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    12 August 2021, Volume 47 Issue 8
      Cloning and expression analysis of lncRNA27195 and its target gene TaRTS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
      WANG Na, BAI Jian-Fang, MA You-Zhi, GUO Hao-Yu, WANG Yong-Bo, CHEN Zhao-Bo, ZHAO Chang-Ping, ZHANG Ling-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1417-1426.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01071
      Abstract ( 503 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (3770KB) ( 423 )   Save
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      Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a non-coding RNA length over 200 bp, which is abundant in plants. It plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response by regulating gene expression or protein function. In the previous study, a fertility-related lncRNA named lncRNA27195 was screened and obtained by transcriptome sequencing from the anther of wheat Photoperiod-thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (PTGMS) line BS366. To investigate the function of lncRNA27195 in wheat, the lncRNA27195 gene and its target gene TaRTS were cloned from BS366. Bioinformatics analysis were performed on TaRTS. The expressions of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS in different tissues and their expression correlation between them were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS under different light and temperature treatments, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were investigated. The results showed that the TaRTS gene with 315 bp length, encoded 104 amino acids. Additionally, RTS proteins were only found as anther-specific proteins in gramineae plants. Both lncRNA27195 and TaRTS with a significantly positive correlation were highly expressed in stamens, and revealed different expression patterns in different fertility environments. The results demonstrated that the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS were also regulated by light and temperature. In addition, we found that the appropriate concentration of MeJA could promote the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS while SA could inhibit the expression. The results indicated that under the induction of photoperiod, temperature, and plant hormones, IncRNA27195 positively regulated TaRTS gene expression, resulting in affecting pollen development and male fertility. This study contributed to the mechanism research and production application of PTGMS wheat.

      Chromosome transmission in hybrids between tetraploid and hexaploid wheat
      LUO Jiang-Tao, ZHENG Jian-Min, PU Zong-Jun, FAN Chao-Lan, LIU Deng-Cai, HAO Ming
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1427-1436.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01067
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      Tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., AABB) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) are two main types of cultivated wheat. Transferring the genes from tetraploid wheat (or hexaploid wheat) into hexaploid wheat (or tetraploid wheat) by distant hybridization is an important method for wheat genetic improvement. However, the F1 hybrid of tetraploid/ hexaploid wheat was pentaploid with unbalanced genome composition, containing two sets of genomes A and B, and only one set of genome D. The genetic divergences from both nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the two parents may affect the chromosome transmission efficiency of pentaploid hybrids. In the present study, tetraploid or hexaploid wheats with different genetic backgrounds were used as female or male parents to generate pentaploid F1s. The chromosome composition of F2s were analyzed by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results showed that the genetic background of parent lines has a significant effect on the self-setting rate of F1s. The A and B genome chromosomes were relatively stable during F1 self-process, and the mean total number of A and B chromosomes per F2 individual was close to 28 in both AABB/AABBDD and AABBDD/AABB F2s (27.9 vs. 28.0). However, the average number of D chromosomes retained in F2s with tetraploid wheat as female parent was significantly higher than that with hexaploid wheat as female parent (7.0 vs. 2.9). Therefore, when tetraploid wheat was the final target progeny, hexaploid wheat should be used as the primary female parent to generate F1 hybrids; vice versa, tetraploid wheat should be used.

      Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of B-box gene family in wheat
      WANG Yan-Peng, LING Lei, ZHANG Wen-Rui, WANG Dan, GUO Chang-Hong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1437-1449.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01077
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      B-box (BBX) is a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The number, gene structure and phylogenetic relationship of wheat B-box transcription factors, as well as their expression specificity in different tissues and response to abiotic stress were investigated. A total of 87 members of B-box gene family were identified from wheat genome and all contained the B-box domain. TaBBXs encoded 146 to 489 amino acids and the isoelectric points ranged from 4.32 to 10.42. Chromosome mapping showed that these genes were distributed on 18 wheat chromosomes except 1A, 1B, and 1D. Based on phylogenetic analysis, TaBBXs were divided into five subfamilies, with 0-4 introns. The members of the subfamily in the same phylogenetic tree branch in the same group had highly similar gene structures. The qRT-PCR revealed that the investigated 20 genes had different expression patterns, and most genes were highly expressed in leaves, and TaBBX10 and TaBBX39 were only highly expressed in leaves, while TaBBX74 was expressed in spikes, TaBBX43 was specifically expressed in roots. These genes showed different expression patterns under different stress. 11 genes were up-regulated after low temperature stress, 13 genes were down-regulated after ABA treatment, 10 genes were up-regulated after salt stress, and 7 genes were down-regulated after drought stress. TaBBX10, TaBBX39, TaBBX60, TaBBX67, and TaBBX74 were significantly up-regulated under two or more stresses.

