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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (1): 70-80.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82036


Analysis in agronomic and physiological traits of green super rice

Yang-Dong XU,Kuan-Yu ZHU,Xing-Chuan ZHANG,Zhi-Qin WANG,Jian-Chang YANG()   

  1. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology / Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2018-07-08 Accepted:2018-10-08 Online:2018-11-08 Published:2018-11-08
  • Contact: Jian-Chang YANG E-mail:jcyang@yzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China(2014AA10A600);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31461143015);the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions(PAPD);the Top Talent Supporting Program of Yangzhou University(2015-01)


Understanding agronomic and physiological characteristics of green super rice (GSR) is essential to make strategies for breeding GSR varieties and crop management. This study aimed to identify major agronomic and physiological traits associated with high grain yield and high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of rice. Four GSR varieties and two control varieties (one super rice variety and one non-super rice inbred) were grown in the paddy field. The results showed that the GSR varieties produced higher grain yield and higher NUE than control varieties. Synchronous increases in both total spikelet number and filled-grain percentage contributed to higher grain yield, and an increase in grain yield production per unit absorbed N (internal NUE) resulted in higher NUE for GSR. Compared with control varieties, GSR varieties exhibited greater percentage of productive tillers and the ratio of spikelet number to leaf area, higher ratio of sugar amount to spikelet number at the heading time, higher crop growth rate, net assimilate rate, and root oxidation activity and more remobilization of assimilates from stems and sheaths to grains during the grain filling period, and higher harvest index at maturity. These traits were positively and very significantly correlated with both grain yield and internal NUE, and could be used as indexes for breeding and selecting GSR varieties.

Key words: green super rice (GSR), grain yield, internal nitrogen use efficiency, population quality, physiological trait

Table 1

Grain yield and its components of green super rice"

Grain yield
(t hm-2)
Panicle number (m2)
Spikelets per panicle
Total spikelets
(×103 m-2)
Seed-setting rate (%)
1000-grain weight (g)
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 8.75 b 263 b 141 a 37.1 cd 85.8 c 28.5 bc
武运粳24 WYJ-24 9.81 a 288 a 139 a 40.0 b 88.4 b 27.4 f
连粳7号 LJ-7 9.43 b 310 a 124 b 38.4 c 90.9 a 27.6 ef
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 8.68 b 299 a 122 b 36.5 d 85.4 c 28.0 de
淮稻13 HD-13 9.78 a 266 b 142 a 37.8 c 88.4 b 29.2 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 9.86 a 288 a 146 a 42.0 a 87.6 b 27.9 de
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 9.05 b 261 b 143 a 37.3 cd 84.8 c 28.7 b
武运粳24 WYJ-24 9.61 a 292 a 137 a 40.0 b 88.8 b 27.6 ef
连粳7号 LJ-7 9.69 a 314 a 122 b 38.3 c 91.3 a 27.4 f
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 8.62 b 297 a 124 b 36.8 d 84.4 c 28.2 cd
淮稻13 HD-13 9.88 a 268 b 144 a 38.6 c 88.0 b 29.4 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 9.94 a 292 a 142 a 41.5 a 87.4 b 27.7 ef
方差分析 Analysis of variance
FF for year (Y) NS NS NS NS NS NS
品种FF for variety (V) 15.7** 11.8** 8.65** 20.7** 10.2** 3.67*
年×品种FF for Y × V NS NS NS NS NS NS

Table 2

Total amount of nitrogen (N) uptake and N use efficiency of green super rice"

Total N uptake
(kg hm-2)
Internal N use efficiency
(kg kg-1 N)
N uptake per 100 kg grain
[kg (100 kg)-1 grain]
Patial factory
(kg kg-1)
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 190 a 46.1 b 2.17 a 43.8 b
武运粳24 WYJ-24 191 a 50.6 a 1.98 b 49.1 a
连粳7号 LJ-7 188 a 50.2 a 1.99 b 47.2 a
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 192 a 45.2 b 2.21 a 43.4 b
淮稻13 HD-13 191 a 51.2 a 1.95 b 48.9 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 194 a 51.4 a 1.95 b 49.3 a
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 194 a 46.6 b 2.14 a 45.3 b
武运粳24 WYJ-24 195 a 50.1 a 2.00 b 48.1 a
连粳7号 LJ-7 192 a 50.5 a 1.98 b 48.5 a
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 190 a 45.4 b 2.20 a 43.1 b
淮稻13 HD-13 193 a 51.2 a 1.95 b 49.4 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 192 a 51.2 a 1.95 b 49.7 a
方差分析 Analysis of variance
FF for year (Y) NS NS NS NS
品种FF for variety (V) NS 8.48** 8.04** 15.27**
年×品种FF for Y × V NS NS NS NS

