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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (8): 1593-1602.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02036


Comparison of tolerances to nitrogen fertilizer between compact and loose hybrid indica rice varieties

YANG Zhi-Yuan1(), SHU Chuan-Hai1, ZHANG Rong-Ping2, YANG Guo-Tao2, WANG Ming-Tian3, QIN Jian4, SUN Yong-Jian1, MA Jun1, LI Na1,*()   

  1. 1Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University/Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China
    2School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 611000, Sichuan, China
    3Sichuan Provincial Meteorological Service, Chengdu 610072, Sichuan, China
    4Institute of Rice and Sorghum, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Deyang 618000, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2020-05-23 Accepted:2021-01-11 Online:2021-08-12 Published:2021-02-23
  • Contact: LI Na E-mail:dreamislasting@163.com;lina1409bs@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0301706);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0301701);Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department(18ZA0390)


To explore the tolerances of compact hybrid rice (CHR) and loose hybrid rice (LHR) varieties to nitrogen fertilizer, three split-plot designed experiments were applied with main plot of four rice varieties (Longliangyou 1206, CHR; Y Liangyou 1, CHR; Yixiangyou 2115, LHR; and Fyou 498, LHR), and the sub-plot contained four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, N0; 90 kg hm-2, N90; 150 kg hm-2, N150; and 210 kg hm-2, N210). The results revealed that CHR was more tolerant to high nitrogen than LHR, and when the applied nitrogen was not higher than 150 kg hm-2, the yields of LHR were higher than those of CHR. When the applied nitrogen reached 210 kg hm-2, the single panicle weight advantage of CHR increased to 14.46%, while the effective panicle disadvantage decreased to 12.46%, then the yield of CHR was 1.43% higher than that of LHR. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that peak seedlings, growth rate from elongation to heading stage, leaf area index (LAI) and extinction coefficient (K-value) which characterized the degree of leaf stretching were positive contributions to CHR and LHR. The effective panicle rate at elongation and heading stages contributed negatively to the yield, but had the opposite effect on the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Except K-value, the other indicators contributed similarly to yield, as did the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Under N0 and N90, LAI and K-values of CHR were smaller than LHR, and the radiation interception rate was also lower than LHR. When nitrogen applied increased from 150 kg hm-2 to 210 kg hm-2, the K-value of CHR increased significantly, while LHR almost unchanged, resulting in the higher radiation interception rate at heading stage of CHR than LHR, indicating that the leaf stretching of CHR was sensitive to high nitrogen.

Key words: rice, compact hybrid rice, loose hybrid rice, nitrogen application rate, nitrogen tolerance

Table 1

Meteorological conditions of two experimental locations during whole growth stages in rice"

全生育期降雨量 全生育期日照时数
Total sunshine hours of WGS (h)
Average diurnal temperature of WGS (℃)
Total rainfall of WGS (mm)
绵阳 Mianyang 2016 426.0 757.3 23.88
成都 Chengdu 2017 538.8 630.3 22.32
成都 Chengdu 2018 571.4 648.2 22.51

Table 2

Average values of selected soil characteristics from composite topsoil samples in the experimental locations from 2016 to 2018"

Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total N
(g kg-1)
Available N
(mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
绵阳 Mianyang 2016 22.38 1.89 98.45 21.89 101.22
成都 Chengdu 2017 24.55 2.11 118.04 28.91 109.23
成都 Chengdu 2018 21.72 2.01 102.45 24.04 98.67

Table 3

Main characteristic parameters of yield and plant type in experimental varieties"

