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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (12): 2362-2370.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03074


Genetic diversity analysis of silage corn varieties based on agronomic and quality traits and SSR markers

LIU Shao-Rong1,2,**(), YANG Yang1,**(), TIAN Hong-Li1(), YI Hong-Mei1, WANG Lu1, KANG Ding-Ming2, FANG Ya-Ming1, REN Jie1, JIANG Bin1, GE Jian-Rong1, CHENG Guang-Lei1,*, WANG Feng-Ge1,*   

  1. 1Maize Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences / Beijing Key Laboratory of Maize DNA Fingerprinting and Molecular Breeding, Beijing 100097, China
    2College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2020-12-17 Accepted:2021-04-14 Online:2021-12-12 Published:2021-05-26
  • Contact: CHENG Guang-Lei,WANG Feng-Ge E-mail:liushaorong2018@163.com;caurwx@163.com;tianhongli9963@163.com
  • About author:First author contact:**Contributed equally to this work
  • Supported by:
    13th Five-Year National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0102005)


Silage corn is a high-quality feed crop, which is of great significance to the vigorous development of animal husbandry. In order to explore the current status of genetic diversity of silage corn varieties, 141 silage corn varieties approved by national or provincial (municipal) were used as materials. From the perspective of ecological regions, the genetic diversity of the test varieties was analyzed by agronomic and quality traits and SSR markers. The results showed that the coefficient of variation of the 13 agronomic and quality traits ranged from 10.30% to 30.31%, with an average of 16.01%; the diversity index ranged from 0.50 to 0.71, with an average of 0.60. According to the cluster analysis of tested varieties based on agronomic and quality traits, all the varieties were divided into five groups, and most of them from the same ecological region were classified into the same group. A total of 482 allelic variants were detected for 40 SSR markers, with an average of 12.05 per locus, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.27 to 0.89, with an average of 0.68. The genetic distances between South varieties and Northeast, Huang-Huai-Hai, or Northwest varieties are relatively far with a value of 0.054, 0.047, and 0.046, respectively, and most of South varieties are clustered in the same group. The analysis results of the two methods show both commonalities and differences. South varieties show specificity in both agronomic and quality traits and SSR markers, while Northwest and Huang-Huai-Hai varieties show specificity only in agronomic and quality traits. Combination of the two methods can thus help us understand the genetic background of silage corn varieties more comprehensively and accurately, and provide basis and reference for the selection and promotion of new varieties in different ecological regions.

Key words: silage corn, approved varieties, genetic diversity, SSR marker, agronomic and quality traits

Table 1

Sample information statistics"

Ecological region
Source and number of varieties approved
东华北 Northeast 国审玉11个, 北京14个, 黑龙江22个
National approved corn 11, Beijing 14, Heilongjiang 22
黄淮海 Huang-Huai-Hai 国审玉4个, 河北14个, 山西3个, 陕西6个
National approved corn 4, Hebei 14, Shanxi 3, Shaanxi 6
西北 Northwest 国审玉4个, 内蒙古21个, 新疆14个, 甘肃2个, 宁夏6个
National approved corn 4, Inner Mongolia 21, Xinjiang 14, Gansu 2, Ningxia 6
南方 South 国审玉5个, 四川8个, 贵州2个, 上海1个, 福建3个, 云南1个
National approved corn 5, Sichuan 8, Guizhou 2, Shanghai 1, Fujian 3, Yunnan 1

Table 2

Agronomic and quality characteristics of 169 samples"

Agronomic and quality traits
Coefficient of variation (%)
Simpson’s index
生育期 Growth period (d) 116.09±13.56 82.9-141.5 11.68 0.64
株高 Plant height (cm) 305.34±31.45 228-400 10.30 0.59
穗位高 Ear height (cm) 138.85±24.26 89.00-215.03 17.47 0.52
绿叶数 Green leaf number (piece) 15.25±2.89 8.80-22.02 18.95 0.56
穗长 Ear length (cm) 22.10±2.38 16.7-27.0 10.77 0.71
穗行数 Ear rows (row) 16.60±1.76 12.5-21.0 10.60 0.63
粗蛋白 Crude protein (%) 8.73±1.47 6.61-15.91 16.84 0.50
中性洗涤纤维 NDF (%) 45.87±6.64 26.36-62.34 14.48 0.64
酸性洗涤纤维 ADF (%) 20.94±4.88 12.46-33.90 23.30 0.61
淀粉 Starch (%) 30.81±3.51 22.07-37.79 11.39 0.55
干重 Dry weight (kg hm-2) 21,848.09±6622.33 11,238.00-39,082.65 30.31 0.66
鲜重 Wet weight (kg hm-2) 80,071.25±12,994.96 50,290.5-108,431.1 16.23 0.63
种植密度 Planting density (plant hm-2) 66,553.56±10,532.54 42,000-120,000 15.83 0.53

