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作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (4): 635-644.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81072

• 研究简报 • 上一篇    

基因型和环境对小麦产量、品质和氮素效率的影响

金欣欣,姚艳荣,贾秀领(),姚海坡,申海平,崔永增,李谦   

  1. 河北省农林科学院粮油作物研究所, 河北石家庄 050035
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-10 接受日期:2019-01-12 出版日期:2019-04-12 发布日期:2019-01-12
  • 通讯作者: 贾秀领 E-mail:jiaxiuling2013@163.com
  • 作者简介:金欣欣, E-mail: jinxinxin1984@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本研究由国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300402);本研究由国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFNC050025-3);河北省现代农业产业技术体系-小麦产业创新团队项目资助

Effects of genotype and environment on wheat yield, quality, and nitrogen use efficiency

JIN Xin-Xin,YAO Yan-Rong,JIA Xiu-Ling(),YAO Hai-Po,SHEN Hai-Ping,CUI Yong-Zeng,LI Qian   

  1. Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050035, Hebei, China
  • Received:2018-10-10 Accepted:2019-01-12 Online:2019-04-12 Published:2019-01-12
  • Contact: Xiu-Ling JIA E-mail:jiaxiuling2013@163.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300402);This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFNC050025-3);Hebei Wheat Industry Technology System.

摘要:

以不同基因型的小麦品种(13个强筋小麦品种和2个中筋小麦品种), 不同试验地点(馆陶、宁晋、藁城)和不同施氮水平(0、180、240和300 kg hm -2)的田间试验, 综合分析基因型、环境对小麦产量、品质、氮肥利用率的影响, 以期为优质强筋小麦品种选育、栽培调控及高产提质增效的协同目标提供科学依据。研究表明, 不同小麦品种产量在9289~10,088 kg hm -2之间, 强筋小麦品种平均产量9548 kg hm -2, 比中筋小麦品种减产3.1%。藁城、宁晋、馆陶三地的产量分别达9932、9433和9223 kg hm -2。不同小麦品种籽粒蛋白质均值14.5%, 湿面筋28.5%, 沉淀指数39.5 mL, 稳定时间15.4 min, 拉伸能量87.5 cm 2, 最大拉伸阻力428.8 BU。藁优5218、藁优5766、冀麦738、科农2009、师栾02-1、藁优2018、冀麦867综合品质表现较好。馆陶和宁晋的小麦品质性状相对较好, 藁城的品质较差。氮肥利用率随施氮量增加呈降低趋势, N180处理的氮肥农学效率、氮肥吸收利用效率、氮肥生理利用率最高, 依次为4.3 kg kg -1、26.2%、16.6 kg kg -1。兼顾产量、品质、效率三方面, 藁城适宜种植品种有冀麦738、冀麦867、师栾02-1; 宁晋有师栾02-1、科农2009、冀麦738; 馆陶有藁优5766、藁优2018、师栾02-1。综合考虑小麦产量、籽粒品质和氮素利用率, 180 kg hm -2为本研究条件下的最佳施氮量。

关键词: 基因型, 环境, 小麦, 产量, 品质, 氮素效率

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out at Guantao, Ningjin, and Gaocheng using five wheat varieties (thirteen strong gluten wheat varieties and two middle gluten wheat varieties) with four levels of nitrogen fertilizer application (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha -1). The average yield of different wheat varieties was 9289 to 10,088 kg ha -1; yield of strong gluten varieties was 9548 kg ha -1, which was 3.1% lower than that of middle gluten varieties. The yield in Gaocheng, Ningjin and Guantao was 9932, 9433, 9223 kg ha -1, respectively. The averaged grain protein content, wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation, dough stability time, extensibility energy and maximum resistance were 14.5%, 28.5%, 39.5 mL, 15.4 min, 87.5 cm 2, and 428.8 BU, respectively. Gaoyou 5218, Gaoyou 5766, Jimai 738, Kenong 2009, Shiluan 02-1, Gaoyou 2018, and Jimai 738 had better quality. The wheat had better quality in Guantao and Ningjin than in Gaocheng. The nitrogen use efficiency decreased with nitrogen fertilizer increase. Under nitrogen fertilizer application of 180 kg ha -1, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, recovery efficiency and internal efficiency were the highest, with 4.3 kg kg -1, 26.2% and 16.6 kg kg -1, respectively. Gaocheng was suitable for growing Jimai 738, Jimai 867, and Shiluan 02-1. Ningjin was suitable for growing Shiluan 02-1, Kenong 2009, and Jimai 738. Guantao was suitable for growing Gaoyou 5766, Gaoyou 2018, and Shiluan 02-1. Taking grain yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency into account, 180 kg ha -1 is the optimum nitrogen application under the similar condition of this study.