穗数Panicle m-2
重量Panicle weight (g)
Grain yield
(g m-2)
(kg kg-1)
Leaf opening angel
Leaf basal angel
Leaf drooping degree
剑叶Flag leaf 倒二叶2nd leaf from top 倒三叶3rd leaf from top 剑叶
Flag leaf
倒二叶2nd leaf from top 倒三叶3rd leaf from top 剑叶
Flag leaf
倒二叶2nd leaf from top 倒三叶3rd leaf from top
CHR LLY 191.38 b 5.05 b 968 b 19.85 b 13.17 d 17.08 b 19.13 b 11.10 c 14.22 b 17.84 b 2.07 b 2.86 b 1.29 b
YLY 167.32 c 6.44 a 1078 a 24.98 a 14.09 c 17.95 b 19.73 b 11.80 bc 14.96 b 18.87 b 2.29 b 2.99 b 1.36 b
LHR YXY 203.70 a 4.78 b 974 b 20.30 b 18.34 b 24.04 a 27.09 a 13.14 b 18.09 a 23.21 a 5.20 a 5.95 a 3.88 a
FY 186.02 b 6.16 a 1146 a 25.88 a 20.77 a 25.64 a 27.68 a 15.12 a 18.41 a 23.62 a 5.65 a 7.23 a 4.06 a

Table 4

Analysis of variance of grain yield, panicles, panicle weight, NAE, LAI, and K-value at full heading stage"

Grain yield
有效穗数Panicles 单穗重量Panicle weight 氮肥农学利用率
LAI at full heading stage
K-value at full heading stage
品种(V) 8.86* 318.66*** 305.36*** 4.11 ns 580.71*** 20.65**
施氮量(N) 748.17*** 1363.77*** 108.12*** 12.86*** 219.77*** 19.10***
年份(Y) 30.07** 45.63*** 8.55* 2.73 ns 95.67*** 1.33 ns
V × N 5.05** 23.72*** 14.65*** 1.72 ns 3.29* 8.22***
V × Y 0.62 ns 0.06 ns 2.84 ns 0.05 ns 1.81 ns 0.12 ns
N × Y 0.82 ns 0.70 ns 0.27 ns 0.29 ns 0.40 ns 0.92 ns
V × N × Y 0.07 ns 0.29 ns 0.17 ns 0.03 ns 0.18 ns 0.84 ns

Table 5

Effects of nitrogen rates on grain yield and yield components in two rice variety types"

Variety type
N treatment
2016 2017 2018
Panicle (×104 hm-2)
Panicle weight
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
Panicle (×104 hm-2)
Panicle weight
Grain yield (kg hm-2)
Panicle (×104 hm-2)
Panicle weight (g)
Grain yield (kg hm-2)
Compact hybrid rice (CHR)
N0 127.6 d 5.23 c 6677 d 126.28 d 5.26 d 6651 d 122.14 d 5.11 c 6242 d
N90 149.03 c 6.03 a 8988 c 142.73 c 6.23 a 8831 c 142.83 c 5.93 a 8471 c
N150 174.27 b 5.85 ab 10,189 b 170.14 b 5.97 b 10,251 b 170.00 b 5.77 a 9801 b
N210 203.83 a 5.65 b 11,520 a 204.02 a 5.68 c 11,340 a 199.03 a 5.40 b 10,757 a
平均值Average 163.68 5.69 9343 160.79 5.79 9268 158.50 5.55 8818
Loose hybrid rice (LHR)
N0 144.44 d 5.11 b 7378 c 139.51 d 5.00 bc 7016 d 137.19 d 5.00 bc 6857 c
N90 165.1 c 5.82 a 9593 b 159.1 c 5.80 a 9159 c 160.29 c 5.67 a 9084 b
N150 212.31 b 5.19 b 11,017 a 208.38 b 5.21 b 10,570 b 203.31 b 5.12 b 10,401 a
N210 227.55 a 4.94 b 11,239 a 231.06 a 4.89 c 11,176 a 223.89 a 4.79 c 10,721 a
平均值Average 187.35 5.26 9807 184.51 5.22 9480 181.17 5.14 9266
V 728.70** 42.03** 22.64* 3342.60** 587.96** 58.58* 150.02** 38.71** 5.23 ns
N 393.50** 30.33** 163.76** 757.14** 53.67** 304.18** 393.38** 46.81** 250.32**
V×N 7.99** 6.22** 2.87 ns 16.83** 5.72* 1.29 ns 5.04* 6.66** 1.90 ns

Fig. 1

Tillering characteristics of two rice types with different nitrogen rates The left side of the two adjacent bars represents the jointing stage, and the right side represents the heading stage. CHR: compact hybrid rice; LHR: loose hybrid rice."

