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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 1031-1042.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04104


Physiological characteristics and DNA methylation analysis under lead stress in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

LI Zeng-Qiang1(), DING Xin-Chao1, LU Hai1, HU Ya-Li1, YUE Jiao1, HUANG Zhen1, MO Liang-Yu1, CHEN Li1, CHEN Tao2, CHEN Peng1,*()   

  1. 1College of Agriculture, Guangxi University/Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China
    2Guangxi Subtropical Crops Research Institute, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China
  • Received:2020-05-08 Accepted:2020-08-19 Online:2021-06-12 Published:2020-09-10
  • Contact: CHEN Peng E-mail:1134485681@qq.com;hustwell@gmail.com
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31560341);This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31960368);The China Agriculture Research System(CARS-16-E14)


DNA methylation plays an important role in response to plant biotic and abiotic stresses, but there are few reports on the changes of plant DNA methylation level under lead stress. In this study, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) P3A was used as the material, the seedlings were cultured in Hoagland solution, and treated with at different concentrations (0, 200, 400, and 600 μmol L -1) of PbCl2. The changes of agronomic traits, ROS content and antioxidant enzyme activity of root were investigated. The changes of DNA methylation level in roots under 600 μmol L -1 lead stress were determined by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). The differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were cloned, sequenced, and functionally annotated. In addition, the expression levels of DMGs were investigated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the stem diameter, root length and root surface area of seedlings were significantly inhibited by different concentrations of PbCl2 stress. And the plant height and total fresh weight of kenaf seedlings were significantly reduced under 400 μmol L -1 concentration or more of lead stress. The content of lead, O2 ? and MDA, and activities of SOD were increased significantly in kenaf seedlings roots, CAT activity increased first and then decreased with the increase of lead concentration, the POD activity showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing. MSAP analysis of roots treated with 0 μmol L -1 and 600 μmol L -1 PbCl2 showed that DNA methylation rates were 71.13%, 62.20%, fully methylated ratio was 50.52%, 37.80%, and hemi-methylated ratio were 20.62%, 24.40%, respectively. In other words, lead stress significantly reduced DNA methylation rate and total methylation rate, whereas increased the hemi-methylation rate of roots of kenaf seedlings. qRT-PCR analysis showed that there were also differences in gene expression of seven DMGs closely related to resistance. It suggested that the change of DNA methylation level played an important role in kenaf response to lead stress in kenaf. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the potential mechanism of DNA methylation in response to plant abiotic stress, and improving soil lead pollution in kenaf production.

Key words: kenaf, lead stress, DNA methylation, MSAP, qRT-PCR, antioxidant enzyme system

Table 1

Lists of adapter and primer sequences"

Primer type
引物名称及序列Primer name and sequence (5′-3′)
EcoR I (E) Hpa II/Msp I (HM)

Table 2

Primer sequences for qRT-PCR"

Primer name
Forward sequence (5′-3′)
Reverse sequence (5′-3′)

Table 3

Effects of different concentrations of PbCl2 on agronomic characters of kenaf seedlings"

Concentration of PbCl2 (μmol L-1)
Plant height
Stem diameter (mm)
Fresh weight
Root fresh weight (g)
Root length
Root surface area (cm2)
0 18.12±0.42 a 2.01±0.02 a 14.33±0.61 a 2.71±0.17 a 105.79±12.13 a 16.70±1.38 a
200 18.18±0.20 a 1.78±0.01 b 13.58±0.50 a 2.48±0.15 a 76.99±4.53 b 13.53±0.61 b
400 14.90±0.05 b 1.64±0.06 c 8.91±0.16 b 1.27±0.01 b 34.60±1.09 c 6.51±0.32 c
600 12.18±0.20 c 1.52±0.03 c 7.27±0.27 b 1.00±0.04 b 28.79±1.84 c 5.12±0.44 c

Fig. 1

Effects of different concentrations of PbCl2 on lead contents in roots Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 2

Effects of different concentration of PbCl2 on physiological indicators of roots Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 3

MSAP acrylamide gel analysis The left lane 1, 3 and right lane 2, 4 represent digestion with EcoR I/ Hpa II and EcoR I/Msp I respectively. The lane 1, 2, and 3, 4 represent the PbCl2-0, PbCl2-600 respectively. The dotted line frame, white frame, black frame and virtual point frame represent the type I (no methylation), type II (hemi-methylation), type III (full methylation), and type IV (full methylation), respectively."