Table 3

Percentage of productive stems and tillers (PPST), leaf area index (LAI), and grain-leaf (leaf area, LA) ratio of green super rice"

LAI at heading
(m2 m-2)
(spikelets cm-2)
Filled grain/LA
(grains cm-2)
Total grain Wt/LA
(mg cm-2)
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 71.3 b 7.15 a 0.519 cd 0.445 b 12.2 b
武运粳24 WYJ-24 79.2 a 7.32 a 0.546 ab 0.487 a 13.4 a
连粳7号 LJ-7 76.8 a 6.95 a 0.553 ab 0.501 a 13.6 a
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 72.3 b 7.03 a 0.519 cd 0.443 b 12.3 b
淮稻13 HD-13 78.5 a 6.86 a 0.551 ab 0.484 a 14.3 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 80.9 a 7.38 a 0.569 a 0.501 a 13.4 a
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 73.7 b 7.27 a 0.513 d 0.435 b 12.4 b
武运粳24 WYJ-24 78.2 a 7.24 a 0.552 ab 0.487 a 13.3 a
连粳7号 LJ-7 78.4 a 7.09 a 0.540 bc 0.495 a 13.7 a
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 71.3 b 7.29 a 0.505 d 0.426 b 11.8 b
淮稻13 HD-13 79.7 a 7.04 a 0.548 ab 0.491 a 14.0 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 79.5 a 7.24 a 0.573 a 0.499 a 13.7 a
方差分析 Analysis of variance
FF for year (Y) NS NS NS NS NS
品种FF for variety (V) 6.85** NS 5.76** 11.5** 7.63**
年×品种F F for Y × V NS NS NS NS NS

Table 4

Aboveground biomass and crop growth rate (CGR) of green super rice"

干物质重 Biomass (t hm-2) 作物生长速率 CGR (g m-2 d-1)
Tillering (T)
Jointing (J)
Heading (H)
Maturity (M)
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 0.64 e 3.51 a 9.72 a 15.4 cd 13.1 c 17.8 a 12.1 d
武运粳24 WYJ-24 0.72 ab 3.67 a 9.95 a 16.5 ab 13.6 ab 18.0 a 13.1 b
连粳7号 LJ-7 0.68 cd 3.55 a 9.68 a 15.9 bc 13.3 bc 17.6 a 13.1 b
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 0.63 e 3.45 a 9.49 a 14.8 d 12.6 d 17.5 a 11.6 e
淮稻13 HD-13 0.74 a 3.68 a 9.95 a 16.5 ab 13.6 ab 17.9 a 13.7 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 0.73 ab 3.67 a 9.89 a 16.9 a 13.5 abc 17.8 a 14.0 a
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 0.68 cd 3.57 a 9.84 a 16.0 bc 13.1 c 17.9 a 12.6 bc
武运粳24 WYJ-24 0.70 bc 3.73 a 10.0 a 16.3 ab 13.8 a 18.0 a 12.8 b
连粳7号 LJ-7 0.66 de 3.63 a 9.84 a 16.5 ab 13.5 abc 17.7 a 13.6 a
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 0.65 de 3.37 a 9.59 a 15.6 c 12.4 d 17.8 a 12.3 cd
淮稻13 HD-13 0.70 bc 3.76 a 9.99 a 16.9 a 13.9 a 17.8 a 14.1 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 0.75 a 3.73 a 9.99 a 16.7 a 13.5 abc 17.9 a 13.7 a
方差分析 Analysis of variance
FF for year (Y) NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
品种FF for variety (V) 4.89** NS NS 3.52* 3.46* NS 14.5**
年×品种FF for Y × V NS NS NS NS NS NS NS

Table 5

Green leaf area duration (GLAD) and net assimilate rate (NAR) of green super rice"

