Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agron Sin ›› 2012, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (09): 1723-1727.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01723

• RESEARCH NOTES • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Starch Granule Size Distribution in Grains of Maize with Different Endosperm Types

CUI Li-Na1,2,ZHANG Hai-Yan1,MENG Jia-Jia1,SHI De-Yang1,ZHANG Hong1,DONG Shu-Ting1,*   

  1. 1 Agronomy College of Shandong Agricultural University / State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Tai’an 271018, China; 2 Dezhou Agriculture Bureau, Dezhou 253000, China
  • Received:2012-01-31 Revised:2012-06-05 Online:2012-09-12 Published:2012-07-03
  • Contact: 董树亭, E-mail: stdong@sdau.edu.cn

Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel dry weight contains about 70% starch. Many studies have focused on the effects of sowing date, variety and nitrogen top-dressing on starch granule distribution in single variety or two varieties. But starch granule size distribution in grains of different endosperm types of maize has not been clear yet. Four maize varieties including super-sweet corn (Huawei 6), popcorn (Tebao 2), waxy corn (Xixinghuangnuo 6) and dent corn (Zhengdan 958) were used to study the starch granule size distribution and the starch granule arrangement in grains by laser diffraction grain size analyzer, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that distribution of starch granules volume in grains of the maizes were changed in a triple humped curve. The volume proportion of starch granules with diameter lower than 2 μm was the least, while that with diameterhigher than 15 μm was the more (that with diameter from 2 to 15 μm in super-sweet corn grain was the most). The average diameter showed following order: the waxy>the pop>the dent>the super sweet. Correlation analysis indicated that the grain weight and starch content were significantly correlated with the volume percentage of starch granules with diameter higher than 2 μm; while the contents of protein, amino acid, crude fat and test weight had no correlation with volume of starch granule with all size ranges. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the starch granules in grains ofdent and super sweet corn were rotund mostly, with a great deal of drapes. Starch granule arrangement of dent corn was sparse, with abundant lipid droplet, while that of super sweet corn was very sparse; with rich lipid droplet. The starch granule in grains of pop corn was square and oblong, and extruded one another, with thick and skimp drapes, with was highly compact with abundant lipid droplet. The starch granule in grains of way corn was rotund and elliptic, with low and skimp drapes, compact arrangement and abundant lipid droplets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the starch granules in grains of dent, super sweet and waxy corn were spherical. A small quantity of depressed starch granules were demonstrated in dent corn, while none of depressed starch granules were detected in super sweet corn with reticulate configuration in surface of starch granules. Moreover the cell did not be filled with starch granules and filling agent. The starch granule was polyhedral in pop corn with a very few depressed starch granules.

Key words: Maize (Zea mays L.), Starch granule, Endosperm

[1]Ministry of Agriculture, People’s Republic of China. Standard of the Ministry of Agriculture: High Starch Corn (中华人民共和国农业部.农业部标准: 高淀粉玉米). NY/T 597-2002. Beijing: Standards Press of China, 2002 (in Chinese)

[2]Ji Y, Wong K, Hasjim J, Pollak L M, Duvick S, Jane J, White P J. Structure and function of starch from advanced generation of new corn lines. Carbohyd Polym, 2003, 54: 305–319

[3]Ji Y, Seetharaman K, Wong K, Hasjim J, Pollak L M, Duvick S, Jane J, White P J. Thermal and structure properties of unusual starches from developmental corn lines. Carbohyd Polym, 2003, 51: 439–450

[4]Hou H-X(侯汉学), Dong H-Z(董海洲), Song X-Q(宋晓庆), Zhang H(张慧). Correlations among physicochemical properties of starches from different maize cultivars. J Chin Cereals Oils Assoc (中国粮油学报), 2009, 24(1): 60–64 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[5]Lu D-L(陆大雷), Guo H-F(郭换粉), Dong C(董策), Lu W-P(陆卫平). Starch granule size distribution and thermal properties of waxy maize cultivars in growing seasons. Acta Agron Sin (作物学报), 2010, 36(11): 1998–2003 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[6]Wang Y J, White P, Pollak L, Jane J. Characterization of starch structures of 17 maize endosperm mutant genotypes with Oh43 inbred line background. Cereal Chem, 1993, 70: 171–179

[7]Ji Y, Wong K, Hasjim J, Pollak L M, Duvick S, Jane J, White P J. Structure and function of starch from advanced generations of new corn lines. Carbohyd Polym, 2003, 54: 305–319