Table 4

Statistical analysis of DNA methylation level"

Methylation type
PbCl2浓度PbCl2 concentration 变化比率(上升↑, 下降↓)
Exchange rate (up↑, down↓)
0 μmol L-1 600 μmol L-1
类型I (无甲基化) Type I (unmethylation) 83 110 32.53↑
类型II (半甲基化) Type II (hemi-methylation) 61 71 16.39↑
类型III, IV (全甲基化) Type III and IV (full methylation) 147 110 25.17↓
半甲基化率Hemi-methylated ratio (%) 20.62 24.40 18.33↑
全甲基化率Fully methylated ratio (%) 50.52 37.80 34.20↓
甲基化率/MSAP Total methylated ratio/MSAP (%) 71.13 62.20 12.55↓

Table 5

Comparisons analysis of differentially methylated sequences"

Gene name
Fragment length (bp)
Gene symbol or ID
Gene full name
Functional annotation
7-dlgase 255 Hca.05G0009940 Hca. flavonol-3-O-glycoside-7-O-glucosyltransferase 1 将UDP-糖基供体转移到花色素的C7羟基(羧基)[18]
Transfer UDP glycosyl donor to C7 hydroxy (carboxy) of anthocyanins.
AHL23 110 Hca.02G0040470 Hca. AT hook motif domain containing protein AT-hook家族蛋白在植物生长发育、激素信号转导和逆境胁迫应答中发挥重要作用[19]
At-hook family proteins play an important role in plant growth and development, plant hormone signal transduction and stress response.
CesA2 140 Hca.03G0045600 Hca. CESA1-cellulose synthase CesA影响初生壁和次生壁的生物合成,响应植物的抗病性[20]
CesA affects cell wall biosynthesis and responds to plant disease resistance.
chD12 136 CP023742 Gossypium hirsutum cultivar TM1 chromosome D12 尚未见报道。
Has not been reported.
EF1B/S6 131 Hca.09G0002430 Hca. eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D 尚未见报道。
Has not been reported.
ETO1 178 Hca.13G0028050 Hca. ethylene-responsive protein related 乙烯调控种子萌发、器官衰老、生物和非生物胁迫等过程。
Ethylene regulates seed germination, organ senescence, biotic and abiotic stress.
GTPase 361 Hca.01G0050250 Hca. RAN GTPase-activating protein 1 参与调控细胞周期中各个时期的细胞生命活动。
It is involved in the regulation of cell activities at various stages of the cell cycle.
Kinase 165 Hca.02G0009450 Hca. protein kinase family protein 尚未见报道。
Has not been reported.
mit-gene 247 KR736346 Gossypium trilobum mitochondrion, complete genome 尚未见报道。
Has not been reported.
NPF5.4 269 LOC108487536 Gossypium arboreum protein NRT1/ PTR FAMILY 5.4-like NRT1/PTR家族蛋白参与转运植物激素及次生代谢物合成过程。
NRT1/PTR family proteins are involved in the transport of plant hormones and the synthesis of secondary metabolites.
Phosphatase 248 Hca.13G0013080 Hca. phosphatidic acid phosphatase-related 参与磷酸基团转移、代谢等生理过程。
It is involved in the transfer and metabolism of phosphate groups.
PLK 265 Hca.15G0014780 Hca. receptor-like protein kinase 类受体激酶通过接收和传递胞外信号调控细胞的生理反应,参与植物生长发育过程。
Receptor-like protein kinase regulates cellular physiological responses by receiving and transmitting extracellular signals and are involved in plant growth and development.
PME7 117 Hca.01G0006960 Hca. pectinesterase 果胶酯酶抑制剂在植物生长发育和响应逆境胁迫中发挥重要作用[21]
Pectinesterase inhibitor plays an important role in plant growth and response to stress.
PMT24 171 Hca.15G0021740 Hca. methyltransferase 催化腐胺向N-甲基腐胺的转化。
Catalyze the conversion of putrescine to N-methylputrescine.
RaBa1f 170 LOC105766406 Gossypium raimondii ras-related protein RABA1f RABA家族蛋白在调控根毛扩张?细胞壁组分、响应生物胁迫等方面发挥重要作用。
RABA family protein plays an important role in regulating root hair expansion, cell wall components and responding to biological stress.
SAM-MET 114 Hca.18G0000220 Hca. S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases 催化的甲基化修饰对植物信号传导、染色体表达和基因沉默等起重要的调节作用。
Catalytic methylation plays an important role in regulating signal transduction, chromosome expression and gene silencing in plants.
SGT1 300 Hca.02G0014470 Hca. SGT1 protein SGT1基因与植物与植物响应生物和非生物胁迫密切相关 。
SGT1 gene is closely related to plant response to biotic and abiotic stress.
TIM21 257 Hca.12G0027090 Hca. mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim 负责线粒体内膜的转运与装配[22]
Responsible for the transport and assembly of mitochondrial intima.
TPR 353 Hca.17G0008870 Hca. tetratricopeptide repeat domain containing protein 介导与蛋白质的相互作用。
Mediates interactions with proteins.
VPS13F 102 Hca.05G0005060 Hca. vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 16 液泡分选相关蛋白参与调控主根的发育和植株生长素响应过程。
Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein are involved in the regulation of taproot development and auxin response.
WD40 140 Hca.01G0001440 Hca. katanin p80 WD40 repeat-containing subunit B1 homolog 1 WD40是拟南芥生长发育和胁迫信号传递的关键调控因子[23]
WD40 is a key regulator of Arabidopsis growth and stress signal transmission.
β-man6 188 Hca.02G0010790 Hca. alpha-mannosidase 2 α-甘露聚糖酶引导蛋白的跨膜运输。
alpha-mannosidase guides the transmembrane transport of proteins.

Fig. 4

qRT-PCR analysis of the differentially methylated sequences under PdCl2 stress Bars superscripted by different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at the 0.05 probability level."

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