Key words: genotype, environment, wheat, yield, quality, nitrogen efficiency

表1

各试验地点土壤基本特性(0~20 cm)"

地点
Location
有机质
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
全氮
Total N content
(g kg-1)
碱解氮
Available N
(mg kg-1)
有效磷
Available P
(mg kg-1)
有效钾
Available K
(mg kg-1)
藁城 Gaocheng 21.1 a 1.1 a 119.1 a 23.3 a 107.6 b
宁晋 Ningjin 19.5 a 1.1 a 93.7 b 15.6 b 167.4 a
馆陶 Guantao 14.1 b 0.8 b 75.6 c 22.2 a 103.4 c

表2

试验所用小麦品种"

序号
Number
品种
Variety
审定编号
Authorized number
类别
Category
1 藁优2018 Gaoyou 2018 2008007 强筋 Strong gluten
2 藁优5218 Gaoyou 5218 2015005 强筋 Strong gluten
3 藁优5766 Gaoyou 5766 2014002 强筋 Strong gluten
4 邯麦18 Hanmai 18 2016005 强筋 Strong gluten
5 河农5290 Henong 5290 2011003 强筋 Strong gluten
6 冀麦738 Jimai 738 2016015 强筋 Strong gluten
7 冀麦867 Jimai 867 2016006 强筋 Strong gluten
8 科农2009 Kenong 2009 20170015 强筋 Strong gluten
9 师栾02-1 Shiluan 02-1 2007016 强筋 Strong gluten
10 石4366 Shi 4366 2015003 强筋 Strong gluten
11 石农952 Shinong 952 2016011 强筋 Strong gluten
12 石优17 Shiyou 17 2007007 强筋 Strong gluten
13 石优20 Shiyou 20 2011011 强筋 Strong gluten
14 衡4444 Heng 4444 2012002 中筋 Middle gluten
15 济麦22 Jimai 22 2006018 中筋 Middle gluten

表3

基因型和环境(地点、氮肥)对产量、品质及氮素吸收的方差分析"

来源
Source
FF-value
产量
Yield
吸氮量Nitrogen absorption 蛋白质
Grain protein content
湿面筋
Wet gluten content
沉淀指数
Zeleny
sedimentation
稳定时间
Dough
stability time
拉伸能量Extensibility energy 最大拉伸阻力Maximum resistance
地点Location (L) 52.4* 43.6* 49.2* 307.9* 449.0* 92.9* 60.9* 74.9*
氮肥Nitrogen (N) 31.6* 27.6* 12.0* 34.1* 2.8* 3.0* 1.0 0.7
品种Variety (V) 4.0* 3.9* 9.9* 58.2* 122.7* 60.7* 141.2* 82.5*
L×N 3.2* 4.4* 2.5* 2.2 0.9 1.7 3.1* 2.6*
L×V 4.5* 3.1* 2.1* 3.6* 6.3* 5.1* 4.0* 2.5*
N×V 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.4 2.9* 1.8* 1.0
L×N×V 1.0 1.6* 0.9 0.5 0.5 3.3 1.0 1.5

表4

不同品种在不同地点的产量"

品种
Variety
产量Yield (kg hm-2)
馆陶 Guantao 宁晋 Ningjin 藁城 Gaocheng 平均Average
藁优2018 Gaoyou 2018 8782 cd 9591 abc 9784 abcd 9442 de
藁优5218 Gaoyou 5218 86912 cd 9817 ab 9643 bcd 9421 de
藁优5766 Gaoyou 5766 9721 ab 8628 d 9442 d 9289 e
邯麦18 Hanmai 18 9528 ab 9018 cd 9596 bcd 9411 de
河农5290 Henong 5290 8600 d 9941 a 9821 abcd 9507 cde
冀麦738 Jimai 738 10115 a 9601 abc 10395 ab 10088 a
冀麦867 Jimai 867 9879 ab 9778 ab 9549 cd 9708 bcd
科农2009 Kenong 2009 8789 cd 9642 abc 9483 d 9330 e
师栾02-1 Shiluan 02-1 8779 cd 9316 abc 10050 abcd 9477 de
石4366 Shi 4366 10124 a 9491 abc 9960 abcd 9873 abc
石农952 Shinong 952 8645 cd 9174 bcd 10134 abcd 9434 de
石优17 Shiyou 17 8835 cd 9179 bcd 10318 abc 9569 cde
石优20 Shiyou 20 9343 bc 9101 cd 10046 abcd 9575 cde
衡4444 Heng 4444 9635 ab 9406 a 10563 a 9967 ab
济麦22 Jimai 22 8884 cd 9812 ab 10194 abcd 9711 bcd
平均Average 9223 9433 9934 9586

