The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium and nitrogen fertilizer on dry matter, nitrogen accumulation and distribution, and yield in peanut. A field experiment was conducted using Huayu 25 with two calcium (Ca) rates (0 and 600 kg hm-2), and five nitrogen (N) rates (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg hm-2) in Jiyang (JY) and Yinmaquan (YMQ) in 2019. The results showed that compared with Ca0, the dry matter accumulation of peanuts under Ca600 treatment was significantly increased by 13.5% in the Jiyang, by 12.6% in Yinmaquant. Compared with N0, nitrogen fertilizer significantly promoted the accumulation of dry matter in peanut, and the N75, N150, N225, N300 treatments increased dry matter accumulation by 12.8%, 17.7%, 26.3%, 21.0% in Jiyang and 16.7%, 28.4%, 24.9%, 22.9% in Yinmaquan, respectively. The dynamic curve of peanut dry matter and nitrogen absorption accumulation conformed to the Logistic model, and the maximal nitrogen accumulation (Ym) was obtained under Ca600N225treatment in Jiyang and Ca600N150 treatment Yinmaquan. Compared to the average, the maximal speed of accumulation (Vm), the maximal biomass, duration of rapid accumulation (T), were increased at two plots by 12.4% and 10.6%, 14.9% and 13.7%, 2.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The starting date of rapid accumulation period (t1) was 7.5 days and 9.4 days earlier for nitrogen than for dry matter, indicated that the nutrient absorption of peanut was the premise of dry matter accumulation. The pod yield of peanut of Ca600N225 in Jiyang and Ca600N150 and Ca600N225 in Yinmaquan was higher than other treatments. Effects of interaction between calcium rates and nitrogen rates had a significant impact on peanut yield. Increasing calcium fertilizer application was an important way to improve nitrogen use efficiency, which increased pod number and 100-pod weight and promoted stably high yield in peanut. In this study, calcium fertilizer (600 kg hm-2) and nitrogen fertilizer (75 kg hm-2) were applied as the optimal fertilization scheme in the cultivation of less-fertilizer, stable-yield, and improved-efficiency treatment, while calcium fertilizer (600 kg hm-2) and nitrogen fertilizer (150-225 kg hm-2) as high-yield and high-efficiency treatment.