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作物学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (7): 969-977.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92064

• 综述 •    下一篇

杂草稻的特性及其危害与防治研究进展

陈雷1,**,金曼2,3,**,张维乐2,王承旭2,吴勇斌4,王治忠4,唐晓艳1,*()   

  1. 1 华南师范大学生命科学学院, 广东广州 510631
    2 深圳市作物分子设计育种研究院, 广东深圳 518110
    3 华南农业大学生命科学学院, 广东广州 510642
    4 仲衍种业股份有限公司, 四川成都 610000
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-07 接受日期:2020-03-18 出版日期:2020-07-12 发布日期:2020-04-28
  • 通讯作者: 唐晓艳 E-mail:txy@frontier-ag.com
  • 作者简介:** 同等贡献
  • 基金资助:
    中国博士后基金(2019M652920);中国博士后基金(2018M633069);国家自然科学基金项目(31901532)

Research advances on characteristics, damage and control measures of weedy rice

CHEN Lei1,**,JIN Man2,3,**,ZHANG Wei-Le2,WANG Cheng-Xu2,WU Yong-Bin4,WANG Zhi-Zhong4,TANG Xiao-Yan1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, Guangdong, China
    2 Shenzhen Institute of Molecular Crop Design, Shenzhen 518110, Guangdong, China
    3 College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510631, Guangdong, China
    4 Zoeve Seed Co, Ltd, Chengdu 610000, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2019-11-07 Accepted:2020-03-18 Online:2020-07-12 Published:2020-04-28
  • Contact: Xiao-Yan TANG E-mail:txy@frontier-ag.com
  • About author:** Contributed equally to this work
  • Supported by:
    China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2019M652920);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2018M633069);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31901532)

摘要:

杂草稻(Oryza sativa f. spontanea)泛指具有杂草特性的水稻, 是稻田中的恶性杂草之一, 在生产中可严重危害栽培稻的产量和品质。本文从杂草稻的形态特性、落粒性、休眠性、耐逆性等方面概述其生物学特征。简要阐述了杂草稻起源于栽培稻的去驯化过程, 分布范围涵盖世界稻作生产区, 在我国杂草稻的发生分布不均, 以江苏中南部以及广东的湛江等地最为严重。进一步分析了由于杂草稻导致对稻米产量、稻米品质以及稻田生态环境造成的影响和危害, 并提出了杂草稻的综合防控与治理措施, 包括预防控制、合理耕作、科学使用化学除草剂等方式, 以便有效地控制杂草稻的发生与传播。

关键词: 杂草稻, 生物学特性, 危害, 防治措施

Abstract:

Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) presumably originated from rice but has weedy characteristics. It is one of the malignant weeds in rice field that decreases rice production and grain quality severely. In this study, the biological characteristics of weedy rice were described from morphology, shattering, dormancy and stress tolerance. The process of weedy rice origination from de-domestication of cultivated rice was summarized briefly. We also introduced the worldwide distribution of weedy rice as well as its non-uniform distribution in China with the most severe occurrence in middle-south area of Jiangsu province and Zhanjiang of Guangzhou province. In addition, we analyzed the agricultural damage on rice yield, rice quality and paddy field ecology environment by weedy rice. To control the occurrence and spread of weedy rice, we further proposed comprehensive measures, including prevention and controlling measures, reasonable cultivation system, and scientific use of chemical herbicides.

Key words: weedy rice, biological characteristics, damage, prevention and control measures

图1

杂草稻与栽培稻的形态特征比较 a: 田间杂草稻; b: 田间栽培稻; c: 杂草稻单株; d: 栽培稻单株; e: 栽培稻与杂草稻落粒性。"

图2

栽培稻与杂草稻穗-粒分离力测定 HHZ: 栽培稻黄华占; WR1: 杂草稻1; WR2: 杂草稻2; WR3: 杂草稻3。通过数显拉力计对栽培稻与杂草稻的穗-粒分离力(g)进行测定, 每株测定3穗, 每穗至少测定20粒种子。"

图3

基于全基因组SNPs的杂草稻种群结构分析[18] a: 杂草稻、栽培稻以及其他品种水稻的进化树分析。不同的颜色表示不同的水稻品种: O. rufipogon: 绿色表示 Or-II和Or-III亚群, 深绿色表示 Or-I 亚群; aus: 淡绿色; O. sativa ssp. japonica: 紫色表示 Aromatic japonica (ARO), 红色表示Tropical japonica (TRJ), 橘红色表示 Temperate japonica (TEJ); O. sativa ssp. indica (IND): 蓝色; 中间型: 黄色。在进化树中, 圆点表示杂草稻, 三角表示栽培稻, LN代表辽宁, NX代表宁夏, JS代表江苏, GD代表广东, FW代表中国地区以外的杂草稻品种。b: 杂草稻、栽培稻以及其他品种水稻的主成分分析(PCA)。“o”表示杂草稻, “ⅹ”表示栽培稻, “*”表示中间型品种。标注中, 后缀“W”指杂草稻, “C”指本地栽培稻。2条灰色的虚线用于区分籼稻、粳稻和其他水稻品种。"

图4

稻米中混杂杂草稻 图中白色的为栽培稻米粒, 红褐色的为杂草稻米粒。"

表1

广东省雷州市洁田技术防控杂草稻试验结果[44]"

性状
Trait
洁田技术
Tidy Field
常规化学除草
Conventional chemical weeding
杂草稻发生率Occurrence rare of weedy rice (%) 0.07 13.31
有效穗Effective panicles (Ten thousands panicles per hectare) 349.35 337.50
每穗总粒数Grain number per panicle 120.43 123.20
结实率Seed-setting rate (%) 82.73 73.70
千粒重Thousand-grain weight (g) 21.47 22.33
理论产量Theoretical yield (kg hm-2) 7447.65 6847.20
实际产量Actual yield (kg hm-2) 6366.30 5868.15
比对照增产Yield increase compared to control (%) 8.54
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