      Identification and index screening of soft rot resistance at harvest stage in sweetpotato
      ZHANG Si-Meng, NI Wen-Rong, LYU Zun-Fu, LIN Yan, LIN Li-Zhuo, ZHONG Zi-Yu, CUI Peng, LU Guo-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1450-1459.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04213
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      Soft rot is one of the most destructive diseases during sweetpotato storage. Cell walls were destroyed and soft rot was caused by Rhizopus Stolonifer, which invaded from wounds and propagated with nutrients from wounds. Six varieties of sweetpotato roots in different harvest period were used as the experimental material to identify the resistance index to soft rot, through the inoculation with sweetpotato chips. Physiological indexes including texture of roots (hardness, adhesion, adhesion force, cohesiveness, elasticity, chewiness, and glue viscosity), nutrients (dry matter content, starch, fructose, glucose, sucrose, crude protein and crude fiber), resistance enzyme activity (POD, PPO, PAL) were investigated in this study. Their correlation analysis, grey correlation analysis of each index and subordinate function analysis were applied in screening and comprehensive evaluation of soft rot resistance. The soft rot resistance of sweetpotato roots was graded based on the disease spot diameter. The index and weight of soft rot resistance were conducted by correlation analysis and grey correlation analysis of disease spot diameter and index values. Comprehensive evaluation value (D-value) of six varieties of sweetpotato roots at different harvest stages were calculated using the membership function analysis. The reliability of indicators selection was verified through correlation analysis of D-value based on the disease spot diameter. Soft rot resistance of sweetpotato was high in 90 day at harvest stage, moderate resistance in 120, 135, 150 day of harvest stage, and hypersensitivity and susceptibility in 105 day of harvest stage. Seven indexes, including fructose content selection, chewiness, cohesiveness, elasticity, protein content, POD and PAL enzyme activity, were filtered out to estimate the resistance of soft rot in sweetpotato. These results could provide the germplasm information for selection and breeding of new sweetpotato varieties resistant to soft rot and could serve as a basis for subsequent assessment of sweetpotato resistant to soft rot and their soft rot resistance mechanism.

      Identification of the candidate genes of soybean resistance to bean pyralid (Lamprosema indicata Fabricius) by BSA-Seq and RNA-Seq
      ZENG Wei-Ying, LAI Zhen-Guang, SUN Zu-Dong, YANG Shou-Zhen, CHEN Huai-Zhu, TANG Xiang-Min
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1460-1471.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04195
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      Bean pyralid is an important leaf-feeding insect in soybean. Identification of insect-tolerant genes from soybean has great significant to the crop insect-tolerant breeding and genetic improvement. In this study, an F2 population with 303 individuals was constructed using insect-resistant line Gantai-2-2 and insect-sensitive line Wan 82-178. 30 F2 insect-resistant individuals and 30 insect-sensitive individuals were selected respectively to construct two DNA pools which were used for the whole-genome re-sequencing. The results showed that there were a total of 11,963,077 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers identified in two parental lines and two mixed pools. According to the association analysis of SNP-index method, a total of 329 genes were located outside the 99% confidence interval. These genes were mainly concentrated in the regions of 5,601,065-5,865,237 bp with a total of 0.26 Mb on chromosome 7, 2,975,110-6,336,096 bp with a total of 3.36 Mb on chromosome 16, and 44,366,115-54,297,600 bp with a total of 9.93 Mb on chromosome 18. Correlation analysis of BSA-Seq and transcriptome sequencing showed that 12 genes were correlated. Then, 12 candidate genes, including CNGC4, WRKY transcription factor 16, AAP7, serine/threonine protein kinase and ZPR1B were identified by bioinformatics analysis, differential expression analysis, and homologous annotation. This study laid an important foundation for the analysis of the molecular mechanism of soybean resistance to bean pyralid and the cloning of anti-insect genes.

