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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (7): 1709-1720.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13042


Research on the grain production pattern and heat resource utilization efficiency based on temperature zone division in China

WANG Kai-Cheng(), ZHAO Jiong-Chao, HAN Tong, SHI Xiao-Yu, GAO Zhen-Zhen, BO Xiao-Zhi, CHEN Fu, CHU Qing-Quan()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs / College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2021-06-02 Accepted:2021-09-09 Online:2022-07-12 Published:2021-10-19
  • Contact: CHU Qing-Quan E-mail:s20203010006@cau.edu.cn;cauchu@cau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31871581);National College Students Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program(202110019004)


It is of great significance to reveal the changes of grain production pattern and natural resource utilization efficiency for rational utilization of natural resources, security of national food security, and sustainable development. Base on the data of county-scale grain production and 683 meteorological stations from 1985 to 2015 in China, ArcGIS spatial analysis method was adopted to analyze the grain production pattern changes and heat resource utilization characteristics considered temperature zone division. Studies had shown that about 90% of Chinese total grain output was produced in mid temperate, warm temperate, northern subtropical, and mid subtropical zones from 1985 to 2015, accounting for 18.6%, 25.6%, 21.6%, and 25.9%, respectively. In the past 30 years, the proportion of grain production in the single cropping region had increased by 13.8%, while it had decreased by 2.7% and 11.2% in the double and triple cropping region, respectively. The proportion of grain production had increased by 13.9% in the mid temperate zone of the single cropping region which was drove by the advance of planted acreage and yield, while the proportion decreased by 13.9% in the subtropical zones of the triple-cropping system. Over the past 30 years, the annual accumulated temperature above 10℃ had continued to increase in different temperature zones, and that was more evident in southern region than northern region. However, the increased magnitude of heat utilization efficiency for grain production in southern temperature zones was lower than northern region. There was a “dislocation phenomenon” between the changes of Chinese grain production pattern and the distributions of heat resources. Therefore, it was necessary to consider the coordination of grain production and natural resources matching as well as the characteristics of resource utilization for improving resource utilization efficiency when optimizing the layout of regional grain production and formulating strategies in China.

Key words: grain production, spatial pattern, divisions of temperature zones, multiple cropping system, heat resource utilization efficiency

Fig. 1

Distribution of meteorological stations and DEM data of elevation map in the study This map is based on the standard map downloaded from the standard map service website of the National Bureau of Surveying, Mapping and Geographic Information with the approval number GS (2019) 1822. The map is not modified."

Fig. 2

Temperature zone division map in China"

Table 1

Accumulated temperature index and land use status in different temperature zones"

Multiple cropping system
Temperature zone
Annual accumulated
temperature above 10℃ (℃ d)
Proportion of
land area (%)
Proportion of cropland (%)
Single-cropping system
寒温带Cold temperate zone 1154 0.8 0.2
中温带Middle temperate zone 2496 29.3 36.9
高原亚寒带Plateau sub-frigid zone 28 13.0 0.2
高原温带Plateau temperate zone 578 13.7 0.9
Double-cropping system
暖温带Warm temperate zone 3917 16.4 23.9
北亚热带North subtropical zone 4473 6.8 14.0
高原亚热带Plateau subtropical zone 3721 0.7 0.003
Triple-cropping system
中亚热带Middle subtropical zone 5017 12.4 16.6
南亚热带South subtropical zone 6489 6.1 6.5
热带Tropical zone 7574 0.9 1.0

Fig. 3

Grain planting area and production in different temperature zones in China from 1985 to 2015 I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, HI, HII, and HIII represents cold temperate zone, middle temperate zone, warm temperate zone, north subtropical zone, middle subtropical zone, south subtropical zone, tropical zone, plateau sub-frigid zone, plateau temperate zone, and plateau subtropical zone, respectively."

Fig. 4

Grain planting area and production concentration in different temperature zones and multiple cropping regions in China from 1985 to 2015 SC, DC, and TC represents single-cropping system, double-cropping system, and triple-cropping system, respectively. Abbreviations of temperature zones are the same as those given in Fig. 3."

Fig. 5

Distributions of dominant types of contributions of grain production in different temperature zones in China from 1985 to 2015 Y, A, Y+A, and YA represent yield dominant, area dominant, yield and area dominant, and interaction dominant, respectively. "

Fig. 6

Average annual accumulated temperature above 10℃ and climate tendency rate of different temperature zones in China from 1985 to 2015"

Fig. 7

Heat utilization efficiency in different temperature zones and multiple cropping regions in China from 1985 to 2015 Abbreviations of temperature zones and multiple cropping regions are the same as those given in Fig. 4."

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