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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (7): 982-992.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82057


Comprehensive evaluation of green super rice varieties based on nonlinear principal component analysis

JI Long,SHEN Hong-Fang,XU Chun-Chun,CHEN Zhong-Du,FANG Fu-Ping()   

  1. China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2018-11-22 Accepted:2019-04-15 Online:2019-07-12 Published:2019-04-24
  • Contact: Fu-Ping FANG E-mail:fangfuping@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China(2014AA10A605);the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province of China(LQ18G030013);the Fundamental Research Funds of Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China(2017RG007)


Application of green super rice (GSR) is regarded as one of the important ways to realize sustainable development of rice production, and has become a major goal of the rice breeding around the world. However, there are few literatures on comprehensive evaluation of GSR varieties. The GSR concept is the development of varieties with insect and disease resistance, high N- and P-use efficiency, drought resistance, high grain yield and superior quality. Based on the GSR concept, we establish a comprehensive evaluation index system of GSR varieties in four dimensions, including technical indicators, economic indicators, ecological indicators and social indicators. This index system should shed light on a new perspective for evaluation of crop varieties, variety breeding as well as the application and extension of new crop varieties. Further, a nonlinear principal component analysis, namely logarithmic principal component analysis, was introduced into the comprehensive evaluation of GSR varieties. Based on field experimental data with a comparative analysis by different methods, we revealed that the logarithmic principal component analysis is feasible and reasonable for comprehensive evaluation of GSR varieties.

Key words: green super rice, comprehensive evaluation, index system, nonlinear principal component analysis

Table 1

Comprehensive evaluation index system for GSR varieties"

First class indicator
Second class indicator
Definition of the indicators
技术性指标 有效穗 EP (x1) 单位面积有效穗数(m-2)
Technical indicator Effective panicles per square meter (m-2)
结实率 SSR (x2) 水稻结实率(%)
Seed-setting rate of rice (%)
抗倒伏性 LR (x3) 1=很差, 2=差, 3=一般, 4=较强, 5=很强
1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=general, 4=strong, 5=very strong
抗病虫性 RID (x4) 对主要病虫害的抗性(1=高感, 2=感, 3=中感, 4=中抗, 5=抗, 6=高抗)
Resistance to major pests and diseases (1=high susceptible, 2=susceptible, 3=moderate susceptible, 4=moderate resistant, 5=resistant, 6=high resistant)
抗非生物逆境性 AST (x5) 对干旱、高低温、盐碱等非生物胁迫的抗性(1=很差, 2=差, 3=一般, 4=较强, 5=很强)
Resistance to abiotic stress (1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=general, 4=strong, 5=very strong)
生态适应性 EA (x6) 在不同生长环境、不同年份的稳产表现, 用变异系数表征 (%)
Yield stability of rice in different growing condition across years, represented by coefficient of variation (%)
First class indicator
Second class indicator
Definition of the indicators
经济性指标 单产 Y (x7) 每公顷产量(kg hm-2)
Economic indicator Yield per hectare (kg hm-2)
成本利润率 RPC (x8) 每公顷成本利润率(%)
Rate of profit to cost per hectare (%)
整精米率 HR (x9) 整精米占净稻谷式样或精米式样的质量分数(%)
The ratio of head rice to the overall rice sample (%)
垩白度 CD (x10) 垩白米的垩白面积总和占式样整精米粒面积总和的百分率(%)
The ratio of chalkiness area of chalky rice to the total area of the head rice for the overall rice sample (%)
直链淀粉含量 AC (x11) 试样所含直链淀粉的质量占式样总质量的百分率(%)
The ratio of quality of amylose content to the total quality of the overall sample rice (%)
透明度 T (x12) 整精米籽粒的透明程度, 以稻米的相对透光率大小表示
Translucency degree of the head rice, represented by the relative transmittance of rice
生态性指标 氮肥利用率 NUE (x13) 氮肥偏生产力(籽粒产量/施氮量, kg kg-1)
Ecological indicator Nitrogen partial factor productivity (grain yield/nitrogen application level, kg kg-1)
磷肥利用率 PUE (x14) 磷肥偏生产力(籽粒产量/施磷量, kg kg-1)
Phosphate partial factor productivity (grain yield/phosphate application level, kg kg-1)
钾肥利用率 PUE2 (x15) 钾肥偏生产力(籽粒产量/施钾量, kg kg-1)
Potash partial factor productivity (grain yield/potash application level, kg kg-1)
水分利用率 WUE (x16) 籽粒产量/(降雨量-灌水量-排水量)(kg m-3)
Grain yield/(precipitation-irrigation-drainage) (kg m-3)
社会性指标 农药残留 PR (x17) 稻米中的农药残留量
Social indicator Amount of pesticide residues in rice
重金属含量 HM (x18) 稻米中的重金属镉含量(mg kg-1)
Cadmium content in rice (mg kg-1)

Table 2

Eigenvalue and variance contribution rate"

Variance contribution rate
Accumulate variance contribution rate
主成分1 Principal component 1 2.786 0.310 0.310
主成分2 Principal component 2 1.725 0.192 0.501
主成分3 Principal component 3 1.393 0.155 0.656
主成分4 Principal component 4 1.170 0.130 0.786
主成分5 Principal component 5 0.782 0.087 0.873
主成分6 Principal component 6 0.630 0.070 0.943
主成分7 Principal component 7 0.311 0.035 0.977
主成分8 Principal component 8 0.199 0.022 0.999

Table 3

Load matrix of the principal component"

Principal component 1
Principal component 2
Principal component 3
Principal component 4
有效穗 EP (ln X1) 0.474 0.144 -0.139
结实率 SSR (ln X2) 0.467 -0.305
抗倒伏性LR (ln X3) 0.420 -0.184 -0.173 -0.145
抗病虫性RID (ln X4) 0.109 0.523 -0.314 0.266
单产Y (ln X7) 0.449 0.306 -0.333
整精米率HR (ln X9) -0.182 0.363 0.115 0.679
垩白度CD (ln X10) 0.589 -0.340 -0.153
直链淀粉含量AC (ln X11) 0.103 0.571 -0.511
氮素利用效率NUE (ln X13) 0.347 0.553 0.375

Table 4

Result of comprehensive evaluation of green super rice varieties"

Rank 1
Rank 2
Rank 1
Rank 2
武运粳30 Wuyungeng 30 1.027 1 1 南粳9108 Nangeng 9108 0.978 8 2
甬优2640 Yongyou 2640 1.017 2 6 淮稻13 Huaidao 13 0.976 9 8
宁粳5号 Ninggeng 5 1.011 3 9 镇稻10号 Zhendao 10 0.965 10 5
武运粳24 Wuyungeng 24 1.007 4 4 扬粳4038 Yanggeng 4038 0.958 11 12
连粳7号Liangeng 7 1.003 5 11 宁粳1号 Ninggeng 1 0.888 12 10
甬优1540 Yongyou 1540 0.994 6 3 镇稻16 Zhendao 16 0.850 13 13
淮稻5号Huaidao 5 0.982 7 7

Fig. 1

Dendrogram of cluster analysis for green super rice varieties"

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