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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 256-266.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.71081

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

秸秆还田结合秋覆膜对旱地冬小麦耗水特性和产量的影响

陈玉章1,2,柴守玺1,*(),程宏波3,柴雨葳1,杨长刚1,4,谭凯敏1,常磊1   

  1. 1甘肃农业大学农学院 / 甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室, 甘肃兰州 730070
    2毕节市农业科学研究所, 贵州毕节 551700
    3甘肃农业大学生命科学与技术学院 / 甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室, 甘肃兰州 730070
    4甘肃省农业科学院小麦研究所, 甘肃兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-16 接受日期:2018-04-11 出版日期:2019-02-12 发布日期:2018-11-06
  • 通讯作者: 柴守玺 E-mail:sxchai@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-3-2-49);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303104);国家自然科学基金项目资助(31560356);国家自然科学基金项目资助(31760362)

Effects of straw-incorporation combined with autumn plastic mulching on soil water consumption characteristics and winter wheat yield in arid farming areas

Yu-Zhang CHEN1,2,Shou-Xi CHAI1,*(),Hong-Bo CHENG3,Yu-Wei CHAI1,Chang-Gang YANG1,4,Kai-Min TAN1,Lei CHANG1   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University / Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
    2 Bijie Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Bijie 551700, Guizhou, China
    3 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University / Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
    4 Wheat Research Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China
  • Received:2017-11-16 Accepted:2018-04-11 Online:2019-02-12 Published:2018-11-06
  • Contact: Shou-Xi CHAI E-mail:sxchai@126.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the China Agriculture Research System(CARS-3-2-49);the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest(201303104);and the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31560356);and the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31760362)

摘要:

秸秆还田和秋覆膜是西北旱地雨养农业区冬小麦生产中有效的节水增产措施。为明确西北半干旱雨养农业区不同作物秸秆还田结合秋覆膜种植模式下冬小麦田土壤蓄水保墒和节水增产效果, 于2011年9月至2013年6月连续2个小麦生长季在甘肃省通 县进行了田间定位试验, 比较玉米秸秆还田结合秋覆膜、单一玉米秸秆还田、麦秸秆还田结合秋覆膜、单一麦秸秆还田和传统平作种植对西北旱地冬小麦耗水特性和籽粒产量的影响。结果表明, 与传统平作相比, 冬小麦全生育期秸秆还田结合秋覆膜处理0~200 cm平均土壤贮水量在2011—2012和2012—2013年度分别提高6.1%和9.6%, 而单一秸秆还田分别提高0.7%和4.6%。在降水偏多的2011—2012年度, 除玉米秸秆还田结合秋覆膜处理冬小麦全生育期0~200 cm土壤贮水消耗量比传统平作低19.0 mm (P<0.05)外, 其余各处理无显著差异; 在降水偏少的2012—2013年度, 秸秆还田及秸秆还田结合秋覆膜处理平均比传统平作多耗水39.1 mm, 其中, 两个秸秆还田结合秋覆膜处理显著增加冬小麦返青至拔节阶段的耗水量, 显著降低开花至成熟阶段耗水量, 并增加了对深层土壤水分的调用。与传统平作相比, 秸秆还田结合秋覆膜处理可使小麦籽粒产量提高31.0%~69.4%, 水分利用效率提高25.6%~43.0%; 而单一秸秆还田的小麦籽粒产量提高1.2%~28.0%, 水分利用效率提高3.0%~11.6%。以玉米秸秆还田结合秋覆膜处理增产效果最好, 2年平均籽粒产量和水分利用效率分别较传统平作提高51.1%和41.7%, 且显著高于其他处理。因此, 玉米秸秆还田结合秋覆膜种植模式能显著提高冬小麦籽粒产量和水分利用效率, 适宜在西北旱农区小麦生产中应用。

关键词: 旱地, 秸秆还田, 秋覆膜, 籽粒产量, 土壤耗水特性

Abstract:

Straw-incorporation and autumn plastic-film mulch are useful techniques for water-saving cultivation in semi-arid areas in northwest China. To investigate the effects of different straw-incorporation and autumn plastic-film mulching treatments on soil water consumption, winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE), we conducted a two-year (2011-2012 and 2012-2013 wheat growing seasons) experiment in fixed fields in Tongwei county, Guansu province. The five treatments were corn straw-incorporation combined with autumn plastic film mulching (CF), single corn straw-incorporation (CNF), wheat straw-incorporation combined with autumn plastic film mulching (WF), single wheat straw-incorporation (WNF), and non-mulching and non-straw returning (CK). Compared with CK, CF and WF led to the increase of water storage of 0-200 cm soil layer with an average of 6.1% in 2011-2012 and 9.6% in 2012-2013, while CNF and WNF showed tender effect with the average increasing percentage of 0.7% and 4.6% in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, respectively. In the wet year of 2011-2012, evapotranspiration of CF was 19.0 mm lower than that of CK (P < 0.05), and the evapotranspiration of CNF, WF, and WNF was similar to that of CK with no significant difference. In the dry year of 2012-2013, evapotranspiration of CK was 39.1 mm lower than the average of the other four treatments. Evapotranspiration of CF and WF significantly increased from reviving to jointing stages, but reduced from flowering to maturity stages. Deep soil water of CF and WF was consumed more than that of CK in 2012-2013. On the average of CF and WF, the grain yield and WUE were increased, compared with that of CK, by 31.0%-69.4% and 25.6%-43.0%, respectively. Particularly, CF ranked the first in improving yield (51.1% higher than CK) and WUE (41.7% higher than CK). In contrast, the average grain yield and WUE of CNF and WNF were increased by 1.2%-28.0% and 3.0%-11.6%, respectively. This study suggests that CF is an applicable technique in winter wheat cultivation in Northwest dryland.

Key words: dryland, straw-incorporation, plastic mulching in autumn, grain yield, soil water consumption characteristics

图1

冬小麦生育期月降水量和多年平均降水量"

图2

0~200 cm土壤贮水量随生育期的变化 每个生育期数据上方的误差线代表LSD0.05。SW: 播种期; TB: 冬前分蘖期; WT: 越冬期; RV: 返青期; JT: 拔节期; BT: 孕穗期; FL: 开花期; GF: 灌浆期; MT: 成熟期。"

表1

麦田有效降水总耗水量及其分配"

处理
Treatment
农田耗水量
Field evapotranspiration (mm)
有效降水 Effective precipitation (≥ 5 mm) 土壤贮水消耗 Soil water consumption
总量 Amount (mm) 比例 Ratio (%) 总量 Amount (mm) 比例 Ratio (%)
2011-2012
CF 292.8 b 206.4 70.5 a 86.4 b 29.5 b
CNF 310.5 a 206.4 66.5 b 104.1 a 33.5 a
WF 307.7 a 206.4 67.1 b 101.3 a 32.9 a
WNF 307.9 a 206.4 67.0 b 101.5 a 33.0 a
CK 311.8 a 206.4 66.2 b 105.4 a 33.8 a
2012-2013
CF 275.0 a 179.6 65.3 c 95.4 a 34.7 a
CNF 267.6 a 179.6 67.2 bc 88.0 a 32.8 ab
WF 267.4 a 179.6 67.2 bc 87.8 a 32.8 ab
WNF 245.5 b 179.6 73.2 b 65.9 b 26.8 b
CK 224.8 c 179.6 80.2 a 45.2 c 19.8 c

图3

0~200 cm各土层土壤贮水消耗量 每个土层数据旁边的误差线代表LSD0.05。"

表2

小麦各生育阶段耗水量及其占总耗水量的比例"