[8]Paterson J L, Hardacre A, Li P, Rao M A. Rheology and granule size distribution of corn starch dispersions from two genotypes and grown in four regions. Food Hydrocolloids, 2001, 15: 453–459

[9]Li J-L(李敬玲), Jia J-L(贾敬鸾), Liu M(刘敏), Zhao S-M(赵世民), Liu Y-N(刘雅楠), Zeng M-Q(曾孟潜), Li S-R(李社荣). Scanning electron microscope observation on endosperm starch grain characters in multiplasmic maize. Acta Genet Sin (遗传学报), 1999, 26(3): 249–253 (in Chinese) 

[10]Knutson C A, Khoo U, Cluskey J E, Inglett G E. Variation in enzyme digestibility and gelatinization behavior of corn starch granule fractions. Cereal Chem, 1982, 59: 512–515

[11]Wu J(吴俊), Xie S-H(谢守和). Effect of particle size of corn starch on its gelatinization behavior. J Chin Cereals Oils Assoc (中国粮油学报), 2006, 21(1): 51–54 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[12]Sheng Y-P(盛玉萍), Huang Q-C(黄其椿), Wu Z-K(吴子恺), Zhou Q(周琼). Studies on microstructure of aleurone cell in micro-endosperm maizes. Guihaia (广西植物), 2004, 28(2): 179–182 (in Chinese)

[13]Peng M, Gao M, Abdel-Aal E S M, Hucl P, Chibbar R N. Separation and characterization of A-and B-type starch granules in wheat endosperm. Cereal Chem, 1999, 76: 375–379

[14]Malouf R B, Hoseney R C. Wheat hardness: I. A method to measure endosperm tensile strength using tablets made from flour. Cereal Chem, 1992, 69: 164–168

[15]Lu D-L(陆大雷), Guo H-F(郭换粉), Lu W-P(陆卫平). Effects of sowing date, variety and nitrogen top-dressing at jointing stage on starch granule size distribution of waxy maize. Sci Agric Sin (中国农业科学), 2011, 44(2): 263–270 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[16]Kaur A, Singh N, Ezekiel R, Guraya H S. Physicochemical, thermal and pasting properties of starches separated from different potato cultivars grown at different locations. Food Chem, 2007, 101: 643–651

[17]Bechtel D B, Zeyas I, Kaleikau L, Pomeranz Y. Size-distribution of wheat starch granules during endosperm development. Cereal Chem, 1990, 67: 59–63

[18]Bechtel D B, Zeyas I, Dempster R, Wilson J D. Size-distribution of starch granules isolated from hard red winter and soft winter wheat. Cereal Chem, 1993, 70: 238–240

[19]Wilson J D, Bechtel D B, Todd T C, Seib P A. Measurement of wheat starch granule size distribution using image analysis and laser diffraction technology. Cereal Chem, 2006, 83: 259–268

[20]Zhang L(张丽), Zhang J-W(张吉旺), Liu P(刘鹏), Dong S-T(董树亭). Starch granule size distribution in grains of maize with different starch contents. Sci Agric Sin (中国农业科学), 2011, 44(8): 1596–1602 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[21]Sandhu K S, Singh N, Kaur M. Characteristics of the different corn types and their grain fractions: physicochemical, thermal, morphological, and rheological properties of starches. J Food Eng, 2004, 64: 119–127

[22]Ellis R P, Cochrane M P, Dale M F B, Duffus C M, Lynn A, Morrison T M, Prentice R D M, Swanston J S, Tiller S A. Starch production and industrial use. J Sci Food Agric, 1998, 77: 289–311

[23]Li Y-L(李玉玲). Effect of normal corn pollen burst of maize grain and burst characteristics. Chin Agric Sci Bull (中国农学通报), 1999, 15(6): 24–26 (in Chinese)

