three locations from 2018 to 2019 a: Dayi, b: Nanbu, c: Shehong. The rice growing seasons in this experiment were from 25 March to 1 October in 2018, from 25 March to 3 October in 2019 at Dayi; from 20 March to 25 September in 2018, from 20 March to 30 September in 2019 at Nanbu, and from 22 March to 27 September in 2018 and 22 March to 1 October in 2019 at Shehong."

Table 2

Combined analysis of variance of rice taste value (F-value)"

Source of variation
Comprehensive score
2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019
234.23** 133.68** 89.05** 69.83** 9.73** 10.96** 2.46 17.54** 13.12** 2.46
Sowing date
61.42** 30.92** 58.45** 42.87** 38.43** 13.34** 1.75 5.68** 1.15 6.15**
1181.41** 464.29** 586.89** 173.56** 467.00** 136.24** 181.53** 113.86** 64.95** 9.15**
Location × sowing date
20.35** 6.32** 14.86** 8.64** 10.55** 2.71* 3.61** 3.91** 2.66* 55.89**
Location × variety
23.39** 20.80** 21.06** 18.27** 14.19** 13.91** 0.51 5.34** 2.80* 3.67**
Sowing date × variety
13.05** 27.72** 21.50** 18.53** 19.53** 10.89** 2.99* 1.67 1.06 1.29
Location × sowing date × variety
15.72** 34.42** 27.48** 16.60** 13.28** 12.05** 1.69 1.73 1.24 1.39

Table 3

Effects of sowing date on rice eating quality in rice"

Sowing date
综合评分 Comprehensive score 外观 Appearance 口感 Taste 硬度 Hardness 黏度Viscosity
2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019
A1 77.10 b 81.45 b 6.66 b 7.07 b 6.49 b 7.00 b 3.09 b 2.43 b 0.23 a 0.34 a
A2 77.01 b 81.41 b 6.48 c 6.89 c 6.39 c 6.98 b 3.19 ab 2.47 b 0.22 a 0.37 a
A3 78.14 a 80.58 c 6.91 a 7.01 b 6.60 a 6.99 b 3.19 ab 2.75 a 0.20 a 0.29 b
A4 75.19 c 82.80 a 6.49 c 7.39 a 6.37 c 7.25 a 3.32 a 2.68 a 0.21 a 0.27 b

Table 4

Effects of ecological location and sowing date on the eating quality in rice"

Sowing date
Comprehensive score
2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019
A1 75.16 a 80.16 a 6.58 a 6.79 b 6.51 ab 6.96 bc 3.29 ab 2.44 c 0.16 a 0.36 a
A2 74.23 b 80.17 a 6.30 b 6.81 b 6.41 bc 7.07 ab 2.98 b 2.73 bc 0.19 a 0.36 a
A3 75.71 a 77.96 b 6.60 a 6.66 b 6.59 a 6.84 c 3.08 b 3.32 a 0.19 a 0.22 b
A4 73.93 b 80.93 a 6.39 b 7.12 a 6.31 c 7.20 a 3.50 a 2.79 b 0.20 a 0.24 b
平均Average 74.76 C 79.80 C 6.47 C 6.84 C 6.46 B 7.02 B 3.21 AB 2.82 A 0.18 B 0.30 B
A1 79.62 b 80.88 c 7.01 a 6.97 b 6.71 a 6.86 b 2.70 b 2.60 a 0.23 a 0.37 a
A2 80.57 a 81.83 b 6.81 b 6.99 b 6.50 b 6.92 b 3.17 a 2.54 a 0.20 a 0.43 a
A3 79.10 b 81.51 bc 7.03 a 7.02 b 6.76 a 6.96 b 3.26 a 2.58 a 0.21 a 0.29 b
A4 76.31 c 82.91 a 6.66 c 7.46 a 6.39 b 7.18 a 3.25 a 2.64 a 0.20 a 0.26 b
平均Average 78.90 A 81.78 B 6.88 A 7.11 B 6.59 A 6.98 B 3.10 B 2.59 B 0.21 B 0.34 A
A1 76.52 b 83.31 b 6.39 b 7.47 ab 6.23 c 7.19 b 3.28 a 2.25 b 0.29 a 0.30 a
A2 76.23 b 82.23 c 6.33 b 6.87 c 6.26 c 6.96 c 3.42 a 2.13 b 0.28 a 0.33 a
A3 79.61 a 82.27 c 7.10 a 7.34 b 6.92 a 7.17 b 3.22 a 2.35 ab 0.22 b 0.35 a
A4 75.33 c 84.56 a 6.42 b 7.60 a 6.40 b 7.38 a 3.21 a 2.61 a 0.21 b 0.31 a
平均Average 76.93 B 83.09 A 6.56 B 7.32 A 6.45 B 7.17 A 3.28 A 2.34 C 0.25 A 0.32 AB

Fig. 2

Adaptability analysis of sowing date-location (a) and sowing date-variety (b) based on GGE biplot The numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the figure represent the first, second, third, and fourth sowing dates, respectively; DY: Dayi; NB: Nanbu; SH: Shehong. G represents the variety, and the numbers 1, 2, and 3 at the back represent Yixiangyou 2115, F you 498, and Chuanyou 6203, respectively. In this figure, a and b represent in 2018 and in 2019."