      Mapping and identification QTLs controlling grain size in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by using single segment substitution lines derived from IAPAR9
      ZHANG Bo, PEI Rui-Qing, YANG Wei-Feng, ZHU Hai-Tao, LIU Gui-Fu, ZHANG Gui-Quan, WANG Shao-Kui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1472-1480.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02056
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      Rice grain size is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. Grain size is an important factor affecting rice yield and quality. The mapping and genetic analysis of genes controlling rice grain size are essential for the concurrent improvement of rice yield and quality. Here 13 QTLs for grain size were detected using 153 rice single-segment substitution lines in rice, which were derived from HJX74 as the receptor parent, and IAPAR9 as the donor parent. One-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple comparison were employed to detect the genetic bases of rice grain size in two consecutive years. Based on the substitution mapping using overlapped substitution-fragment in the SSSLs, a total of 13 grain size-related QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11, including nine QTLs controlling grain length, one QTL controlling grain width, and three QTLs controlling 1000-grain weight. Furthermore, qGL1-2, qTGW1-2, and qGL11 were novel identified QTLs. This study provided new basis for cloning and functional analysis of genes regulating grain size.

      Preliminary study of genome editing of peanut FAD2 genes by CRISPR/Cas9
      ZHANG Wang, XIAN Jun-Lin, SUN Chao, WANG Chun-Ming, SHI Li, YU Wei-Chang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1481-1490.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04214
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      Oleate dehydrogenase (Δ12FAD or FAD2) is the key enzyme catalyzing the dehydrogenation of oleic acid (OA) at the C12 position to produce diunsaturated linoleic acid (LA). It controls the contents and ratios (O/L) of oleic acid and linoleic acid in plants. Increasing evidences in molecular biology research indicate that AhFAD2 is the key gene for the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid, and determines the relative content of oleic acid and linoleic acid in peanut seeds. In this study, the corresponding sgRNA sequences were designed based on AhFAD2 gene sequences, and a CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing vector was constructed to mutate the peanut FAD2A and FAD2B genes. After peanut gene transformation, gene mutations were identified by genomic sequence analysis of transgenic peanut flanking the sgRNA target sites. Target gene analysis indicated that 29 mutations of FAD2A gene in 16 transgenic peanut plants were obtained, among which 16 mutations caused protein sequence changes; 30 mutations in 11 transgenic peanut plants contained mutations in FAD2B gene, among which 17 mutations caused changes in protein sequence. Changes in the protein sequences of the FAD2A and FAD2B genes might affect the enzyme activity, change the catalytic dehydrogenation of oleic acid, hinder the synthesis of linoleic acid, and thus increase the content of peanut oleic acid. These FAD2 gene mutants are valuable in the study of fatty acid metabolism and the breeding of high oleic peanuts.

      Integrating GWAS and WGCNA to screen and identify candidate genes for biological yield in Brassica napus L.
      WANG Yan-Hua, LIU Jing-Sen, LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1491-1510.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04175
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      Biomass yield is especially important for Brassica napus, as it is the basis for high yields of crops. In this study, the phenotypic data of the natural populations composed of 588 materials were used for genome-wide association analysis (GWAS). We performed the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of biomass yield using ‘CQ45’ (high biological yield material) and ‘CQ46’ (low biological yield material). A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) network was constructed by integrating transcriptome data of six tissues of the extreme materials, such as stalks, leaves, 30 day after flowering (DAF) seeds of main inflorescence and lateral branch, 30 DAF pod keratin of main branch and lateral branch. We finally screened the candidate genes related to biomass yield. The main results are as follows: Biomass yields in B. napus had positive effects on most yield-related traits; K + PCA model was the best model for biomass analysis of the natural population, and nine significant loci were detected in the best model (P < 1/385691 or P < 0.05/385691); according to 36 groups of transcriptome data, MAD value of each gene was calculated. A total of 5052 genes with MAD value of the top 5% were selected to construct WGCNA. Fifteen gene modules were obtained, among which, five genes co-expression modules were significantly correlated with leaves, stems, and seeds of 30 DAF. The hub genes of the key modules in WGCNA, the significant SNP loci obtained from GWAS, and the extreme phenotypic differential genes were integrated to identify the candidate genes. Their Arabidopsis homologous genes were HCEF1, HOG1, SBPASE, and ACT2, which played the important roles in the Calvin cycle, carbon assimilation, and material accumulation of photosynthesis.

