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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (8): 1624-1630.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01069

• RESEARCH NOTES • Previous Articles    

Analysis on the accumulation characteristics of seven flavonoids at grain development stage in barley

HE Jun-Yu(), ZHONG Wei, CHEN Yun-Qiong, WANG Wei-Bin, XIONG Jing-Lei, JIANG Ya-Li, SHI Hui-Meng, CHEN Sheng-Wei*()   

  1. Collage of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China
  • Received:2020-08-28 Accepted:2021-01-14 Online:2021-08-12 Published:2021-02-19
  • Contact: CHEN Sheng-Wei E-mail:etfiee_coisini@126.com;ynkmcsw@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(32060457)


The analysis on the accumulation characteristics of flavonoids in barley grain is helpful for the studies, such as the content detection, accumulation mechanism and physiological function of these compounds. In this study, the contents of 15 flavonoids of eight barley material grains during seven development stages were determined by HPLC. The total contents of 15 compounds were exhibited the trend of up-down variation, reaching the highest value (335.71±41.63) μg g-1 on the 10th day after anthesis, and the lowest (165.52±38.63) μg g-1 in mature grain. The highest contents of troxerutin, apigenin, formononetin, and chrysin were (155.75±30.76) μg g-1, (8.41±1.54) μg g-1, (10.71±1.53) μg g-1, and (4.41±0.60) μg g-1 on the 10th day after anthesis, respectively. The highest contents of naringenin chalcone, dihydroquercetin, and luteolin were (42.41±15.39) μg g-1, (17.92±6.60) μg g-1, and (5.19±1.37) μg g-1 on the 5th, 15th, and 25th day after anthesis, respectively. The content of naringenin chalcone was changed with down-platform-down trend during development of barley grain, but the contents of troxerutin and chrysin were changed with up-down-platform-down trend, and the contents of dihydroquercetin, luteolin, apigenin and formononetin were changed with up-down trend. In terms of flavonoids content detection, the appropriate sampling time of for troxerutin, apigenin, formononetin and chrysin in barley grains was 10 days after post-anthesis stage, and the appropriate time of naringenin chalcone, dihydroquercetin, and luteolin was 5, 15, and 25 days after post-anthesis stage. These results can provide the theoretical support for the content detection of flavonoids in barley grains.

Key words: barley grain, development stage, flavonoids, accumulation characteristics

Table 1

Experimental materials and their basic characteristics"

Code of materials
Coat color of grains
Material type
Yel1 Bowman 黄色籽粒Yellow grain coat 育成品种Improved variety
Yel2 Morex 黄色籽粒Yellow grain coat 育成品种Improved variety
Yel3 光头大麦Guangtoudamai 黄色籽粒Yellow grain coat 地方品种Landrace
Pur1 淳安六棱胭脂大麦Chunanliulengyanzhidamai 紫色籽粒Purple grain coat 地方品种Landrace
Pur2 紫青稞Purple highland barley 紫色籽粒Purple grain coat 育成品种Improved variety
Pur3 定海红绿黄Dinghaihonglyuhuang 紫色籽粒Purple grain coat 地方品种Landrace
Bla 云南高世代Yunnan gaoshidai 黑色籽粒Black grain coat 育成品系Developed line
Blu 北青7号Beiqing 7 蓝色籽粒Blue grain coat 育成品系Improved variety

Fig. 1

Total content curve of 15 compounds during seven development stages in barley grain. T1-T7: on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th day after anthesis, and at mature stage, respectively."

Table 2

Average contents and the differences of specific compounds at different developmental stages"

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
bc ABC
a A
ab AB
cd B
cd BC
cd BC
d C
cd BC
a A
ab AB
abc ABC
abcd ABC
bcd ABC
d C
b B
b AB
b AB
a A
a A
ab AB
ab AB
Naringenin chalcone
a A
b AB
b AB
b AB
b B
b B
ab A
a A
abc AB
ab AB
bcd AB
cd B
c B
ab AB
a A
a A
ab ABC
bc BC
c C
cd BC
a A
b B
c BC
bc B
c BC
d C

Fig. 2

Measured curves of seven compounds content during grain development A-G: naringenin chalcone, troxerutin, dihydroquercetin, luteolin, apigenin, formononetin, and chrysin. T1-T7: on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th day after anthesis and at mature stage, respectively."

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