Table 5

Effects of sowing date and variety on rice eating quality"

Sowing date
2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019
Yixiangyou 2115
A1 81.97 a 82.68 b 7.21 a 7.19 b 7.04 a 7.12 b 2.08 b 1.89 b 0.21 a 0.33 ab
A2 82.11 a 83.47 b 7.30 a 7.12 b 7.16 a 7.17 b 2.55 a 1.99 b 0.25 a 0.36 a
A3 81.66 a 85.40 a 7.30 a 7.70 a 7.06 a 7.60 a 2.53 a 2.03 ab 0.22 a 0.35 ab
A4 78.94 b 84.91 a 6.96 b 7.77 a 6.76 b 7.61 a 2.81 a 2.36 a 0.21 a 0.28 b
平均值Average 81.17 A 84.11 A 7.19 A 7.44 A 7.00 A 7.38 A 2.49 C 2.07 C 0.22 B 0.33 B
F you 498
A1 71.46 b 78.34 b 6.14 b 6.73 b 5.96 b 6.63 b 4.23 a 3.06 b 0.15 a 0.25 ab
A2 72.07 b 77.52 c 5.67 d 6.43 c 5.54 d 6.59 b 3.93 a 3.11 b 0.14 a 0.26 a
A3 74.38 a 76.27 d 6.62 a 6.50 c 6.43 a 6.52 b 4.10 a 3.58 a 0.13 a 0.17 c
A4 69.81 c 80.39 a 5.91 c 7.12 a 5.79 c 6.00 a 4.10 a 3.30 ab 0.12 a 0.18 bc
平均值Average 71.93 C 78.13 C 6.09 C 6.70 C 5.93 C 6.66 C 4.09 A 3.26 A 0.13 C 0.21 C
Chuanyou 6203
A1 77.88 a 83.32 a 6.62 b 7.30 a 6.46 b 7.24 a 2.97 a 2.34 ab 0.32 a 0.45 a
A2 76.86 b 83.24 a 6.48 c 7.11 b 6.47 b 7.19 a 3.09 a 2.30 b 0.28 ab 0.49 a
A3 78.39 a 80.07 b 6.81 a 6.82 c 6.78 a 6.84 b 2.94 a 2.64 a 0.26 b 0.35 b
A4 76.82 b 83.10 a 6.60 bc 7.29 a 6.56 b 7.24 a 3.05 a 2.39 ab 0.28 ab 0.36 b
平均值Average 77.49 B 82.43 B 6.63 B 7.13 B 6.56 B 7.13 B 3.01 B 2.42 B 0.28 A 0.41 A

Fig. 3

Stabilities of sowing date and comprehensive score based on GGE biplot In the figure, G represents the variety, and the numbers 1, 2, and 3 at the back represent the varieties, namely Yixiangyou 2115, F you 498, and Chuanyou 6203; 2018 and 2019 represent the year. DY: Dayi (a); NB: Nanbu (b); SH: Shehong (c); The number 1 2, 3, and 4 behind the location represent the first, second, third, and fourth sowing dates, respectively."

Table 6

Correlation analysis of meteorological factors and comprehensive scores"

Meteorological factors
Whole growth period
Daily average temperature
大邑Dayi -0.037 -0.224 -0.237
南部Nanbu -0.239 -0.185 -0.411*
射洪Shehomg -0.148 -0.328 -0.512*
3个生态点 3 ecological points -0.005 -0.039 -0.048
Accumulated temperature
大邑Dayi -0.040 -0.464* -0.131
南部Nanbu 0.486* -0.364 0.354
射洪Shehomg 0.587** -0.646** 0.099
3个生态点 3 ecological points 0.354** -0.343** -0.179
Sunshine hours
大邑Dayi -0.380 -0.578** -0.504*
南部Nanbu -0.181 -0.378 -0.295
射洪Shehomg 0.492* -0.549** 0.522**
3个生态点 3 ecological points 0.001 -0.275** -0.130
大邑Dayi -0.520** -0.141 -0.597**
南部Nanbu -0.114 0.301 0.282
射洪Shehomg 0.330 0.506* -0.051
3个生态点 3 ecological points -0.267* -0.013 -0.246*

Table 7

Effects of meteorological factors during heading to maturation period on comprehensive score"

Meteorological factors
通径系数 Path coefficient 贡献率
Contribution rate
Direct effect
间接作用 Indirect effect
Daily average temperature
Accumulated temperature
Sunshine hours
大邑 Dayi
日平均温度Daily average temperature 0.338 -0.014 -0.515 -0.033 0.076
积温 Accumulated temperature -0.269 0.018 -0.187 -0.025 0.125
日照时数 Sunshine hours -0.748 0.233 -0.067 0.005 0.432
降雨量 Rainfall -0.184 0.061 -0.037 0.019 0.026
南部 Nanbu
日平均温度Daily average temperature 0.311 0.030 -0.383 -0.143 -0.058
积温 Accumulated temperature -0.221 -0.042 -0.049 -0.053 0.077
日照时数 Sunshine hours -0.495 0.240 -0.022 -0.101 0.187
降雨量 Rainfall 0.222 -0.200 0.053 0.266 0.067
射洪 Shehong
日平均温度Daily average temperature -0.067 -0.122 -0.356 0.217 0.022
积温 Accumulated temperature -0.606 -0.013 -0.249 0.222 0.391
日照时数 Sunshine hours -0.411 -0.058 -0.367 0.287 0.226
降雨量 Rainfall -0.322 0.045 0.417 0.366 -0.163
3个地点 3 locations
日平均温度Daily average temperature 0.236 -0.119 -0.290 0.134 -0.009
积温 Accumulated temperature -0.409 0.069 -0.124 0.122 0.140
日照时数 Sunshine hours -0.397 0.173 -0.128 0.077 0.109
降雨量 Rainfall -0.228 -0.139 0.219 0.134 0.003
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