      Identification of seedling resistance to stripe rust in wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation line and its potential application in breeding
      WANG Yin, FENG Zhi-Wei, GE Chuan, ZHAO Jia-Jia, QIAO Ling, WU Bang-Bang, YAN Su-Xian, ZHENG Jun, ZHENG Xing-Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1511-1521.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01082
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      There are abundant disease resistance resources in relative genus of wheat. The translocation line ZH811 derived from progeny of wheat and Th. intermedium hybrids, was selected for evaluation of stripe rust resistance. A series of stripe rust races such as CYR29, CYR31, CYR32, CYR33, CYR34, Suwon-4, Suwon-5, and Suwon-7 were used to record stripe responses at seedling stage. Agronomical traits, quality traits, and molecular cytogenetic analysis were also performed. Moreover, specific molecular markers located on alien segment was developed by RAPD method. The results indicated that ZH811 was highly resistant to all tested races at seedling stage. And it further proved that the resistance was conferred by a small-fragment-translocation from the Ee genome on 5DS chromosome. The SCAR markers and black awn traits could be used to trace the translocation fragment. ZH811 possessed similar agronomic traits with the commercial cultivars in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers region of wheat. The translocation fragment may be associated with the increase of grain number. The components of the Glu-1 were good-quality subunits, including 1, 17+18, and 5+10, and each quality index met the standard of moderate gluten. The alien chromosomal fragment had no obvious linkage drag to grain quality performance. Based on these findings, ZH811 could be used as a potential material for wheat breeding in high yield, disease resistance, and high quality.

      Sugarcane PsbR subunit response to SCMV infection and its interaction with SCMV-6K2
      ZHANG Hai, CHENG Guang-Yuan, YANG Zong-Tao, LIU Shu-Xian, SHANG He-Yang, HUANG Guo-Qiang, XU Jing-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1522-1530.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04194
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      The PsbR subunit of photosystem II (PSII) plays a vital role in the assembly and stability of the oxygen-evolving complex. In the previous study, we cloned the coding sequence of the PsbR subunit from sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) and designated it as ScPsbR. The interaction between ScPsbR and 6K2 protein encoded by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) was verified by yeast two-hybrid technology. In this study, bioinformatics analysis indicated ScPsbR protein was found to possess a canonical subunit domain of PsbR and a transmembrane domain without signal peptide, and be a stable hydrophobic protein. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated obvious divergence between C3 and C4 plants for the PsbRs. Subcellular localization experiments suggested that ScPsbR was localized and co-localized with SCMV-6K2 to the chloroplast. The interaction of ScPsbR with the SCMV-6K2 was further verified by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that ScPsbR gene was tissue-specific in sugarcane plants. There was almost no expression of ScPsbR gene in the roots or stems, with increased expression level in the senescing leaves and immature leaves, and the highest expression level in mature leaves. However, the expression level of ScPsbR was significantly changed under the challenged of SCMV. During the infection of SCMV, ScPsbR was significantly up-regulated at 0-12 hour(s) and reduced to a level slightly lower than that of the control at 1-5 days with no significant differences, then significantly down-regulated in 7-15 days.

      Identification of resistance to leaf scald in newly released sugarcane varieties at seedling stage by artificial inoculation
      FU Hua-Ying, ZHANG Ting, PENG Wen-Jing, DUAN Yao-Yao, XU Zhe-Xin, LIN Yi-Hua, GAO San-Ji
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1531-1539.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04203
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      Sugarcane leaf scald caused by the pathogen of Xanthomonas albilineans is one of important bacterial diseases. The utilization of sugarcane resistant varieties is the most economical and effective measure for control of this disease. In this study, to identify the level of resistance to leaf scald for domestic sugarcane varieties, a total of 49 newly-released sugarcane varieties from different sugarcane breeding institutions in China were identified upon 3-5 fully expanding leaf stage by artificial inoculation with Xa-FJ1 strain. The leaf scald resistant variety LCP 85-384 and the leaf scald susceptible variety ROC20 were used as controls. Our results indicated that the disease indexes of these varieties were continually increased from the 7th day post-inoculation (dpi), while the disease indexes reached a steady plateau at 21-28 dpi. These re-isolated pathogenic bacteria in leaf tissues of the inoculated plants were detected by PCR assay with the XAF1/XAR1 primers specific to X. albilineans. PCR results confirmed that the pathogen Xa-FJ1 was successfully infected with all the tested varieties after inoculation. Based on the disease indexes, 51 sugarcane varieties were divided into four different groups, resistant, medium resistant, susceptible, and high susceptible grades. Of all the tested varieties, 37.3% (19/51) varieties were resistant or medium resistant to leaf scald, among which only three varieties (Yuegan 50, Funong 09-7111, and Zhongzhe 10) reached resistant levels. Meanwhile, 62.7% (32/51) varieties were susceptible or highly susceptible to leaf scald. Our results revealed the lack of high resistance germplasms in the newly released varieties in China, and it is urgent to create more germplasm resources resistant to leaf scald.

