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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (7): 1383-1390.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04171

• RESEARCH NOTES • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of combined application of bio-bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on agronomic characters, yield, and quality in quinoa

DENG Yan1, WANG Juan-Ling2,*(), WANG Chuang-Yun1, ZHAO Li1, ZHANG Li-Guang1, GUO Hong-Xia1, GUO Hong-Xia3, QIN Li-Xia2, WANG Mei-Xia1   

  1. 1Agricultural College, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan 030031, Shanxi, China
    2Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan 030031, Shanxi, China
    3Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030031, Shanxi, China
  • Received:2020-07-27 Accepted:2020-12-01 Online:2021-07-12 Published:2021-04-26
  • Contact: WANG Juan-Ling E-mail:13994267508@163.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the Post-Doctoral Research Project of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences(YCX2018D2BH2);the Science and Technology Precision Poverty Alleviation in Deep Poverty-stricken County of Shanxi Province(2020FP-05);the Science and Technology Innovation Project Collaborative Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences(CAAS-XTCX20190025);the Special Research Project of Shanxi Agricultural Valley Construction(SXNGJSKYZX201704)


To explore the suitable cultivation and management model of quinoa in northern Shanxi province, and therefore improve the yield and quality of quinoa, an experiment was conducted with cultivar Huaqing 1 as plant material. The effects of varied proportion of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the growth process of quinoa, agronomic traits, yield, and quality were studied using single factor completely random design. There were three treatments including T1 (1500 kg hm -2 organic fertilizer, 225 kg hm -2 each for urea and diamine phosphate), T2 (2250 kg hm -2 organic fertilizer, 225 kg hm -2 each for urea and diamine phosphate), and T3 (3000 kg hm -2 organic fertilizer, 225 kg hm -2 each for urea and diamine phosphate), conventional fertilization (0 kg hm -2 organic fertilizer, 450 kg hm -2 each for urea and diamine phosphate) was the control. The results showed that the combined biological bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer could increase the content of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in soil, and decrease the pH of soil. Compared with CK, the combined biological fertilizer could effectively shorten the growth period, and increase plant height, stem diameter and stem strength at mature stage, thus reduce lodging rate. Also, combined biological fertilizer treatment promoted the branches and 1000-grain weight of quinoa, and improved quinoa yield, protein content and fat content, and the above favorite effects were obviously showed in T2 treatment. Starch content was the lowest in T2 treatment, but there was no significant differences among the three treatments. With the increase application of bacterial fertilizer, nitrogen use efficiency, phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency and partial productivity of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer was firstly increased and then decreased. Among three groups, the above index was the highest in T2 treatment. Correlation analysis showed that the relationship between the yield and 1000-grain weight was the most correlated, and protein content in grains was positively correlated with yield, 1000-grain weight, branch number, and stem strength, but negatively correlated with lodging rate. In conclusion, under the condition of current experiment, the suitable nitrogen application rate for quinoa was the combination of urea (225 kg hm -2), diamine phosphate (225 kg hm -2) and inorganic fertilizer (2250 kg hm -2).

Key words: quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), bio-bacterial fertilizer, agronomic characters, yield, quality

Table 1

Effect of combined application of bio-bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizers on soil fertility in 2018 and 2019"

Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen (mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
2018 CK 5.99 c 98.05 a 43.55 a 88.55 c 8.70 a
T1 6.24 c 80.74 c 32.27 b 97.77 b 8.22 ab
T2 7.14 b 82.31 c 35.81 b 105.81 ab 7.94 ab
T3 7.77 a 86.77 b 37.24 b 112.74 a 7.74 b
2019 CK 6.14 d 101.20 a 44.70 a 89.70 c 8.65 a
T1 6.95 c 80.44 c 33.70 b 102.20 b 8.20 a
T2 7.53 b 83.78 b 35.28 b 108.28 ab 8.03 a
T3 7.90 a 88.70 b 38.94 b 118.44 a 7.94 a

Table 2

Effects of combined application of bio-bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizers on whole growth period in quinoa"

处理Treatment 播种期
Sowing date (month/day)
Seeding stage (month/day)
Branch stage (month/day)
Flowering stage (month/day)
Mature stage (month/day)
Growth period
2018 CK 5/22 6/2 7/1 8/1 9/15 116
T1 5/22 6/1 6/29 7/26 9/11 112
T2 5/22 5/31 6/26 7/25 9/8 109
T3 5/22 6/1 6/27 7/27 9/10 111
2019 CK 6/20 7/3 8/3 9/1 9/28 100
T1 6/20 7/2 8/1 8/29 9/25 97
T2 6/20 7/1 7/28 8/26 9/23 95
T3 6/20 7/2 7/28 8/27 9/25 97

Fig. 1

Effect of combined application of bio-bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizers on agronomic characters at maturity stage in quinoa Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. Different lowercase letters above the bars mean significant differences at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 2

Effect of combined application of bio-bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizers on yield characters in quinoa Treatments are the same as those given in Table 1. Different lowercase letters above the bars mean significant differences at the 0.05 probability level."

Table 3

Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on quinoa quality in 2018 and 2019"

蛋白质Protein 脂肪Fat 淀粉Amylum
值Value 标准误SE 值Value 标准误SE 值Value 标准误SE
2018 CK 13.55 b 0.47 5.26 b 0.10 54.65 a 0.42
T1 14.27 ab 0.12 5.32 ab 0.08 54.17 b 0.20
T2 15.81 a 0.59 5.36 a 0.02 54.03 b 0.77
T3 15.74 a 0.19 5.28 a 0.07 54.20 b 0.19
2019 CK 14.20 b 0.14 5.22 b 0.15 54.40 a 0.51
T1 15.70 b 0.09 5.29 b 0.08 53.64 b 0.15
T2 16.28 a 0.19 5.42 a 0.03 53.46 b 0.34
T3 15.94 a 0.14 5.34 a 0.05 53.58 b 0.97

Fig. 3

Correlation between production, agronomy and quality traits in quinoa Bubble and number symmetry in figures, *: significant differences at P < 0.05, **: significant differences at P < 0.01. X1: plant height; X2: stem diameter; X3: stalk strength; X4: lodging rate; X5: branch number; X6: thousand grain weight; X7: yield; X8: protein content; X9: fat content; X10: amylum content."

Table 4

Effect of combined application of bio-bacterial fertilizer and inorganic fertilizers on fertilizer utilization from 2018 to 2019 in quinoa"

N use efficiency
(kg kg-1)
Partial productivity of N fertilizer (kg kg-1)
P use efficiency
(kg kg-1)
Partial productivity of P fertilizer (kg kg-1)
2018 CK 34.06 c 7.62 c 61.20 c 7.62 c
T1 39.21 c 15.92 b 76.27 b 15.92 b
T2 54.85 a 16.88 a 106.54 a 16.88 a
T3 45.78 b 16.43 a 86.75 b 16.43 a
2019 CK 31.94 c 7.83 c 59.36 c 7.83 c
T1 38.70 b 16.25 b 71.24 b 16.25 b
T2 54.65 a 17.41 a 102.99 a 17.41 a
T3 44.74 b 16.83 b 80.30 b 16.83 b
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