Fig. 1

Cluster diagram and principal component diagram of 169 silage corn samples grouped by agronomic and quality traits A: NJ cluster diagram of 169 silage corn samples. In this figure, the red, green, purple, and blue circles represent the Northeast, Huang-Huai-Hai, Northwest, and South varieties, respectively, and the red, green, purple, blue, and sky blue lines represent X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 cluster group. B: Principal component diagram of cluster group. In this figure, the red, green, purple, blue, and sky blue represent X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 cluster group."

Fig. 2

Cluster diagram and principal component diagram of 141 silage corn varieties and 5 common corn varieties grouped by SSR marker A: NJ genetic clustering of 141 silage corn varieties and 5 common corn varieties. In this figure, the red, green, purple, and blue circles represent the Northeast, Huang-Huai-Hai, Northwest, and South varieties, respectively, and the red, green, purple, blue, and sky blue lines represent S1, S2, S3, S4, and S5 cluster group. B: Principal component diagram of cluster group. In this figure, the red, green, purple, blue, and sky blue represent S1, S2, S3, S4, and S5 cluster group."

Table 3

Analysis of variance of agronomic and quality traits of varieties from four ecological regions"

Agronomic and quality traits
生育期Growth period (day) 116.37±9.06 B 101.72±8.82 C 126.77±8.52 A 110.37±17.39 B
株高Plant height (cm) 309.55±19.65 A 287.15±30.13 B 320.26±31.20 A 281.43±32.28 B
穗位高Ear height (cm) 132.34±16.32 B 121.18±15.76 C 158.86±22.38 A 125.51±17.76 BC
绿叶数Green leaf number (piece) 14.59±2.20 A 16.53±1.75 A 15.36±3.63 A 14.94±2.85 A
穗长Ear length (cm) 23.66±1.96 A 22.60±1.85 AB 21.56±2.17 AB 19.27±1.63 C
穗行数Ear rows (row) 16.83±1.51 A 16.42±1.56 A 16.94±1.77 A 14.57±1.29 B
粗蛋白Crude protein (%) 8.15±0.72 B 8.91±1.20 B 8.70±0.77 B 10.10±2.80 A
中性洗涤纤维NDF (%) 44.83±4.23 A 47.42±9.43 A 44.52±5.43 A 47.69±6.65 A
酸性洗涤纤维ADF (%) 19.09±2.45 C 22.53±6.47 AB 20.02±4.92 BC 23.39±3.74 A
淀粉Starch (%) 31.39±3.41 A 33.41±2.53 A 28.99±2.81 A 31.38±5.63 A
干重Dry weight (kg hm-2) 18,547.24±2435.26 B 17,536.17±2650.54 B 29,537.64±5435.77 A 17,759.3±3242.5 B
鲜重Wet weight (kg hm-2) 74,212.27±9542.69 B 74,436.46±7081.53 B 87,674.94±10583.30 A 62,630.35±10905.50 C
种植密度Planting density (plant hm-2) 63,409.06±6881.68 B 70,340.91±16,516.78 A 69,877.12±8121.04 A 59,500.00±5916.61 B

Table 4

Comparison of genetic diversity among varieties from four ecological regions"

Ecological region
Sample size
Number of alleles
Genotype number
Gene diversity
PIC index
东华北Northeast 47 7.65 13.55 0.68 0.65 0.64
黄淮海Huang-Huai-Hai 27 7.40 11.13 0.69 0.69 0.64
西北Northwest 47 9.13 16.30 0.71 0.69 0.68
南方South 20 7.43 10.03 0.71 0.72 0.68
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