处理
Treatment
播种至返青
Sowing to revival
返青至拔节
Revival to jointing
拔节至开花
Jointing to flowering
开花至成熟
Flowering to maturity
数量
Amount (mm)
比例
Ratio (%)
数量
Amount (mm)
比例
Ratio (%)
数量
Amount (mm)
比例
Ratio (%)
数量
Amount (mm)
比例
Ratio (%)
2011-2012
CF 45.1 b 15.4 b 31.2 a 10.6 ab 119.4 a 40.8 a 97.1 b 33.2 a
CNF 71.5 a 23.0 a 23.1 a 7.4 c 107.2 a 34.5 b 108.7 a 35.0 a
WF 52.1 b 16.9 b 33.6 a 10.9 a 118.8 a 38.6 a 103.2 ab 33.5 a
WNF 75.5 a 24.5 a 26.1 a 8.4 abc 108.0 a 35.1 b 98.4 ab 32.0 a
CK 72.4 a 23.2 a 24.8 a 7.9 bc 108.2 a 34.7 b 106.4 ab 34.2 a
2012-2013
CF 22.0 b 8.0 b 78.1 a 28.3 a 106.1 a 38.6 a 68.8 b 25.0 c
CNF 47.3 a 17.5 a 19.3 c 7.3 c 112.3 a 42.1 a 88.6 ab 33.1 b
WF 19.1 b 7.1 b 60.0 ab 22.4 ab 107.6 a 40.1 a 81.4 ab 30.4 bc
WNF 34.4 ab 14.0 ab 37.2 bc 15.1 bc 90.0 a 36.7 a 84.0 ab 34.2 b
CK 20.0 b 8.7 b 17.8 c 8.0 c 95.3 a 42.7 a 92.0 a 40.7 a

表3

冬小麦籽粒产量和水分利用效率"

处理
Treatment
株高
Plant height
(cm)
生物量
Biomass
(kg hm-2)
籽粒产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
穗数
Spike number (×104 hm-2)
穗粒数
Grain number per spike
千粒重
1000-grain weight (g)
水分利用效率
Water use efficiency
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
2011-2012
CF 70.5 a 10386.1 a 4687.5 a 336.0 a 35.7 a 46.6 a 13.9 a
CNF 63.2 b 8694.5 c 3941.5 b 327.6 a 31.1 b 45.8 ab 11.1 c
WF 69.9 a 9765.5 b 4622.0 a 334.3 a 35.2 a 46.3 a 13.1 b
WNF 59.8 c 7851.0 d 3571.0 c 310.4 b 30.4 b 44.7 b 10.2 d
CK 58.9 c 7516.8 d 3529.5 c 305.3 b 30.2 b 45.0 b 9.9 d
2012-2013
CF 65.9 a 8296.1 a 3986.5 a 274.6 a 35.6 a 48.5 ab 12.3 a
CNF 60.2 c 6130.9 c 3012.0 c 240.8 bc 30.4 c 48.6 ab 9.5 c
WF 63.7 b 7058.7 b 3415.5 b 252.7 b 33.9 b 47.4 b 10.8 b
WNF 59.6 c 5750.7 c 2810.5 c 220.2 cd 31.2 c 48.6 ab 9.6 c
CK 56.1 d 4826.5 d 2353.5 d 202.2 d 27.9 d 49.1 a 8.6 d

表4

冬小麦主要农艺性状和籽粒产量之间的相关分析"

性状
Trait
产量
Grain yield
穗数
Spike number
穗粒数
Grain number per spike
千粒重
1000-grain weight
株高
Plant height
生物量
Biomass
穗数 Spike number 0.903**
穗粒数 Grain number per spike 0.810** 0.498
千粒重 1000-grain weight -0.552 -0.812** -0.044
株高 Plant height 0.915** 0.668* 0.934** -0.175
生物量 Biomass 0.993** 0.932** 0.758* -0.557 0.883**
水分利用效率 Water use efficiency 0.950** 0.735* 0.917** -0.261 0.981** 0.930**
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