      Effects of machine transplanting density and panicle nitrogen fertilizer reduction on grains starch synthesis in good taste rice cultivars
      CHEN Yun, LIU Kun, ZHANG Hong-Lu, LI Si-Yu, ZHANG Ya-Jun, WEI Jia-Li, ZHANG Hao, GU Jun-Fei, LIU Li-Jun, YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1540-1550.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02069
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      The effect of machine transplanting density on grain starch synthesis in good taste rice cultivars (GTRC) is still unclear. In the experiment, three representative GTRC of Nanjing 9108, Nanjing 5055, and Nanjing 46 in Jiangsu province were used as materials. Five machine transplanting densities of 33.3 × 104, 27.8 × 104, 23.8 × 104, 20.8 × 104, and 18.5 × 104 hills hm-2 were formed with the row spacing at 30 cm and the plant spacing of 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 cm, respectively. The effects of machine transplanting density on yield and grain starch synthesis in above three rice cultivars were studied, and the regulation mechanism of halving normal nitrogen (N) rate of panicle nitrogen fertilizer on the starch synthesis was also observed. The results were as follows: (1) The grain yield of the three GTRC were highest at the transplanting density of 27.8 × 104 hills hm-2. The amylose content at mature stage of the three GTRC decreased first and then increased with the increase in machine transplanting density, while the amylopectin content continued to decrease. When the machine transplanting density was controlled at 27.5 × 104-29.9 × 104hills hm-2, it was beneficial to improve the taste value of the above-mentioned GTRC. (2) With the increase in machine transplanting density, the activities of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) were increased in the early and middle stages of grain filling (8-20 days after heading), and were decreased rapidly at later grain filling stage. Machine transplanting density had no significant effect on starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity. Among them, the activities of GBSS and AGP in grains at 12-16 days after heading were significantly and positively correlated with the contents of amylose and total starch. (3) Compared with normal N rate of panicle nitrogen fertilizer, half normal N rate could significantly decrease the activities of GBSS and AGP in grains during the early and middle stages of grain filling, reduce the amylose content of rice, and further improve the taste value of GTRC. These results indicated that machine transplanting density could regulate the amylose content due to the activities variations of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis (GBSS and AGP) in the grains during the early and middle stages of grain filling, thus resulting in the difference of rice taste value. Reasonable machine transplanting density and panicle nitrogen fertilizer rate are helpful to further improve the eating quality of GTRC.

      Effects of plastic film mulching on leaf metabolic profiles of maize in the Loess Plateau with two planting densities
      NIU Li, BAI Wen-Bo, LI Xia, DUAN Feng-Ying, HOU Peng, ZHAO Ru-Lang, WANG Yong-Hong, ZHAO Ming, LI Shao-Kun, SONG Ji-Qing, ZHOU Wen-Bin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1551-1562.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03053
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      In the Loess Plateau, the study of leaf metabolomics under plastic mulching is an important step to explore the mechanism of plastic film mulching to increase grain yield in maize. Metabolomics analysis was performed on the leaves of two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335) under two planting densities (7.5×104 and 10.5×104 plant hm-2) and two mulching modes (plastic film mulching and no mulching ) at silking stage using gas chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF) technology. In term of the number of differential metabolites, the response of Xianyu 335 to plastic film mulching was greater than that of Zhengdan 958. The higher planting density reduced the difference in leaf metabolism between plastic film mulching and no mulching. The principal component analysis revealed that both the mulching treatment and the cultivar had significant impacts on the composition of the metabolites. The separation of metabolic spectrum along plastic film mulching was mainly driven by organic acids such as citric acid and amino acids; the separation along cultivar was mainly driven by alkanoic acids and phenols. Correlation analysis indicated that resveratrol, phytol and glucose-6-phosphate had significant positive correlations with maize grain yield, whereas glycerol had a significant negative correlation with it. Under plastic film mulching condition, the levels of valine, isoleucine and methionine related to respiration and elimination of photorespiration products; isocitrate related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, methionine, N-acetylaspartic acid and other metabolites that could reduce photoinhibition showed an overall increasing trend. These results indicated that, under plastic film mulching condition, the antioxidant and energy metabolism-related metabolites played important roles in increasing grain yield. The elimination of photorespiration products and the accumulation of metabolites to alleviate photoinhibition were the metabolic bases for the increase of net photosynthetic rate in maize leaves.