绿叶面积持续期 GLAD (m2 m-2 d-1) 净同化速率 NAR (g m-2 d-1)
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 57.2 a 204 a 222 a 5.03 b 3.05 a 2.67 de
武运粳24 WYJ-24 55.8 a 205 a 228 a 5.36 a 3.07 a 2.81 c
连粳7号 LJ-7 55.8 a 198 a 219 a 5.24 a 3.11 a 2.94 b
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 55.8 a 200 a 221 a 4.97 b 3.06 a 2.56 f
淮稻13 HD-13 55.3 a 197 a 217 a 5.42 a 3.18 a 3.11 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 54.6 a 204 a 231 a 5.43 a 3.06 a 2.98 b
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 58.5 a 208 a 226 a 4.94 b 3.01 a 2.73 cde
武运粳24 WYJ-24 54.9 a 202 a 227 a 5.52 a 3.12 a 2.76 cd
连粳7号 LJ-7 55.1 a 200 a 222 a 5.39 a 3.10 a 3.00 b
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 57.5 a 207 a 227 a 4.73 b 3.00 a 2.65 ef
淮稻13 HD-13 56.4 a 201 a 221 a 5.42 a 3.10 a 3.13 a
武运粳30 WYJ-30 56.1 a 204 a 226 a 5.31 a 3.07 a 2.97 b
方差分析 Analysis of variance
FF for year (Y) NS NS NS NS NS NS
品种FF for variety (V) NS NS NS 5.35** NS 6.64**
年×品种F F for Y × V NS NS NS NS NS NS

Table 6

Remobilization of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) sugar-spikelet ratio and harvest index of green super rice"

NSC in stems and sheaths (g m-2)
NSC remobilization
NSC per spikelet
at heading
(mg spikelet-1)
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 194 de 138 cd 28.9 b 5.23 b 48.9 cd
武运粳24 WYJ-24 230 bc 143 ab 37.8 a 5.75 a 51.1 a
连粳7号 LJ-7 229 bc 136 cd 40.6 a 5.96 a 51.0 a
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 190 e 133 de 30.0 b 5.21 b 49.4 c
淮稻13 HD-13 225 c 131 e 41.8 a 5.95 a 50.6 ab
武运粳30 WYJ-30 245 a 140 bc 42.9 a 5.83 a 50.2 b
扬粳4038 YJ-4 (CK1) 198 d 140 bc 29.3 b 5.31 b 48.6 d
武运粳24 WYJ-24 234 b 145 a 38.0 a 5.85 a 50.7 ab
连粳7号 LJ-7 233 b 140 bc 39.9 a 6.08 a 50.5 ab
宁粳1号 NJ-1 (CK2) 188 e 129 e 31.4 b 5.11 b 48.5 d
淮稻13 HD-13 223 c 129 e 42.2 a 5.78 a 50.8 ab
武运粳30 WYJ-30 241 a 138 cd 42.7 a 5.81 a 51.2 a
方差分析 Analysis of variance
FF for year (Y) NS NS NS NS NS
品种FF for variety (V) 11.5** 5.21** 10.4** 11.2** 12.6**
年×品种F F for Y × V NS NS NS NS NS

Fig. 1

Root dry weight (A, B) and root-shoot ratio (C, D) at heading time and root oxidation activity during grain filling (E, F) of green super rice Values in the figure are expressed as means ± standard error (n = 3). Different letters on the column indicate statistical significance at P = 0.05 within the same measurement date. NS means not significant at P = 0.05. YJ-4: Yangjing 4038; WYJ-24: Wuyunjing 24; LJ-7: Lianjing 7; NJ-1: Ningjing 1; HD-13: Huaidao 13: WYJ-30: Wuyunjing 30; EGF: early grain filling; MGF: mid grain filling; LGF: late grain filling."

Fig. 2

Relationship of root oxidation activity (ROA) with crop growth rate (A), net assimilate rate (B), and seed-setting rate (C) in rice Values are calculated from the data from Tables 1, 4, and 5 and Figure 1; ** Significant at P = 0.01 (n = 12)."

Table 7

Correlation coefficients (r) of some agronomic and physiological traits with grain yield and internal nitrogen use efficiency (IEN) in rice"

产量 Grain yield IEN
茎蘖成穗率 Percentage of productive stems and tillers 0.99** 0.97**
抽穗期糖花比 Sugar-spikelet ratio at heading time 0.89** 0.93**
颖花/叶面积 (粒叶比) Spikelets/leaf area (grain-leaf ratio) 0.90** 0.92**
灌浆期作物生长速率 Crop growth rate during grain filling 0.91** 0.92**
灌浆期净同化速率 Net assimilate rate during grain filling 0.85** 0.88**
灌浆期根系氧化力 Root oxidation activity during grain filling 0.91** 0.90**
茎中同花物转运率 Percentage of assimilate remobilization from stems 0.92** 0.96**
收获指数 Harvest index 0.88** 0.89**
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