[24]Liu P(刘鹏), Hu C-H(胡昌浩), Dong S-T(董树亭), Wang K-J(王空军), Zhang J-W(张吉旺), Zhang B-R(张保仁). Comparison of enzymes activity associated with sucrose metabolism in the developing grains between sweet corn and normal corns. Sci Agric Sin (中国农业科学), 2005, 38(1): 52–58 (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] YANG Jin, BAI Ai-Ning, BAI Xue, CHEN Juan, GUO Lin, LIU Chun-Ming. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of a rice mutant eed1 with defected embryo and endosperm development [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(2): 292-303.
[2] Li-Min YUAN, Ming-Fei ZHAN, Xing-Chuan ZHANG, Zhi-Qin WANG, Jian-Chang YANG. Endosperm Structure of Grains at Different Positions of Rice Panicle and Regulation Effect of Irrigation Regimes on It during Grain Filling [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(02): 245-259.
[3] GAO Jia,SHI Jian-Guo,DONG Shu-Ting,LIU Peng,ZHAO Bin,ZHANG Ji-Wang*. Response of Endosperm Cell Proliferation and Grain Yield of Summer Maize to Different Light Conditions [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2017, 43(10): 1548-1558.
[4] XU Yun-Ji,LI Yin-Yin,QIAN Xi-Yang,WANG Zhi-Qin,YANG Jian-Chang. Comparison of Starch Granule Morphology and Size Distribution in Superior and Inferior Grains of Three Cereal Crops [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2016, 42(01): 70-81.
[5] WANG Hong-Mei,ZHANG Chang-Quan,LI Qian-Feng,SUN Samuel Sing-Min,LIU Qiao-Quan,XU Ming-Liang. Enhancing Expression and Accumulation of Foreign Proteins by Using the Signal Peptide of Glutelin GluA-2 in Endosperm of Transgenic Rice [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2015, 41(04): 524-530.
[6] LI Cong-Feng,ZHAO Ming,LIU Peng,ZHANG Ji-Wang,YANG Jin-Sheng,DONG Shu-Ting. Characteristics of Grain Filling and Nitrogen Translocation of Maize Parent Lines Released in Different Eras in China [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40(11): 1990-1998.
[7] SHI Chun-Yan,SHEN Jia-Heng*,LI Wei. Double Fertilization and Duration of Phases in Peanut (Arachis hgpogaea L.) [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40(08): 1513-1519.
[8] HAO Xiao-Qin,YAO Peng-He,GAO Zheng-Rong,WU Zi-Kai. Effects of Low Temperature Stress on the Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Cold Tolerance in Micro-endosperm Super Sweet and Super High Oil Maize [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40(08): 1470-1484.
[9] GUO Yan-Ping**,REN Cheng-Jie**,LI Zhi-Wei,WANG Wen-Bin,ZHANG Ren-He,LU Hai-Dong,LIU Jian-Chao,ZHANG Xing-Hua,XUE Ji-Quan,GUO Dong-Wei. Isolation and Flow Purification of Endosperm Protoplast from Developing Seed of Maize [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40(03): 424-430.
[10] MA Hai-Zhen,ZHU Wei-Wei,WANG Qi-Bai,WANG Guo-Liang,LI Xin-Zhen,QI Bao-Xiu. Regeneration Capacity and Some Affecting Factors of Different Parts of Young Seedlings of Maize (Zea mays L.) [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40(02): 313-319.
[11] XU Yun-Ji,GU Dao-Jian,ZHANG Bo-Bo,ZHANG Hao,WANG Zhi-Qin,YANG Jian-Chang. Hormone Contents in Kernels at Different Positions on an Ear and Their Relationship with Endosperm Development and Kernel Filling in Maize [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2013, 39(08): 1452-1461.
[12] CHE Qian-Qian,GUO Yan-Ping,LI Qiang,WANG Yi-Hua,WANG Guang-Yuan,TIAN Huai-Dong. Excavation and Characterization of Novel Rice 57H Mutants [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2013, 39(06): 1054-1059.
[13] MING Bo,ZHU Jin-Cheng,TAO Hong-Bin,XU Li-Na,GUO Bu-Qing,WANG Pu. Effects of Meteorological Factors at Different Growth Stages on Yield Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Heilonggang Basin [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2013, 39(05): 919-927.
[14] ZHANG Wei-Qiang,KU Li-Xia,ZHANG Jun,HAN Zan-Ping,CHEN Yan-Hui. QTL Analysis of Kernel Ratio, Kernel Depth and 100-Kernel Weight in Maize (Zea mays L.) [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2013, 39(03): 455-463.
[15] TAN Xiu-Shan,BI Jian-Jie,WANG Jin-Hua,YE Bao-Xing. Differences of Starch Granules in Grains from Different Spikelet Positions and Their Correlation with Grain Weight in Winter Wheat [J]. Acta Agron Sin, 2012, 38(10): 1920-1929.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!