      Application of continuous wavelet analysis to laboratory reflectance spectra for the prediction of grain amylose content in rice
      ZHANG Xiao, YAN Yan, WANG Wen-Hui, ZHENG Heng-Biao, YAO Xia, ZHU Yan, CHENG Tao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1563-1580.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02063
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      Grain amylose content (GAC) is a critical factor affecting the cooking and eating quality of rice. Remote sensing technology can be used to obtain amylose content timely and accurately, which are useful for the establishment and implementation of corresponding cultivation to improve the quality of rice taste. As an effective method for spectral feature extraction, continuous wavelet analysis (CWA) has been widely used to estimate crop physiological and biochemical parameters. However, none of previous studies have used CWA for crop quality estimation and investigated the application of CWA to dried grain powder reflectance spectra acquired in the laboratory for absorption feature extraction. The method was conducted in four steps as below: continuous wavelet transforms, extraction of sensitive wavelet features, analysis of common features, and construction of predictive models. Finally, we estimated GAC on grain scale and compared the performance of different spectral features. The results were as follows: (1) The performance of sensitive wavelet features was better vegetation indices and the independent validation confirmed this superiority; (2) The GAC could be estimated from WF2037,6 with a high R2= 0.59 and the accuracy assessed with validation data from an independent year was RMSE = 1.51%, Bias = 0.44%, RRMSE = 23.50%. The results derived from dried grain powder could be applied to dried panicles (R2= 0.62, RMSE = 1.49%, Bias = -0.17%, RRMSE = 25.76%). This study determined the optimal amylose-sensitive wavelet feature WF2037,6. It can provide new insight into GAC estimation with hyperspectral remote sensing and this method would advance the understanding of rice quality estimation from reflectance spectra at grain and canopy levels.

      Response of rhizosphere bacterial community diversity to salt stress in peanut
      DAI Liang-Xiang, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, SHI Xiao-Long, QIN Fei-Fei, DING Hong, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1581-1592.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04160
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      To characterize the peanut rhizosphere bacteria community in response to salt stress, a pot experiment was performed with different salt concentrations. The peanut rhizosphere soils at flowering and mature stages were sampled to extract DNA for constructing bacterial 16S rRNA gene library, and then high-throughput sequencing was performed for sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla, and the orders Saccharimonadales, Betaproteobacteria, Sphingomonadales, Gemmatimonadales, and Rhizobiales were dominated in the peanut rhizosphere soils. Comparisons of the bacterial community structure of peanuts revealed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria dramatically increased, while that of Actinobacteria decreased in salt-treated soils, and the fluctuation increased with the increase of the salt concentration. Moreover, applying calcium fertilizer under salt stress increased the abundance of Betaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Sphingomonadales, which were affected by salt stress, growth stages, and exogenous calcium application. Cluster analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria of soil groups with high salt concentration were similar and clustered together, while the soil samples of the same growth period were similar and clustered together according to the bacterial structure at the genus level under non-salt stress conditions. Bacterial community structure differed in the growth stages and soil salt concentrations, whereas the differences of soil groups with or without calcium application were relatively small. Function prediction analysis indicated that the sequences related to secondary metabolites, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and amino acid and lipid metabolism were enriched in high salt-treated soils. The functional groups increased significantly during the fast-growth period, low salt stress, and basal calcium fertilizer treatments, which may play an important role on the growth and stress response in peanut. This study of microbial communities could lay the foundation for future improvement of stress tolerance of peanuts via modification of the soil microbes.