Fig. 2

Growth rate of two rice types with different nitrogen rates from jointing stage to heading stage CHR: compact hybrid rice; LHR: loose hybrid rice. ns P ≥ 0.05; ** P < 0.01; * P < 0.05."

Table 6

Effects of nitrogen rates on LAI, RIR, and K-value of the whole plant in two rice types"

品种类型Variety type 施氮处理
N treatment
2016 2017 2018
叶面积指数LAI 光能截获率RIR 消光系数
叶面积指数LAI 光能截获率RIR 消光系数
叶面积指数LAI 光能截获率RIR 消光系数
Compact hybrid rice (CHR)
N0 6.04 c 78.34 d 0.25 c 5.60 d 77.26 c 0.27 b 5.61 c 77.00 c 0.26 a
N90 6.90 b 84.05 c 0.27 c 6.36 c 82.14 c 0.27 b 6.40 b 82.98 b 0.28 a
N150 7.57 a 92.04 b 0.34 b 6.83 b 88.95 b 0.33 b 7.15 a 91.39 a 0.35 a
N210 8.05 a 95.97 a 0.40 a 7.48 a 96.23 a 0.45 a 7.58 a 93.10 a 0.35 a
平均Average 7.14 87.60 0.32 6.57 86.15 0.33 6.68 86.12 0.31
Loose hybrid rice (LHR)
N0 6.87 d 83.87 c 0.27 a 6.04 d 80.95 b 0.28 a 6.34 d 81.98 c 0.27 b
N90 7.72 c 87.55 b 0.27 a 7.21 c 87.30 a 0.29 a 7.28 c 87.18 b 0.29 b
N150 8.71 b 90.76 b 0.27 a 7.78 b 89.04 a 0.30 a 8.12 b 89.35 ab 0.28 a
N210 9.34 a 94.55 a 0.32 a 8.61 a 92.26 a 0.30 a 8.81 a 92.17 a 0.29 a
平均Average 8.16 89.18 0.28 7.41 87.38 0.29 7.64 87.67 0.28
F value
V 160.52** 25.69** 4.26 ns 747.58** 1.87 ns 14.27 ns 146.40** 1.88 ns 6.17 ns
N 71.83** 57.50** 12.69** 80.81** 19.71** 4.62* 69.36** 75.30** 8.67**
V×N 1.02 ns 4.52* 2.93 ns 1.96 ns 1.98 ns 2.98 ns 0.82 ns 6.92** 6.16**

Fig. 3

Agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer of two rice variety types The three adjacent bars superscripted by lowercase different letters represent significantly different at P < 0.05 among N treatments. CHR: compact hybrid rice; LHR: loose hybrid rice."

Table 7

Linear regression equations of LAI and K-value on radiation interception rate at heading stage"

Variety type
Standard regression coefficient
紧凑型杂交稻 叶面积指数 LAI 0.553** 0.960**
Compact hybrid rice 消光系数 K 0.503**
松散型杂交稻 叶面积指数 LAI 0.736** 0.960**
Loose hybrid rice 消光系数 K 0.521**

Table 8

Contribution of morphology-related indicators to yield and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer"

Variety type
产量 Grain yield 氮肥农学利用率 AEN
Standard partial regression coefficient
Standard partial regression coefficient
Compact hybrid rice
高峰苗 Peak tiller number 0.1796 0.8325** 0.1188 0.3639**
成穗率 Ear-bearing tiller percentage -0.1776 0.1174
Growth rate from jointing to heading
0.1661 -0.1098
Ear-bearing tiller percentage at heading
-0.1724 0.114
叶面积指数 LAI 0.1498 -0.099
消光系数 K 0.1501 -0.0992
Loose hybrid rice
高峰苗 Peak tiller number 0.1806 0.6351** -0.1454 0.4117**
成穗率 Ear-bearing tiller percentage -0.1622 0.1306
Growth rate from jointing to heading
0.1605 -0.1292
Ear-bearing tiller percentage at heading
-0.1758 0.1416
叶面积指数 LAI 0.1631 -0.1313
消光系数 K 0.0574 -0.0462
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