Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (11): 2250-2257.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02078


Adaption of rice-wheat cropping system to climate warming in Jianghuai area

CHEN Chang-Qing1(), LI Wei-Wei1, ZHU Xiang-Cheng2, LIU Jing1, LI Gang-Hua1, XU Ke3, JIANG Yu1, DING Yan-Feng1,*()   

  1. 1Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
    2College of life Science and Resources and Environment, Yichun University, Yichun 336000, Jiangxi, China
    3Innovation Center of Rice Cultivation Technology in the Yangtze Valley, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2020-11-17 Accepted:2021-04-26 Online:2021-11-12 Published:2021-05-17
  • Contact: DING Yan-Feng E-mail:cn828@njau.edu.cn;dingyf@njau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0300100);Provincial-level Modern Agricultural Development Program in Jiangsu(2019-SJ-039-07)


As the climate warming is increasing, the global average surface temperature has risen by nearly 1°C in the past 100 years. Rice-wheat cropping system is the mainstream cropping system in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, but its adaptation to climate warming is still unclear. We analyzed the characteristics of temperature rise and crop phenological changes in the rice-wheat double cropping area of Jiangsu using the historical data from 34 meteorological stations and 45 phenological stations over the years. The results revealed that the range of temperature increase in Jianghuai area was higher in the south than in the north, higher in wheat season and lower in rice ripe season, and the highest in March. In the rice season, the sowing date in Jiangnan was delayed by 3.4 d 10a-1, the heading date in Huainan was advanced by 2 d 10a-1, and the harvest date in Huaibei was delayed by 6.2 d 10a-1. In the wheat season, the sowing date in Jiangnan was delayed by 6.4 d 10a-1, and the heading and harvest time tended to be earlier in the whole region. The rice-wheat stubble stage was shortened by 4.6 d 10a-1 in Huaibei and 6.9 d 10a-1 in Jiangnan. The average temperature of rice and wheat during growth period had no significant change, but the effective accumulated temperature post anthesis was increasing. There was no significant change of the production efficiency of accumulated temperature in rice season, while the production efficiency of accumulated temperature in wheat season increased by 0.008-0.346 kg hm-2°C-1 10a-1. Warming decreased wheat yields in the north of Yangtze River and Huainan area, but increased wheat yield in Huaibei area. In summary, these results indicated that the rice-wheat cropping system in Jianghuai was gradually adapting to the climate warming, and the negative effects of climate warming on crop yield could be alleviated by reasonably changing sowing date. Our findings can provide reference for climate change adaptation cultivation and cultivation technology innovation.

Key words: rice-wheat rotation system, temperature rise characteristic, phenological change, production efficiency of accumulated temperature

Table 1

Regional and climatic characteristics of Jianghuai area from 1980 to 2018"

Prefectural-level city
Sunshine duration
阜阳, 亳州, 淮北, 蚌埠, 徐州, 宿迁, 淮阴, 连云港, 盐城
Fuyang, Bozhou, Huaibei, Bengbu, Xuzhou, Suqian, Huaiyin, Lianyungang, Yancheng
89,560 14.9 915 2117
六安, 合肥, 淮南, 滁州, 扬州, 泰州, 南通
Lu’an, Hefei, Huainan, Chuzhou, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Nantong
72,210 15.7 1097 1935
南京, 镇江, 常州, 无锡, 苏州
Nanjing, Zhenjiang, Changzhou, Wuxi, Suzhou
27,540 16.4 1165 1898
Whole region
189,310 15.4 1021 2016

Fig. 1

Spatial distribution of meteorological stations (A) and phenological stations (B) in Jianghuai area The above maps are from the National Geographic Information Resource Directory Service System (https://www.webmap.cn/)."

Fig. 2

Monthly temperature and its variation in Jianghuai area"

Table 2

Warming trend of wheat season and rice season in Jianghuai area from 1980 to 2018 (°C 10a-1)"

Growing season
Average temperature
Maximum temperature
Minimum temperature
Rice growing season
淮北Huaibei 0.3283** 0.2704** 0.3950**
淮南Huainan 0.3678** 0.3936** 0.3713**
江南Jiangnan 0.5125** 0.4860** 0.5471**
全区Whole region 0.3700** 0.3446** 0.4104**
Wheat growing season
淮北Huaibei 0.4502** 0.3636** 0.5001**
淮南Huainan 0.4691** 0.5177** 0.4301**
江南Jiangnan 0.6108** 0.5540** 0.6580**
全区Whole region 0.4791** 0.4407** 0.4997**

Table 3

Phenological change trend of wheat and rice in Jianghuai area from 1990 to 2013 (d 10a-1)"