      Comparison of tolerances to nitrogen fertilizer between compact and loose hybrid indica rice varieties
      YANG Zhi-Yuan, SHU Chuan-Hai, ZHANG Rong-Ping, YANG Guo-Tao, WANG Ming-Tian, QIN Jian, SUN Yong-Jian, MA Jun, LI Na
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1593-1602.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02036
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      To explore the tolerances of compact hybrid rice (CHR) and loose hybrid rice (LHR) varieties to nitrogen fertilizer, three split-plot designed experiments were applied with main plot of four rice varieties (Longliangyou 1206, CHR; Y Liangyou 1, CHR; Yixiangyou 2115, LHR; and Fyou 498, LHR), and the sub-plot contained four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, N0; 90 kg hm-2, N90; 150 kg hm-2, N150; and 210 kg hm-2, N210). The results revealed that CHR was more tolerant to high nitrogen than LHR, and when the applied nitrogen was not higher than 150 kg hm-2, the yields of LHR were higher than those of CHR. When the applied nitrogen reached 210 kg hm-2, the single panicle weight advantage of CHR increased to 14.46%, while the effective panicle disadvantage decreased to 12.46%, then the yield of CHR was 1.43% higher than that of LHR. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that peak seedlings, growth rate from elongation to heading stage, leaf area index (LAI) and extinction coefficient (K-value) which characterized the degree of leaf stretching were positive contributions to CHR and LHR. The effective panicle rate at elongation and heading stages contributed negatively to the yield, but had the opposite effect on the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Except K-value, the other indicators contributed similarly to yield, as did the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Under N0 and N90, LAI and K-values of CHR were smaller than LHR, and the radiation interception rate was also lower than LHR. When nitrogen applied increased from 150 kg hm-2 to 210 kg hm-2, the K-value of CHR increased significantly, while LHR almost unchanged, resulting in the higher radiation interception rate at heading stage of CHR than LHR, indicating that the leaf stretching of CHR was sensitive to high nitrogen.

      Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on grain yield and nitrogen uptake in maize
      ZHANG Xue-Lin, LI Xiao-Li, HE Tang-Qing, ZHANG Chen-Xi, TIAN Ming-Hui, WU Mei, ZHOU Ya-Nan, HAO Xiao-Feng, YANG Qing-Hua
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1603-1615.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03050
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      Clarifying the role of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) in yield of maize grain and associated nitrogen (N) uptake can inform the application of organic fertilizer in farmland, thus, improving nutrient use efficiency, enhancing crop resistance to biotic or abiotic stress, and increasing overall crop yield. A 3-factor experiment was designed and carried out during the maize growing season in 2016 and 2017. The factors were as follows: (1) N fertilizer addition (180 kg hm-2 [N180] and 360 kg hm-2 [N360]), (2) wheat straw addition (without straw: S0 and with straw: S1), and (3) three mycorrhizal treatments, including a control (M0, roots and AMF could not enter the hyphal chamber from the growth chamber), an AMF treatment (M1, only AMF can enter the hyphal chamber from the growth chamber), and a root treatment (M2, both roots and AMF can enter the hyphal chamber from the growth chamber). Maize grain yield, plant biomass, N uptake, and root variables were measured. All three factors had a significant effect on maize yield and N uptake. N360 treatment of N fertilizer significantly increased maize yield and their N accumulation compared with N180 treatment. In the case of straw treatment, the grain yield reduced by 6% than that of the treatment without straw, whereas soil inorganic N increased by 129%. For the N180 treatment, mean maize yield of M1 and M2 treatments were 38% and 82% higher than M0, respectively; for the N360 treatment, these were 16% and 48%, respectively. The contribution of AMF to grain yield was higher for N180 than for N360. The AMF treatment increased maize ear length, grain number per row, and total root length independent of straw addition, but the ability of AMF to improve root biomass and N uptake was significantly higher with straw addition than without straw. M1 and M2 treatments significantly increased grain number per row, grain number per spike, plant biomass, N accumulation, and total root length relative to the M0, whereas inorganic soil N declined significantly. The contribution of AMF to maize yield was higher than M0 under conditions of both N180 and straw addition. Correlation analysis and structural equation revealed that N application and AMF significantly increased maize yield. The results showed that AMF could improve maize root properties, enhance N absorption capacity, improve ear traits, and increase maize grain yield under different N application rates and straw conditions.