表5

不同品种或不同试验地点在不同氮肥条件下的产量"

品种或地点
Variety or location
产量 Yield (kg hm-2)
N0 N180 N240 N300
品种 Variety
藁优2018 Gaoyou 2018 8872 c 9817 a 9773 a 9307 b
藁优5218 Gaoyou 5218 8514 b 9658 a 9712 a 9800 a
藁优5766 Gaoyou 5766 8233 c 9928 a 9406 b 9590 ab
邯麦18 Hanmai 18 8402 b 9824 a 9773 a 9646 a
河农5290 Henong 5290 8764 c 10155 a 9676 ab 9431 b
冀麦738 Jimai 738 9575 b 10465 a 9983 a 10329 a
冀麦867 Jimai 867 9092 c 10250 a 9869 ab 9623 b
科农2009 Kenong 2009 8956 c 9206 b 9453 ab 9705 a
师栾02-1 Shiluan 02-1 9299 b 9648 a 9626 a 9377 b
石4366 Shi 4366 9437 b 10386 a 9741 ab 9928 a
石农952 Shinong 952 8930 c 9735 a 9572 ab 9499 b
石优17 Shiyou 17 9309 b 9830 a 9430 b 9706 a
石优20 Shiyou 20 9123 b 9859 a 9581 b 9739 a
衡4444 Heng 4444 9737 b 10114 a 9853 ab 10165 a
济麦22 Jimai 22 9601 b 9656 ab 9874 a 9712 ab
平均 Average 9023 c 9804 a 9632 b 9559 b
地点 Location
馆陶 Guantao 8761 b 9376 a 9295 a 9462 a
宁晋 Ningjin 9036 b 9543 a 9572 a 9581 a
藁城 Gaocheng 9273 b 10492 a 10028 a 9934 a

表6

不同处理条件下的小麦的品质性状"

项目
Item
蛋白质
Grain protein content (%)
湿面筋
Wet gluten content (%)
沉淀指数
Zeleny sedimentation (mL)
稳定时间
Dough stability time (min)
拉伸能量
Extensibility energy (cm2)
最大拉伸阻力
Maximum
resistance (BU)
品种 Variety
藁优2018 Gaoyou 2018 14.3 cde 29.3 cd 40.9 c 17.1 de 99.3 cd 481.6 c
藁优5218 Gaoyou 5218 15.0 abc 30.3 b 41.0 c 26.1 c 115.1 b 557.0 b
藁优5766 Gaoyou 5766 14.9 abc 27.6 efg 40.4 cd 34.0 a 112.3 b 571.0 b
邯麦18 Hanmai 18 15.5 a 32.9 a 43.7 b 7.4 f 82.8 fg 346.2 e
河农5290 Henong 5290 13.8 def 27.4 fg 37.3 e 9.6 f 56.5 g 269.7 f
冀麦738 Jimai 738 15.1 abc 29.3 bcd 43.9 b 18.4 d 106.6 bc 527.5 bc
冀麦867 Jimai 867 14.8 bc 29.7 bc 41.2 c 16.2 de 101.1 cd 513.0 bc
科农2009 Kenong 2009 15.5 ab 32.1 a 41.4 c 13.7 e 87.9 ef 411.1 d
师栾02-1 Shiluan 02-1 15.5 ab 28.5 de 47.4 a 30.5 b 183.8 a 803.0 a
石4366 Shi 4366 13.6 ef 25.5 i 33.9 f 10.0 f 58.3 g 343.1 e
石农952 Shinong 952 13.8 def 23.8 j 36.2 e 15.3 de 93.8 de 531.8 bc
石优17 Shiyou 17 13.6 ef 26.0 hi 39.5 d 10.0 f 75.3 g 402.1 d
石优20 Shiyou 20 14.6 c 26.8 gh 44.7 b 14.5 e 82.4 fg 411.3 d
衡4444 Heng 4444 13.5 f 27.9 ef 28.2 h 3.5 g 17.7 i 75.6 h
济麦22 Jimai 22 14.4 cd 30.1 bc 32.6 g 4.1 g 38.8 h 188.1 g
平均 Average 14.5 28.5 39.5 15.4 87.5 428.8
变异系数 CV(%) 5.0 8.6 12.8 58.5 43.9 40.9
地点 Location
馆陶Guantao 14.5 b 27.4 b 39.3 b 21.1 a 100.1 a 515.1 a
宁晋Ningjin 15.3 a 31.3 a 43.9 a 12.0 b 83.8 b 384.9 b
藁城Gaocheng 13.8 c 26.7 c 35.3 c 13.0 b 78.5 c 386.4 b
处理 Treatment
N0 13.9 b 27.1 b 39.2 b 14.0 b 85.7 a 440.6 a
N180 14.7 a 28.7 a 39.5 ab 16.0 a 88.6 a 426.4 a
N240 14.9 a 29.0 a 39.3 b 15.2 ab 86.4 a 421.9 a
N300 14.7 a 29.2 a 40.1 a 16.3 a 89.2 a 426.2 a