Sowing date
Heading stage
Harvest stage
Rice-wheat stubble
淮北Huaibei 1.462 1.649 6.234** 0.186 4.585** 4.771** -4.6**
淮南Huainan -1.101 -1.993* -2.417 -0.892 -0.423 -1.316 1.3
江南Jiangnan 3.416** -0.011 0.452 -3.427** 0.463 -2.964** 6.9**
全区Whole region 1.259 -0.119 1.423 -1.378 1.542* 0.164 0.1
淮北Huaibei 2.360 -1.423 0.215 -3.783 1.637 -2.146
淮南Huainan -0.327 -1.807 -1.304 -1.479 0.503 -0.977
江南Jiangnan 6.482** -1.270 -1.942 -7.753** -0.672 -8.425**
全区Whole region 1.697 -1.561 -0.609 -3.259 0.953 -2.306

Fig. 3

Accumulated temperature production efficiency of wheat and rice"

Table 5

Trend of yield change and Accumulated temperature production efficiency of wheat and rice from 1993 to 2009"

Yield trend
(kg hm-2 10a-1)
Accumulated temperature production efficiency trend
(kg hm-2 °C-1 10a-1)
淮北Huaibei 485.84** 126.31** 612.15** 0.544** 0.056 0.229**
淮南Huainan 445.12** 232.27** 677.40** 0.552** 0.138* 0.292**
江南Jiangnan 80.38** 193.71** 274.08** 0.365** 0.096 0.194**
全区Whole region 449.84** 188.30** 638.14** 0.536** 0.110 0.237**

Fig. 4

Effects of temperature on yield in rice and wheat A: maximum temperature; B: minimum temperature; C: average temperature."

Table 4

Variations of average temperature and accumulated temperature at each growth stage in wheat and rice from 1990 to 2013 (°C 10a-1)"

