Sichuan province is one of the main origins of new races of the wheat stripe rust pathogen. To understand the resistance level of wheat cultivars (lines) bred in Sichuan since 2016 to the current predominant races of the pathogen and pathotypes and to clarify the distribution of resistance genes can provide a theoretical basis for the management of wheat stripe rust by breeding resistance wheat cultivars and wheat variety deployment in Sichuan. In this study, 78 Sichuan wheat cultivars (lines) were identified at seedling stage by two races CYR32 and CYR34. At adult plant stage in wheat, the mixture of the current predominant races of CYR32, CYR33, CYR34, G22-14, and G22 pathogenic groups virulent to wheat cultivar Guinong 22 were artificially inoculated to assess the resistance of the tested wheat. Nineteen resistance genes and QTLs, including QYr.nwafu-4BL, Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr28, Yr29, Yr30, Yr36, Yr39, Yr41, Yr48, Yr65, Yr67, Yr78, Yr80, and Yr81, were detected the presence of the resistance genes in all tested materials. The results showed that 60 (76.92%) of the 78 tested materials were resistant to CYR32, 40 (51.28%) resistant to CYR34, and 36 (46.15%) resistant to both races at seedling stage. Seventy-eight wheat materials were resistant to wheat stripe rust at adult stage, 4 out of which, including Mianmai 835, Shumai 1743, Shumai 1829, and Shumai 1868, were immune to the disease. Disease resistance identification showed that 42 (53.85%) exhibited adult plant resistance and 36 (46.15%) were all stage resistant to wheat stripe rust. Molecular detection indicated that 5, 5, 45, 2, 30, 5, 30, 39, 3, 2, 22, 8, 23, 6, and 24 carried the resistance gene QYr.nwafu-4BL, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr28, Yr29, Yr30, Yr39, Yr41, Yr65, Yr67, Yr78, Yr80, and Yr81, respectively. Two to six resistance genes were detected in 24, 22, 11, 14, and 3 of the tested wheat materials, accounting for 94.87%. Yr5, Yr10, Yr36, and Yr48 were not detected in all wheat cultivars (lines), and only Xikemai 18, not detected any of the 19 resistance genes mentioned above, presumably, may carried other known or new resistance genes to wheat stripe rust. In summary, that resistance level of 78 wheat cultivars (lines) to wheat stripe rust was identified, and the resistance genes of these cultivars were identified. These results provide scientific basis for breeding durable resistant wheat cultivar.