      Effects of boron deficiency/toxicity on the growth and proline metabolism of cotton seedlings
      ZENG Zi-Jun, ZENG Yu, YAN Lei, CHENG Jin, JIANG Cun-Cang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1616-1623.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04206
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      To investigate the response of cotton seedlings growth and proline metabolism to low- and excess-boron stress treatment conditions, the experiment was conducted using ‘E kang 10’ as experimental material using hydroponic method in a greenhouse of Huazhong Agricultural University. Boron (B) were applied at four levels at 0 mg L-1 (B0, no boron), 0.002 mg L-1 (B0.002, low concentration boron), 0.20 mg L-1 (B0.2, CK, sufficient concentration boron), and 50 mg L-1(B50, high concentration boron). The results showed that B0, B0.002, and B50 treatments significantly decreased the fresh and dry weights of plants, and inhibited root elongation relative to sufficient boron (CK, B0.2) treatment. With the increase of B concentration, B content in roots, stems, and leaves of cotton seedlings increased gradiently. Among them, B contents in the leaves under B0.2 and B50 treatments were higher than those in roots and stems, while B content in the roots was increased in leaves and stems under B0 and B0.002 treatments. Under low- and high-boron stress treatments, the content of proline in leaves increased dramatically, while proline in roots decreased. Further analysis of related enzyme activities in proline metabolism, we found that B0.002 and B50 treatments promoted the activities of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) in leaves, but decreased the activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) compared to CK; and the activity of Δ1-pyrroline-5- carboxylate reductase (P5CR) in leaves under B50 treatment was obviously increased, but there was no significant difference under B0.002 treatment. In addition, compared with CK, B50 treatment reduced the enzyme activities of OAT and P5CR in roots, while B0.002 treatment prominently increased the activities of P5CS and ProDH. The results showed that both low- and excess-boron stress inhibited the growth of cotton seedlings. Under boron stress, proline mainly was accumulated in the leaves of cotton seedlings, and the content of proline in roots decreased significantly. In the case of boron deficiency and boron toxicity, the accumulation of proline in leaves was mainly through regulating the activities of key enzymes (OAT, P5CS synthetase, and ProDH degrading enzyme) in proline Glu and Orn pathways, resulting in the proline synthesis rate higher than its degradation rate. However, in roots, the proline content was decreased mainly by promoting the degradation of proline under boron deficiency stress. Under high boron stress, proline synthesis and decomposition were inhibited mainly by reducing the activities of OAT, P5CS synthetase and ProDH decomposing enzyme, but the inhibitory effect on proline synthesis was much greater than its degradation, which eventually led to the decrease of proline content in roots.

      Analysis on the accumulation characteristics of seven flavonoids at grain development stage in barley
      HE Jun-Yu, ZHONG Wei, CHEN Yun-Qiong, WANG Wei-Bin, XIONG Jing-Lei, JIANG Ya-Li, SHI Hui-Meng, CHEN Sheng-Wei
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2021, 47(8):  1624-1630.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01069
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      The analysis on the accumulation characteristics of flavonoids in barley grain is helpful for the studies, such as the content detection, accumulation mechanism and physiological function of these compounds. In this study, the contents of 15 flavonoids of eight barley material grains during seven development stages were determined by HPLC. The total contents of 15 compounds were exhibited the trend of up-down variation, reaching the highest value (335.71±41.63) μg g-1 on the 10th day after anthesis, and the lowest (165.52±38.63) μg g-1 in mature grain. The highest contents of troxerutin, apigenin, formononetin, and chrysin were (155.75±30.76) μg g-1, (8.41±1.54) μg g-1, (10.71±1.53) μg g-1, and (4.41±0.60) μg g-1 on the 10th day after anthesis, respectively. The highest contents of naringenin chalcone, dihydroquercetin, and luteolin were (42.41±15.39) μg g-1, (17.92±6.60) μg g-1, and (5.19±1.37) μg g-1 on the 5th, 15th, and 25th day after anthesis, respectively. The content of naringenin chalcone was changed with down-platform-down trend during development of barley grain, but the contents of troxerutin and chrysin were changed with up-down-platform-down trend, and the contents of dihydroquercetin, luteolin, apigenin and formononetin were changed with up-down trend. In terms of flavonoids content detection, the appropriate sampling time of for troxerutin, apigenin, formononetin and chrysin in barley grains was 10 days after post-anthesis stage, and the appropriate time of naringenin chalcone, dihydroquercetin, and luteolin was 5, 15, and 25 days after post-anthesis stage. These results can provide the theoretical support for the content detection of flavonoids in barley grains.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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