Average temperature trend
Accumulated temperature variation
淮北Huaibei 0.427 0.760 0.061 5.559 7.238 12.835
淮南Huainan 0.263 0.359 0.293 0.718 0.362 1.198
江南Jiangnan 0.949 0.483 0.765 0.532 3.442 4.163
全区Whole region 0.536 0.071 0.345 3.297 1.379 1.793
淮北Huaibei -0.096 0.122 0.067 -3.728 3.814 0.276
淮南Huainan -0.001 0.021 0.042 -0.865 1.118 0.281
江南Jiangnan 0.027 0.254 0.127 -5.736 -0.233 -5.946
全区Whole region -0.027 0.014 0.063 -2.335 2.077 -0.158
[1] IPCC. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group Ⅰ Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
[2] 中国气象局. 中国气候变化蓝皮书. 北京: 中国气象局, 2020.
China Meteorological Administration. China Blue Book on Climate Change. Beijing: China Meteorological Administration, 2020 (in Chinese).
[3] Zhao C, Liu B, Piao S L, Wang X H, Lobell D B, Huang Y, Huang M T, Yao Y T, Bassu S, Ciais P, Durand J L, Elliott J, Ewert F, Janssens I A, Li T, Lin E, Liu Q, Martre P, Müller C, Peng S S, Peñuelas J, Ruane A C, Wallach D, Wang T, Wu D H, Liu Z, Zhu Y, Zhu Z C, Asseng S. Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2017, 114: 9326-9331.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1701762114
[4] Liu L L, Wallach D, Li J, Liu B, Zhang L X, Tang L, Zhang Y, Qiu X L, Cao W X, Zhu Y. Uncertainty in wheat phenology simulation induced by cultivar parameterization under climate warming. Eur J Agron, 2018, 94: 46-53.
doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2017.12.001
[5] 张祖建, 张洪熙, 杨建昌, 宋云生, 赵步洪, 季红娟, 朱庆森. 江苏近50年粳稻安全齐穗期的变化. 作物学报, 2011, 37: 146-151.
Zhang Z J, Zhang H X, Yang J C, Song Y S, Zhao B H, Ji H J, Zhu Q S. Changes of safe dates for full heading in Japonica rice over past 50 years in Jiangsu province. Acta Agron Sin, 2011, 37: 146-151 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[6] 石全红, 刘建刚, 王兆华, 陶婷婷, 陈阜, 褚庆全. 南方稻区水稻产量差的变化及其气候影响因素. 作物学报, 2012, 38: 896-903.
Shi Q H, Liu J G, Wang Z H, Tao T T, Chen F, Chu Q Q. Change of rice yield gaps and influential climatic factors in southern China. Acta Agron Sin, 2012, 38: 896-903 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[7] Dawe D, Frolking S, Li C S. Trends in rice-wheat area in China. Field Crops Res, 2004, 87: 89-95.
doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2003.08.008
[8] 胡志全, 吴永常, 刘景辉, 褚庆全. 中国二熟耕作区粮食生产现状、潜力与对策. 中国生态农业学报, 2002, 10(3):109-111.
Hu Z Q, Wu C Y, Liu J H, Chu Q Q. Situation, potential and strategies of grain production in double cropping region of China. Chin J Eco-Agric, 2002, 10(3):109-111 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[9] 杜祥备, 孔令聪, 习敏, 吴文革, 陈金华, 岳伟. 江淮区域稻麦两熟制周年资源分配、利用特征. 中国生态农业学报, 2019, 27: 1078-1087.
Du X B, Kong L C, Xi M, Wu W G, Chen J H, Yue W. Characteristics of resource allocation and utilization of rice-wheat double cropping system in the Jianghuai area. Chin J Eco-Agric, 2019, 27: 1078-1087 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[10] 陈书涛, 王让会, 许遐祯, 项瑛, 陈海山. 气温及降水变化对江苏省典型农业区冬小麦、水稻生育期的影响. 中国农业气象, 2011, 32: 235-239.
Chen S T, Wang R H, Xu X Z, Xiang Y, Chen H S. Impacts of variations in air temperature and precipitation on the growth stages of winter wheat and rice in typical agricultural zones of Jiangsu province. Chin J Agrometeorol, 2011, 32: 235-239 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[11] 黄爱军, 陈长青, 类成霞, 张卫建, 卞新民. 江淮地区农业气候资源演变特征及作物生产应对措施. 南京农业大学学报, 2011, 34(5):7-12.
Huang A J, Chen C Q, Lei C X, Zhang W J, Bian X M. Change characteristics of agricultural climatic resources and adaptation measures for crop production in Jianghuai region. J Nanjing Agric Univ, 2011, 34(5):7-12 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[12] 耿婷, 付伟, 陈长青. 近20年来江苏省冬小麦生育进程和产量对气候变暖的响应. 麦类作物学报, 2012, 32: 1183-1191.
Geng T, Fu W, Chen C Q. Response of growth development process and yield of winter wheat to climate warming in Jiangsu province during last 20 years. J Triticeae Crops, 2012, 32: 1183-1191 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[13] 潘敖大, 曹颖, 陈海山, 孙善磊. 近25年气候变化对江苏省粮食产量的影响. 大气科学学报, 2013, 36: 217-228.
Pan A D, Cao Y, Chen H S, Sun S L. Impacts of climate change on food-crops production in Jiangsu province from 1986 to 2010. Trans Atmosph Sci, 2013, 36: 217-228 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[14] Cheng H, Ren W W, Ding L L, Liu Z F, Fang C M. Responses of a rice-wheat rotation agroecosystem to experimental warming. Ecol Res, 2013, 28: 959-967.
doi: 10.1007/s11284-013-1078-1
[15] Yang Z Y, Zhang Z L, Zhang T, Fahad S, Cui K H, Nie L X, Peng S B, Huang J L. The effect of season-long temperature increases on rice cultivars grown in the central and southern regions of China. Front Plant Sci, 2017, 8: 1908.
doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01908
[16] 王春春, 陈长青, 黄山, 邓艾兴, 张卫建, 卞新民. 东北气候和土壤资源演变特征研究. 南京农业大学学报, 2010, 33(2):19-24.
Wang C C, Chen C Q, Huang S, Deng A X, Zhang W J, Bian X M. Change characteristics of climatic and soil resources in Northeast China. J Nanjing Agric Univ, 2010, 33(2):19-24 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[17] Lobell D B, Schlenker W, Justin C R. Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science, 2011, 333: 616-620.
doi: 10.1126/science.1204531 pmid: 21551030