表7

不同处理条件下小麦植株的吸氮量"

品种或地点
Variety or location
吸氮量 Nitrogen absorption (kg hm-2)
N0 N180 N240 N300 平均 Average
品种 Variety
藁优2018 Gaoyou 2018 221.7 b 319.5 a 307.3 a 299.8 a 287.1
藁优5218 Gaoyou 5218 232.1 b 292.0 a 315.2 a 317.9 a 289.3
藁优5766 Gaoyou 5766 270.6 b 339.7 a 327.6 a 340.4 a 319.6
邯麦18 Hanmai 18 269.6 b 322.7 a 342.4 a 331.1 a 316.4
河农5290 Henong 5290 252.7 c 280.2 b 320.1 a 284.0 b 284.3
冀麦738 Jimai 738 304.2 b 335.9 a 320.6 a 323.9 a 321.2
冀麦867 Jimai 867 302.1 b 338.8 a 329.4 a 338.6 a 327.2
科农2009 Kenong 2009 284.8 b 303.6 b 319.8 a 303.2 b 302.9
师栾02-1 Shiluan 02-1 272.2 c 353.0 a 327.9 b 338.5 ab 322.9
石4366 Shi 4366 241.7 c 313.8 a 318.2 a 283.3 b 289.3
石农952 Shinong 952 240.7 c 292.3 b 304.9 ab 330.2 a 292.0
石优17 Shiyou 17 263.3 b 289.6 a 297.0 a 300.6 a 287.6
石优20 Shiyou 20 285.7 c 338.4 a 310.3 b 319.3 ab 313.4
衡4444 Heng 4444 280.8 b 286.5 b 290.1 ab 314.3 a 292.9
济麦22 Jimai 22 286.2 b 309.0 a 299.9 a 304.7 a 300.0
平均 Average 267.2 b 314.3 a 315.4 a 315.3 a -
地点 Location
馆陶 Guantao 294.5 c 318.6 b 321.2 ab 335.5 a 317.4
宁晋 Ningjin 294.4 c 316.3 b 333.8 a 330.6 a 318.8
藁城 Gaocheng 231.0 b 310.2 a 291.4 a 288.6 a 280.3

表8

不同处理条件下小麦的表征氮肥利用效率"

项目
Item
氮肥农学效率
Nitrogen agronomic efficiency
(kg kg-1)
氮肥吸收利用效率
Nitrogen recovery efficiency
(%)
氮肥生理利用率
Nitrogen internal efficiency
(kg kg-1)
品种 Variety
藁优2018 Gaoyou 2018 3.5 c 38.7 a 8.7 ef
藁优5218 Gaoyou 5218 5.2 ab 32.2 b 15.9 d
藁优5766 Gaoyou 5766 6.3 a 25.7 c 24.0 b
邯麦18 Hanmai 18 5.9 a 26.8 c 21.5 bc
河农5290 Henong 5290 4.6 b 17.9 d 23.5 b
冀麦738 Jimai 738 3.1 cd 10.3 f 30.3 a
冀麦867 Jimai 867 3.8 c 14.7 de 24.5 b
科农2009 Kenong 2009 2.0 e 10.4 f 20.8 c
师栾02-1 Shiluan 02-1 1.1 f 30.1 b 3.5 g
石4366 Shi 4366 2.7 d 28.6 bc 9.2 ef
石农952 Shinong 952 3.0 d 28.4 bc 9.8 ef
石优17 Shiyou 17 1.6 e 13.7 e 10.7 e
石优20 Shiyou 20 2.7 d 16.9 d 16.3 d
衡4444 Heng 4444 1.3 ef 6.0 g 19.1 c
济麦22 Jimai 22 0.6 f 8.2 fg 8.0 f
平均 Average 3.2 20.6 16.4
地点 Location
馆陶 Guantao 2.7 b 12.8 b 20.1 a
宁晋 Ningjin 2.3 b 13.5 b 16.3 b
藁城 Gaocheng 4.0 a 29.5 a 13.4 b
处理 Treatment
N180 4.3 a 26.2 a 16.6 a
N240 2.5 b 18.7 b 13.6 b
N300 1.8 b 15.6 b 11.5 b
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