[18] 陈群, 耿婷, 侯雯嘉, 陈长青. 近 20 年东北气候变暖对春玉米生长发育及产量的影响. 中国农业科学, 2014, 47: 1904-1916.
Chen Q, Geng T, Hou J W, Chen C Q. Impacts of climate warming on growth and yield of spring maize in recent 20 years in northeast China. Sci Agric Sin, 2014, 47: 1904-1916 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[19] Chen C Q, van Groenigen K J, Yang H Y, Hungatee B A, Yang B, Tian Y L, Chen J, Dong W J, Huang S, Deng A X, Jiang L, Zhang W J. Global warming and shifts in cropping systems together reduce China's rice production. Glob Food Secur, 2020, 24: 100359.
doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100359
[20] Dong W, Chen J, Zhang B, Tian Y L, Zhang W J. Responses of biomass growth and grain yield of midseason rice to the anticipated warming with FATI facility in East China. Field Crops Res, 2011, 123: 259-265.
doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2011.05.024
[21] Cai C, Yin X Y, He S Q, Jiang W Y, Si C F, Struik P C, Luo W H, Li G, Xie Y T, Xiong Y, Pan G X. Responses of wheat and rice to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and temperature in FACE experiments. Glob Change Biol, 2016, 22: 856-874.
doi: 10.1111/gcb.13065
[22] 张鑫, 陈金, 江瑜, 邓艾兴, 宋振伟, 郑成岩, 张卫建. 夜间增温对江苏不同年代水稻主栽品种生育期和产量的影响. 应用生态学报, 2014, 25: 1349-1356.
Zhang X, Chen J, Jiang Y, Deng A X, Song Z W, Zheng C Y, Zhang W J. Impacts of nighttime warming on rice growth stage and grain yield of leading varieties released in different periods in Jiangsu province, China. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2014, 25: 1349-1356 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[23] Tian Y L, Zheng C Y, Chen J, Chen C Q, Deng A X, Song Z W, Zhang B M, Zhang W J. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China. PLoS One, 2014, 9: e951084.
[24] Hu C X, Tian Z W, Gu S L, Fan Y H, Abid M, Chen K, Jiang D, Cao W X, Dai T B. Winter and spring night-warming improve root extension and soil nitrogen supply to increase nitrogen uptake and utilization of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eur J Agron, 2018, 96: 96-107.
doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2018.03.008
[25] Hu X Y, Huang Y, Sun W J, Yu L F. Shifts in cultivar and planting date have regulated rice growth duration under climate warming in China since the early 1980s. Agric For Meteorol, 2017, 247: 34-41.
doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.07.014
[26] Reynolds M P, Quilligan E, Aggarwal P K, Bansal K C, Cavalieri A J, Chapman S C, Chapotin S M, Datta A K, Duveiller E, Gill K S, Jagadish K S V, Joshi A K, Koehler A K, Kosina P, Krishnan S, Lafitte R, Mahala R S, Muthurajan R, Paterson A H, Prasanna B M, Rakshit S, Rosegrant M W, Sharma I, Singh R P, Sivasankar S, Vadez V, Valluru R, Vara Prasad P V, Yadav O P. An integrated approach to maintaining cereal productivity under climate change. Global Food Secur, 2016, 8: 9-18.
doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.02.002
[27] Zheng C Y, Chen J, Song Z W, Deng A X, Jiang L N, Zhang B M, Zhang W J. Differences in warming impacts on wheat productivity among varieties released in different eras in North China. J Agric Sci, 2015, 153: 1353-1364.
doi: 10.1017/S0021859615000118
[28] 张卫建, 陈长青, 江瑜, 张俊, 钱浩宇. 气候变暖对我国水稻生产的综合影响及其应对策略. 农业环境科学学报, 2020, 39: 805-811.
Zhang W J, Chen C Q, Jiang Y, Zhang J, Qian H Y. Comprehensive influence of climate warming on rice production and countermeasure for food security in China. J Agro-Environ Sci, 2020, 39: 805-811 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[29] Xiong W, Holman I P, You L Z, Yang J, Wu W B. Impacts of observed growing season warming trends since 1980 on crop yields in China. Region Environ Change, 2014, 14: 7-16.
doi: 10.1007/s10113-013-0418-6
[30] Zhang T, Huang Y, Yang X. Climate warming over the past three decades has shortened rice growth duration in China and cultivar shifts have further accelerated the process for late rice. Glob Change Biol, 2013, 19: 563-570.
doi: 10.1111/gcb.2012.19.issue-2
[31] 凌霄霞, 张作林, 翟景秋, 叶树春, 黄见良. 气候变化对中国水稻生产的影响研究进展. 作物学报, 2019, 45: 323-334.
Ling X X, Zhang Z L, Zhai J Q, Ye S C, Huang J L. A review for impacts of climate change on rice production in China. Acta Agron Sin, 2019, 45: 323-334 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[32] Diffenbaugh N S. Verification of extreme event attribution: Using out-of-sample observations to assess changes in probabilities of unprecedented events. Sci Adv, 2020, 6: eaay2368.
[33] Espe M B, Hill J E, Hijmans R J, McKenzie K, Mutters R, Espino L A, Leinfelder-Miles M, van Kessel C, Linquist B A. Point stresses during reproductive stage rather than warming seasonal temperature determine yield in temperate rice. Glob Change Biol, 2017, 23: 4386-4395.
doi: 10.1111/gcb.2017.23.issue-10
[1] XING Zhi-Peng,ZHU Ming, WU Pei,QIAN Hai-Jun,CAO Wei-Wei,HU Ya-Jie,GUO Bao-Wei,WEI Hai-Yan,XU Ke,HUO Zhong-Yang,DAI Qi-Gen,ZHANG Hong-Cheng*. Effect of Mechanical Transplanting with Pothole Seedlings on Grain Quality of Different Types of Rice in Rice-Wheat Rotation System [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2017, 43(04): 581-595.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!